Form of Government: Republic
Area: 312 705 sq km
Population: 38 265 013 inhab. (estimate 2021)
Density: 122.37 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 55° - 49° N; long. 14° - 24° E
Capital: Warsaw=Warszawa (capital) 1 794 166 inhab. (2021); Warsaw 3 100 844 inhab. (2016), urban agglomeration
Currency: Polish złoty (100 groszy)
Human development index: 0.88 (rank: 35)
President: Andrzej Duda (PiS), since 6 August 2015, re-elected 12 July 2020
Prime Minister: Mateusz Morawiecki (PiS), since 11 December 2017, re-elected 15 October 2019
National Assembly: seats (July 2021 update): PiS (Law and Justice, conservative populist), 232; PO-Civic Coalition (Civic Platform, liberal), 126; Lewica (The Left), 47; PSL (Polish People’s Party, centrist), 24; Confederation (eurosceptic), 11; others, 19; German minority, 1
Internet: www.stat.gov.pl (Central Statistical Office of Poland)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Poland

Polska, Rzeczpospolita Polska
Useful information

International license plate code PL
International dialling code 0048
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .pl

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Warsaw 8.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Warsaw -2.5/18.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Warsaw 8/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Warsaw 520
Days of rainfall (annual average) Warsaw 93

Politics and current affairs

Relations between Poland and Europe are increasingly strained after recent rulings by the Supreme Court. The first (22 October 2020) tightened abortion rights in case of foetal congenital defects, while the latter verdict (14 July 2021) questioned the authority of the EU Court of Justice in its intervention against the reform of the Polish judicial system. The European Parliament adopted a majority motion (11 March 2021), which defines the EU as a “LGBTIQ Freedom Zone”, in response to several municipalities that have declared themselves as “LGBTIQ-free zones”. Lastly, the recent European Commission report on the state of law (20 July 2021) highlighted deterioration within the country.

Geography.
Poland is bordered to the north-east by Russia and Lithuania, to the east by Belarus and Ukraine, to the south by Slovakia and the Czech Republic, to the west by Germany and to the north by the Baltic Sea.
Occupying the middle part of the great European plain that extends from the North Sea to the Urals, Poland links the German plain to the Russian plain in a series of alluvial plains and low-lying hills that rise to a significant height only to the south in the Sudetes and the Beskids. Sand spits on the Baltic coast encircle enormous lagoons.
Inland the River Vistula, the longest and most important river in Poland, flows through a wide plain. The climate is continental, with cold winters and hot summers.

Government


After the elimination of democratic and pro-Western elements during World War II, Poland became part of the Communist bloc in 1947. It embraced democracy in 1987 under the impetus of the Solidarity (Solidarność) trade union, which won a landslide victory in the partially-free elections on 4 and 18 June 1989. Since then centre-left and centre-right coalitions alternated in power up until the election of 25 October 2015, which led to the formation of a single-party government. Poland has been a member of NATO since 1999 and on 1 May 2004, it became a member of the European Union.
Under the Constitution approved by referendum on 25 May 1997, the President of the Republic, directly elected for a five-year term, appoints the Prime Minister who must be voted in by the both houses of Parliament. Parliament comprises the Lower House (460 seats) and Senate (100 seats), whose members are elected for four-year terms.


Defence.
Military service has been voluntary since 2009. In response to tensions with Russia, the government has significantly increased military spending, stepping up military cooperation with the USA.
On 12 June 2019, the US announced the deployment of 1000 soldiers in the country.


Justice.
The legal system is based on Napoleonic Law, reviewed and brought in line with Western European tradition. Recent reforms by PiS have been contested.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force16.7%2015
Army48.5%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes2 906per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides0.7per 100 000 pop.2018
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Warsaw=Warszawa1 794 166inhab.2021
Cracow=Kraków779 966inhab.2021
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Warsaw3 100 844inhab.2016
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate9.32020
Death rate12.42020
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total358 239units2020
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Polish94.8%2011
Silesian2.2%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic92.9%2015
nonreligious/atheist3.1%2015


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Belarusian
German
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years14.8%2020
15-29 years16.2%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
The economy was hit by the pandemic and shrank by 2.7% in 2020. The gradual easing of restrictions and the considerable increase in investments in the private sector promises resumed growth in 2021 (+3.5%).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)113.09index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)102.52index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population16 978 700units2020
Active population, Females44.6%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate3.2%2020
Unemployment rate, Females46.4%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses702 959M LCU2020
Revenues517 025M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture9.537%2020
industry31.5%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.68%2020
industry32.004%2020
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation321.496BN LCU2020
International reserves154 219.192M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
Agriculture employs a significant share of the workforce. The most important crops are cereals (wheat, barley, maize and oats), potatoes, sugar beet, fruit (especially apples) and vegetables.
Livestock.
The main livestock species are pigs, cattle and farmyard animals. The number of horses raised is particularly high, especially draught horses.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land37.301%2018
forests31.054%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley3 311.571000 t2019
cereals, total28 450.921000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes6 481.621000 t2019
roots and tubers, total6 481.621000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.11000 t2019
asparagus12.71000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry44.6111000 t2018
beans, green45.41000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes3.211000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed2 268.851000 t2019
soybeans15.541000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops3.771000 t2019
sugar beet13 836.621000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow1.551000 t2019
linseed4.771000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste13.961000 t2019
hempseed0.0281000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples3 080.61000 t2019
apricots3.141000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts5.441000 t2019
walnuts5.241000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms362.41000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley975.291000 ha2019
maize664.951000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes302.481000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages25.81000 ha2019
carrots and turnips22.51000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry20.4311000 ha2018
beans, green6.21000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape0.741000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed875.211000 ha2019
soybeans7.921000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops1.761000 ha2019
sugar beet240.781000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.511000 ha2019
linseed3.671000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste1.831000 ha2019
hempseed0.0591000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples166.441000 ha2019
apricots1.061000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts3.751000 ha2019
walnuts2.271000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.31000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber44 084 0302019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle6 261.61000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes6 261.61000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs11 215.51000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep273.0971000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats44.2041000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total185.4941000 heads2019
horses185.4941000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds209 3321000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey19.0311000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter2361000 t2019
cheese4711000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs1 059t2019
freshwater fishes48 379t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The Silesian coalfield is one of the largest in Europe. Rich lignite deposits are located near Bogatynia, Konin and Bełchatów. Other mineral resources include lead and zinc in Silesia, copper, salt, sulfur, silver, magnesite, gypsum and feldspar.
Energy and industry.
Over 80% of electricity generation relies on coal-fired thermal power stations.
The country is crossed by the Yamal-Europe gas pipeline (from Russia). The gas transit agreement with Moscow expired in 2020. To diversify the sources of supply, an interconnector with Lithuania should be completed in 2021, while the construction of the Baltic Pipe gas pipeline, which was supposed to supply the country with Norwegian gas from 2022, has been stopped by Denmark. In Świnoujście there is a regasification terminal. Oil refineries (the main ones at Plock and Gdańsk) work with imported crude oil, especially from Russia, also supplied via the main Druzhba oil pipeline.
In 2019, the government announced new plans to develop the nuclear sector.
The traditional heavy metal industry has been reformed progressively to respond to international competition, to attract foreign investments and to reduce the environmental impact. Some of the most polluting plants have been shut down or modernized. The steel industry is concentrated on the edges of the coalfields, as is metal-working. There are numerous cement works.
Mechanical industry covers a wide range of productions, including tractors, farm machinery, electrical machinery and home appliances. The railway sector is also relevant.
The motor industry, which relies heavily on foreign capital, is located at Warsaw-Żerań, Poznań, Lublin, Tychy, Gliwice and Bielsko-Biala (cars and vans); buses, trucks and engines are also produced. The ship-building industry is in serious crisis.
Chemical works are widepsread throughout the country, while the pharmaceutical industry is concentrated in Warsaw. Rubber-processing plants are also active.
The cotton industry is concentrated around Łódź; alongside the wool industry, the manufacture of synthetic and artificial textile fibres and the flax industry are also relevant. Glass-making is important in Silesia, and porcelain at Ćmielów, Chodzież and Wałbrzych. Other industries include brewing, distilling and tobacco.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal61 9001000 t2019
coal, total100 697.31000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper4001000 t2020
lead13.21000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
feldspar5001000 t2018
gypsum1 0401000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite3 3641000 t2016
kaolin504.41000 t2019
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silver1 300 000kg2020
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal129 032.86M kWh2019
- other renew.23 206.07M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal33 266.81000 kW2018
- other renew.8 3611000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation154 132.35M kWh2019
total installed capacity43 034.81000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium8.81000 t2019
cadmium300t2019
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes846 000no.2019
cars278 900no.2020
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watches and clocks10 900no.2015
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners237 000no.2018
computers43 728no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1 4941000 t2018
petrol4 6031000 t2019
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia2 2001000 t2020
caustic soda63.91000 t2019
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets11 7181000 m²2018
cotton fabrics18.7M m²2018
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear31 200 000pairs2019
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley4 148.2021000 t2018
coconut oil0.31000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes213 000M units2019
cigars and cigarettes213 000M units2019
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp9381000 t2019
chemi-mechanical pulp1 1551000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement18 7001000 t2019
sheet glass144 0001000 m²2019
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production6 581.208M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production17 040.031M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.

The trade balance tends to be in surplus. The main trading partners are the EU countries, followed by the UK, China, Russia and the US. The country mainly imports machinery, electronic and chemical products.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017)
vehicles and parts thereof 26 500, machinery and home appliances 25 025, electrical and electronic equipment 17 080, furniture and accessories 12 874, iron and steel 11 347, plastics 10 271, telecommunications equipment 6 890, tyres and rubber articles 5 229, apparel and accessories 5 130, meat 5 090, pharmaceuticals 4 342, timber 4 265, computers and accessories 4 234, technical and electro-medical appliances 4 041


Finance and banking.
The central bank is the Narodowy Bank Polski. The stock exchange is in Warsaw.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures79.912% of goods exports2019
food products13.302% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany73 512M US$2020
Czechia15 029M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany55 799M US$2020
China36 790M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020271 070M US$ -
2019266 596M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020257 168M US$ -
2019265 282M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The main destinations are the heritage cities (Warsaw, Cracow) and religious centres (Częstochowa).
Over 40% of tourists come from Germany.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures10 436M US$2019
Number of arrivals21 155 000units2019
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Communications


Media and telecommunication.
A disputed law that provides for the government appointment of public media heads was severely criticized by the EU.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown72 900 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried10 225.51000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers205.446per 1000 pop.2019
Computers169.3per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education.
Education is free and compulsory from 7 to 15 years (primary and lower secondary). Upper secondary schooling, lasting for 3 or 4 years, covers various subjects and paves the way to higher education.


Social security and health.
The social protection system is financed partly by workers and partly by the state. Free healthcare is provided by the state. The number of private clinics is increasing. In 2016, the government introduced the program 500+, which includes economic incentives for families with two or more children, while in 2019, a retirement plan was approved for mothers of four or more children; it does not have any requisites for accessing one’s pension.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.026years2018
Gradautes, percentage32.015%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level2 277 483units2018
Students, secondary level2 392 353units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending39.973% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending21.336% of GDP2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds7.4per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians2.3per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2014
Tuberculosis15$per 100 000 pop.2019
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums959units2019
Museums, visitors40 217 000units2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.32% of GDP2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5.3%2019
education1$%2019
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