Form of Government: Republic
Area: 92 226 sq km
Population: 10 291 027 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 111.59 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 42° - 37° N; long. 9° - 6° W
Capital: Lisbon=Lisboa (capital) 547 733 inhab. (2011); Greater Lisbon 2 869 000 inhab. (2014), urban agglomeration
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.843 (rank: 41)
President: Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa (PSD), elected 24 January 2016, in office since 9 March 2016
Prime Minister: António Costa (PS), since 26 November 2016
Assembly of the Republic: seats based on the elections of 4 October 2015: Portugal Ahead (centre-right coalition between the Social Democratic Party, PSD, and the Democratic and Social Centre/People's Party, CDS-PP), 102; PS (Socialist Party), 86; BE (Left Bloc, extreme left-wing), 19; CDU (Unitary Democratic Coalition between the Communist Party and the Greens), 17; others, 6
Internet: www.ine.pt (Instituto Nacional de Estatística)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Portugal

Portugal, República Portuguesa
Useful information

International license plate code P
International dialling code 00351
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .pt

GMT Lisbon 0; Azores -1; Madeira 0
DST Lisbon +1; Azores 0; Madeira +1
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Lisbon 16.5; Faro 17.8; Funchal (Madeira) 18.5; Ponta Delgada (Azzorre) 16.8; Porto 14.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Lisbon 11/22; Faro 12/24; Funchal (Madeira) 16/21.5; Ponta Delgada (Azzorre) 14/21; Porto 9/20
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Lisbon 11/5; Faro 12/6; Funchal (Madeira) 7/5; Ponta Delgada (Azzorre) 5/3; Porto 10/4
Annual average precipitation (mm) Lisbon 681; Faro 446; Funchal (Madeira) 609; Ponta Delgada (Azzorre) 950; Porto 1145
Days of rainfall (annual average) Lisbon 79; Faro 50; Funchal (Madeira) 51; Ponta Delgada (Azzorre) 125; Porto 107

Politics and current affairs

Socialist prime minister António Costa established a deal with the opposition, PSD, for the immediate future to back structural reforms and development plans financed with European funds. This new beginning of dialogue allows the government to reduce the bargaining power of the far-left allied parties, especially with regard to economic policy, and the PSD to come out of political isolation, where it’s been since the 2015 elections.

Geography.
Portugal is bordered to the north and east by Spain, and to the south and west by the Atlantic Ocean. It lies on the western edge of the Spanish meseta plateau and opens into wide alluvial valleys to the south. The River Tejo (Tagus), River Douro and River Guadiana are the most important in the country. The climate is mild.
The Azores (São Miguel 747 km², Terceira 396 km², Pico 433 km², São Jorge 238 km², Faial 172 km², Flores 143 km², and other smaller islands) are volcanic islands on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
The Madeira archipelago (lat. 33° N; long. 17° W) comprises Madeira (740.6 km²), Porto Santo (42.5 km²), the Savage Islands and the Desertas.

Government


A republic since 1910, Portugal was ruled for many years by the dictator Oliveira Salazar (1932-1968) and his successor Marcelo Caetano. In a coup on 25 April 1974 (the Carnation Revolution), power was assumed first by the military and then by the Council of the Revolution formed by progressive army officers.
In 1974-75 Portugal granted independence to all its African colonies (Guinea-Bissau, Cabo Verde, Mozambique and Angola) and East Timor (incorporated into Indonesia).
Macao returned to China on 20 December 1999. Democracy came to the country under the government of the socialist Prime Minister Mario Soares, winner of the 1976 elections. Since then, centre-right governments led by the Social Democratic Party (PSD) and centre-left governments led by the Socialist Party (PS) have alternated in power.
The Constitution of 2 April 1976 has been amended several times, especially in 1982 (ending military control of politics and reducing the President’s powers), and in 1989 (removing economic and corporative restrictions dating from the Salazar era). The President of the Republic, elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term, appoints the Prime Minister taking into consideration the results of the elections. The government must be voted in by the Assembly of the Republic (230 deputies elected for four-year terms using a system of proportional representation).


Defence.
In addition to the armed forces there are the paramilitary National Republican Guard (gendarmerie), the Public Security Police and the Border Guard.
There is an American airbase at Lajes in the Azores.


Justice.
The legal system is based on continental European law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force19.3%2015
Army54.2%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes3 209.4per 100 000 pop.2016
Homicides1per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
1reported area
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lisbon=Lisboa547 733inhab.2011
Porto237 591inhab.2011
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Greater Lisbon2 869 000inhab.2014
Greater Porto1 287 282inhab.2011
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Emigration, once huge, has now fallen. The decline in immigration from the former colonies is offset by the inflow of immigrant asylum seekers. Net migration returned positive in 2017 (+4886) and the government confirmed its approach aimed at reception and integration. Though it has increased in recent years, the urbanization rate is much lower than in other EU countries.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate8.42016
Death rate10.72016
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total392 969units2016
Brazilians79 569units2016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Portuguese96.2%2016
other2%2016


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic68.9%2011
other22.4%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Portuguese
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years15.3%2017
15-29 years17.3%2017


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Economy


Economic situation.
The economy continues its phase of rapid and strong expansion following the 2011-14 crisis and the reforms introduced by past governments. In 2017, the GDP grew 2.7%, registering the highest growth rate since 2000. Tourism continues to be one of the most dynamic sectors and the greatest contributor to economic recovery.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)107.94index2016
Balance of trade-15 669M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population5 219 400units2017
Active population, Females48.9%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate9%2017
Unemployment rate, Females51.4%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses66 849M LCU2017
Revenues58 318.2M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture6.4%2017
industry24.7%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.2%2017
industry22.5%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation27.4BN LCU2017
International reserves26 096.7M US$2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and livestock.
The main crop is the grape vine, especially in the Douro Valley. Port, the aromatic wines of Colares and Madeira, the muscats of Setúbal and Vinho Verde are world-famous. Olives and fruits (especially apples, pears and citrus fruits) are widely grown.
Livestock farming (sheep and pigs), practised especially in the north, is also important.
Forests.
Portugal is one of the biggest producers of cork in the world. Cork trees thrive in the Tagus Valley and along the Alentejo coast.
Fishing.
The most abundant catch is sardines, which are exported preserved in oil. Quality fish caught include tuna, anchovies (Olhão fillets) and oysters (from the Tagus and Sado estuaries). The main fishing ports are Setúbal, Peniche, Figueira da Foz, Aveiro, Leixões and Nazaré.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land20.56%2015
forests34.74%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley46.6151000 t2016
cereals, total1 138.0851000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes412.9531000 t2016
roots and tubers, total438.2131000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages186.5571000 t2016
carrots and turnips127.6971000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1.721000 t2016
beans, green9.3591000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes773.9041000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives617.611000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.0311000 t2014
sunflower seed26.2391000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tea0.0731000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.021000 t2016
sugar beet11.3091000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples241.6111000 t2016
apricots2.331000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds8.7131000 t2016
hazelnuts0.3211000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits354.2941000 t2016
citrus fruits, nes01000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados14.2781000 t2014
bananas26.2241000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms12.0931000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley20.6221000 ha2016
maize88.6141000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes21.5751000 ha2016
sweet potatoes1.0511000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages6.5451000 ha2016
carrots and turnips3.0311000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry3.0261000 ha2016
beans, green0.5131000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape174.9761000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive355.0751000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.0141000 ha2014
sunflower seed18.2141000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tea0.0171000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.0121000 ha2016
sugar beet0.1841000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples14.3991000 ha2016
apricots0.431000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds31.4641000 ha2016
hazelnuts0.3861000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits20.3571000 ha2016
grapefruits0.0211000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados9.81000 ha2014
bananas1.0411000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cork - t100 000t2005
timber11 613 4002016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 6351000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes1 6351000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs2 1511000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep2 0681000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats3471000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses81000 heads2016
asses and mules10.3131000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds21 4361000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey10.4511000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter28.1141000 t2014
cheese73.1981000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs23 233.24t2016
freshwater fishes2t2016
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The main mineral resources are pyrites, which are mined in the Serra da Caveira, lithium and tungsten. The discovery of large oil deposits off the central-western coast raises questions about the opportunity for authorizing drillings that could compromise the country’s attraction for tourism.
Energy and industry.
The country is reliant on imported energy, in particular on petroleum and gas, which it purchases primarily from Angola, Algeria, Libya and Nigeria. Most electricity is generated by thermal power stations, though renewable sources are developing rapidly, with a considerable amount of power generated by hydro-electric schemes and wind farms. A large solar power plant is operational at Serpa, in the south-east of the country, with an installed capacity of 11 MW.
Industry has become uncompetitive due to delayed technology, a lack of investment and the competition posed by Eastern European countries entering the EU.
In the area between Lisbon and Setúbal there are a number of chemical plants that produce fertilizers and synthetic fibres. The mechanical engineering industry is present with factories assembling cars and commercial vehicles; to the south of Lisbon there is a large car factory (a Ford-Volkswagen joint venture).
The textile and agribusiness industries are important and rooted in tradition.

Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper83.11000 t2015
iron ore141000 t2013
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite0.0151000 t2010
feldspar701000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin2601000 t2015
marble - t4181000 t2013
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silver74 000kg2015
Mineral resources - Other minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arsenic0.0151000 t2012
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal25 004.94M kWh2015
- other renew.15 862M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal7 4291000 kW2015
- other renew.6 0291000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation49 481.94M kWh2015
total installed capacity19 6261000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium181000 t2012
coke, metall.3001000 t2012
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes2 917 046no.2015
cars126 426no.2017
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cameras20 535no.2015
watches and clocks394 099no.2015
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners1 490 685no.2015
computers15 963no.2015
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1671000 t2015
petrol3 140.21000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia2441000 t2013
artificial yarn0.51000 t2015
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets3 059.11000 m²2015
cotton fabrics357.7M m²2015
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear69 077 472pairs2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley7291000 t2014
coconut oil0.061000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes28 941.1M units2015
cigars4.3M units2011
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp2 624.41000 t2016
chemi-mechanical pulp2 624.41000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement6 5001000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production1 550.5M US$2014
food, beverages and tobacco production4 691.1M US$2014
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
Imports and exports have increased proportionally to economic growth. The trade balance remains negative.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017) electrical and electronic equipment 5 607, vehicles and parts thereof 4 492, machinery 3 926, petroleum products 3 825, apparel and accessories 3 568, plastics 3 325, iron and steel 3 252, cars 2 405, footwear 2 271, furniture and accessories 2 180, paper 2 087, chemicals 1 175, pharmaceuticals 1 136, cork 1 113, tyres 1 110, optical and electro-medical appliances 1 080, fruit and vegetables 1 057, fish 928, wine 879, animal & vegetable fats and oils 849, ceramic products 806, aluminium 753, wood pulp 733, household linens 713


Finance and banking.
The central bank is the state-owned Caixa Geral de Depósitos. The Stock Exchange in Lisbon belongs to the Euronext group which has other stock exchanges in Amsterdam, Paris and Brussels.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures76.736% of goods exports2016
food products12.739% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Spain15 670M US$2017
France7 777M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Spain24 896M US$2017
Germany10 681M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201762 210.771M US$ -
201655 369.683M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201777 879.710M US$ -
201667 789.876M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. In the aftermath of the financial crisis, tourism has become one of the driving sectors in the country’s recovery and is the primary economic sector today, accounting for more than 20% of the GDP and over 1.15 million employees. The main destinations are Lisbon, Porto, Coimbra, the Algarve and the Azores and Madeira islands.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures4 908M US$2016
Number of arrivals11 223 000units2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown148 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried15 943.41000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers346.003per 1000 pop.2017
Computers182.5per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education, culture
& research.
Education is compulsory from 6 to 18 years of age.


Social security and health.
The state social security system provides old-age, ex-servicemen and disability pensions, and unemployment, family, maternity and sickness benefit. The state guarantees a minimum wage.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.3years2016
Gradautes, percentage23.8%2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level49 355units2015
Teachers, secondary level78 418units2015
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending37.8% of total expenses2015
Social protection spending25.7% of GDP2015
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.4per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians4.8per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.7% of adults2011
HIV, total0.02%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums392units2014
Museums, visitors11 749 732units2014
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.27% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2016
Access to electricity100%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear6.3%2016
education1.2%2016
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