Form of Government: Republic
Area: 92 226 sq km
Population: 10 276 617 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 111.43 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 42° - 37° N; long. 9° - 6° W
Capital: Lisbon=Lisboa (capital) 547 733 inhab. (2011); Greater Lisbon 2 927 316 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.847 (rank: 41)
President: Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa (PSD), elected 24 January 2016, in office since 9 March 2016
Prime Minister: António Costa (PS), since 26 November 2016
Assembly of the Republic: seats based on the elections of 4 October 2015: Portugal Ahead (centre-right coalition between the Social Democratic Party, PSD, and the Democratic and Social Centre/People's Party, CDS-PP), 102; PS (Socialist Party), 86; BE (Left Bloc, extreme left-wing), 19; CDU (Unitary Democratic Coalition between the Communist Party and the Greens), 17; others, 6
Internet: www.ine.pt (Instituto Nacional de Estatística)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Portugal

Portugal, República Portuguesa
Useful information

International license plate code P
International dialling code 00351
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .pt

GMT Lisbon 0; Azores -1; Madeira 0
DST Lisbon +1; Azores 0; Madeira +1
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Lisbon 16.5; Faro 17.8; Funchal (Madeira) 18.5; Ponta Delgada (Azzorre) 16.8; Porto 14.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Lisbon 11/22; Faro 12/24; Funchal (Madeira) 16/21.5; Ponta Delgada (Azzorre) 14/21; Porto 9/20
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Lisbon 11/5; Faro 12/6; Funchal (Madeira) 7/5; Ponta Delgada (Azzorre) 5/3; Porto 10/4
Annual average precipitation (mm) Lisbon 681; Faro 446; Funchal (Madeira) 609; Ponta Delgada (Azzorre) 950; Porto 1145
Days of rainfall (annual average) Lisbon 79; Faro 50; Funchal (Madeira) 51; Ponta Delgada (Azzorre) 125; Porto 107

Politics and current affairs

Ahead of voting on 6 October 2019, the Socialist Party (PS), led by Prime Minister António Costa, is aiming to govern without the support of its far-left allies following the excellent results achieved in the European elections on 26 May 2019; the PS won 33% of the vote, making it the top centre-left party in Europe. Nonetheless, the government has had to face a series of strikes in the public and private sector owing to the ongoing wage freeze.
On 5 December 2018, a Memorandum of Understanding was signed with China for Portugal’s participation in the Belt and Road Initiative.

Geography.
Portugal is bordered to the north and east by Spain, and to the south and west by the Atlantic Ocean. It lies on the western edge of the Spanish meseta plateau and opens into wide alluvial valleys to the south. The River Tejo (Tagus), River Douro and River Guadiana are the most important in the country. The climate is mild.
The Azores (São Miguel 747 km², Terceira 396 km², Pico 433 km², São Jorge 238 km², Faial 172 km², Flores 143 km², and other smaller islands) are volcanic islands on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
The Madeira archipelago (lat. 33° N; long. 17° W) comprises Madeira (740.6 km²), Porto Santo (42.5 km²), the Savage Islands and the Desertas.

Government


A republic since 1910, Portugal was ruled for many years by the dictator Oliveira Salazar (1932-1968) and his successor Marcelo Caetano. In a coup on 25 April 1974 (the Carnation Revolution), power was assumed first by the military and then by the Council of the Revolution formed by progressive army officers.
In 1974-75 Portugal granted independence to all its African colonies (Guinea-Bissau, Cabo Verde, Mozambique and Angola) and East Timor (incorporated into Indonesia).
Macao returned to China on 20 December 1999. Democracy came to the country under the government of the socialist Prime Minister Mario Soares, winner of the 1976 elections. Since then, centre-right governments led by the Social Democratic Party (PSD) and centre-left governments led by the Socialist Party (PS) have alternated in power.
The Constitution of 2 April 1976 has been amended several times, especially in 1982 (ending military control of politics and reducing the President’s powers), and in 1989 (removing economic and corporative restrictions dating from the Salazar era). The President of the Republic, elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term, appoints the Prime Minister taking into consideration the results of the elections. The government must be voted in by the Assembly of the Republic (230 deputies elected for four-year terms using a system of proportional representation).


Defence.
In addition to the armed forces there are the paramilitary National Republican Guard (gendarmerie), the Public Security Police and the Border Guard.
There is an American airbase at Lajes in the Azores.


Justice.
The legal system is based on continental European law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force19.3%2015
Army54.2%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes3 242.5per 100 000 pop.2018
Homicides0.6per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
1reported area
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lisbon=Lisboa547 733inhab.2011
Porto237 591inhab.2011
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Greater Lisbon2 927 316inhab.2018
Greater Porto1 287 282inhab.2011
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Emigration, once huge, has now fallen. The decline in immigration from the former colonies is offset by the inflow of immigrant asylum seekers (1285 asylum requests collected in 2018).The government confirmed its approach aimed at reception and integration.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate8.52018
Death rate112018
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total416 682units2017
Brazilians83 061units2017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Portuguese96%2017
other2.3%2017


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic68.9%2011
other22.4%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Portuguese
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years14%2018
15-29 years16.4%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
Economic growth slowed to 2.1% in 2018 and should hover at around 1.7% in 2019 owing to a drop in exports. However, economic conditions have stabilized following the reforms and austerity measures imposed in recent years. Unemployment has fallen to 7%, while public accounts continue to strengthen.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)107.94index2016
Balance of trade-20 165.3M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population5 232 600units2018
Active population, Females49.2%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate7%2018
Unemployment rate, Females52.3%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses64 961.7M LCU2018
Revenues61 603.4M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture6%2018
industry24.8%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.3%2018
industry22.5%2018
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation28.772BN LCU2018
International reserves24 920.3M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and livestock.
The main crop is the grape vine, especially in the Douro Valley. Port, the aromatic wines of Colares and Madeira, the muscats of Setúbal and Vinho Verde are world-famous. Olives and fruits (especially apples, pears and citrus fruits) are widely grown.
Livestock farming (sheep and pigs), practised especially in the north, is also important.
Forests.
Portugal is one of the biggest producers of cork in the world. Cork trees thrive in the Tagus Valley and along the Alentejo coast.
Fishing.
The most abundant catch is sardines, which are exported preserved in oil. Quality fish caught include tuna, anchovies (Olhão fillets) and oysters (from the Tagus and Sado estuaries). The main fishing ports are Setúbal, Peniche, Figueira da Foz, Aveiro, Leixões and Nazaré.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land20.56%2015
forests34.74%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley47.8621000 t2017
cereals, total1 118.5071000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes515.031000 t2017
roots and tubers, total540.2751000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages133.8891000 t2017
carrots and turnips112.0221000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1.71000 t2017
beans, green11.0671000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes868.6351000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives876.2151000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.0311000 t2014
sunflower seed20.8141000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tea0.0621000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.0171000 t2017
sugar beet16.3981000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples329.3711000 t2017
apricots4.5751000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds20.1391000 t2017
hazelnuts0.3071000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits374.4141000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes01000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados14.2781000 t2014
bananas27.8441000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms12.4341000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley23.21000 ha2017
maize86.521000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes23.7351000 ha2017
sweet potatoes0.9181000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages4.9211000 ha2017
carrots and turnips2.9681000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry3.11000 ha2017
beans, green0.6941000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape178.8841000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive358.2761000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.0141000 ha2014
sunflower seed13.461000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tea0.0141000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.011000 ha2017
sugar beet0.2821000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples14.7861000 ha2017
apricots0.5611000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds34.0021000 ha2017
hazelnuts0.3571000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits20.5071000 ha2017
grapefruits0.0221000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados9.81000 ha2014
bananas1.0381000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cork - t100 000t2005
timber13 555 0162017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 6701000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes1 6701000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs2 1651000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep2 2251000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats3401000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses8.51000 heads2017
asses and mules121000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds16 5831000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey10.4511000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter28.1141000 t2014
cheese73.1981000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs23 649t2017
freshwater fishes1t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The main mineral resources are pyrites, which are mined in the Serra da Caveira, lithium (the country aims to become the first European supplier), and tungsten. A consortium participated by national and foreign companies launched the first offshore explorations following the discovery of possible oil fields off the north-west coast.
Energy and industry.
The country is reliant on imported energy, in particular on petroleum and gas, which it purchases primarily from Angola, Russia, Saudi Arabia and Algeria (through the MEG pipeline, which arrives in Spain and then reaches the country). In Sines there are a regasification terminal and a refinery (another refinery is active in Porto). Most electricity is still generated by coal and gas-fired thermal power stations, though renewable sources are developing rapidly, with a considerable amount of power generated by hydro-electric schemes and wind farms. A large solar power plant is operational at Serpa, in the south-east of the country, with an installed capacity of 11 MW. A connection with the Moroccan electricity transmission grid is being planned.
Industry has become uncompetitive due to delayed technology, a lack of investment and the competition posed by Eastern European countries entering the EU. In the area between Lisbon and Setúbal there are a number of chemical plants that produce fertilizers and synthetic fibres. The mechanical engineering industry is present with factories assembling cars and commercial vehicles; to the south of Lisbon (at Palmela) there is a large car factory (Volkswagen). The textile and agribusiness industries are important and rooted in tradition.

Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper83.11000 t2015
iron ore141000 t2013
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
feldspar132.11000 t2016
gypsum3301000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
granite12 0001000 t2015
kaolin2601000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silver74 000kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal24 921.28M kWh2016
- other renew.16 706M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal7 3591000 kW2016
- other renew.6 2421000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation56 901.28M kWh2016
total installed capacity20 5611000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium181000 t2012
coke, metall.3001000 t2012
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes1 859 132no.2016
cars234 151no.2018
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cameras19 613no.2016
watches and clocks371 041no.2016
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners1 453 216no.2016
computers17 750no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1641000 t2016
petrol2 329.71000 t2016
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia2441000 t2013
artificial yarn0.391000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets3 1131000 m²2016
cotton fabrics169.9M m²2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear56 861 608pairs2017
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley7291000 t2014
coconut oil0.061000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes27 351.3M units2016
cigars4.3M units2011
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp2 647.51000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp2 647.51000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement4 2001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production1 652.6M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production4 386.3M US$2016
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
Imports and exports have increased proportionally to economic growth. The trade balance remains negative.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017) electrical and electronic equipment 5 607, vehicles and parts thereof 4 492, machinery 3 926, petroleum products 3 825, apparel and accessories 3 568, plastics 3 325, iron and steel 3 252, cars 2 405, footwear 2 271, furniture and accessories 2 180, paper 2 087, chemicals 1 175, pharmaceuticals 1 136, cork 1 113, tyres 1 110, optical and electro-medical appliances 1 080, fruit and vegetables 1 057, fish 928, wine 879, animal & vegetable fats and oils 849, ceramic products 806


Finance and banking.
The central bank is the state-owned Caixa Geral de Depósitos. The Portuguese State also had to save the Novo Banco group in 2018. The Stock Exchange in Lisbon belongs to the Euronext group which has other stock exchanges in Amsterdam, Paris and Brussels.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures76.363% of goods exports2018
food products11.928% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Spain17 394M US$2018
France8 705M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Spain27 985M US$2018
Germany12 327M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201868 451M US$ -
201762 157M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201888 616M US$ -
201778 537M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Tourism is the top economic sector today, accounting for more than 20% of the GDP and 1.15 million employees. The main destinations are Lisbon, Porto, Coimbra, the Algarve and the Azores and Madeira islands. There is concern, however, regarding the negative effects of Brexit on tourist traffic from the United Kingdom.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures5 647M US$2017
Number of arrivals15 432 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown148 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried15 943.41000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers346.003per 1000 pop.2017
Computers182.5per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education, culture & research.
Education is compulsory from 6 to 18 years of age.


Social security and health.
The state social security system provides old-age, ex-servicemen and disability pensions, and unemployment, family, maternity and sickness benefit. The state guarantees a minimum wage.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.3years2016
Gradautes, percentage24%2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level50 982units2017
Teachers, secondary level80 914units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending40.1% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending22.6% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.4per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians4.8per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.6% of adults2017
HIV, total0.02%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums430units2017
Museums, visitors17 174 986units2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.33% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear6.2%2017
education1.2%2017
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