Form of Government: Republic
Area: 312 695 sq km
Population: 38 413 139 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 122.85 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 55° - 49° N; long. 14° - 24° E
Capital: Warsaw=Warszawa (capital) 1 769 529 inhab. (2018); Warsaw 3 100 844 inhab. (2016), urban agglomeration
Currency: Polish złoty (100 groszy)
Human development index: 0.865 (rank: 33)
President: Andrzej Duda (PiS), since 6 August 2015
Prime Minister: Mateusz Morawiecki (PiS), since 11 December 2017
National Assembly: seats (July 2019 update): PiS (Law and Justice, conservative), 237; PO (Civic Platform, liberal), 155; Kukiz’15 (right-wing), 25; PSL (Polish People’s Party, centrist), 22; Confederation (Eurosceptic), 6; WiS (Free and Solidary, conservative), 3; Now! (liberal), 3; independents, 9
Internet: www.stat.gov.pl (Central Statistical Office of Poland)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Poland

Polska, Rzeczpospolita Polska
Useful information

International license plate code PL
International dialling code 0048
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .pl

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Warsaw 8.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Warsaw -2.5/18.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Warsaw 8/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Warsaw 520
Days of rainfall (annual average) Warsaw 93

Politics and current affairs

The bitter conflict with the EU over the rule of law continues: regarding the procedure detailed in Article 7 of the Treaties, in October 2018, the Court of Justice of the European Union blocked some measures that interfered with the career of Poland’s Supreme Court judges, pushing the government to reverse its decision. Tensions continue, however, with the European Commission. Meanwhile, ahead of the elections in November 2019, the governing party Law and Justice (PiS) won 45% of the votes in the European elections on 26 May 2019, while a pro-European coalition reached 38%. The country is divided between rural areas, dominated by PiS, and major cities, like Warsaw, where, in October 2018, the opposition party, PO, took office. On 13 January 2019, the liberal mayor of Gdansk, Pawel Adamowicz, was assassinated.

Geography.
Poland is bordered to the north-east by Russia and Lithuania, to the east by Belarus and Ukraine, to the south by Slovakia and the Czech Republic, to the west by Germany and to the north by the Baltic Sea.
Occupying the middle part of the great European plain that extends from the North Sea to the Urals, Poland links the German plain to the Russian plain in a series of alluvial plains and low-lying hills that rise to a significant height only to the south in the Sudetes and the Beskids. Sand spits on the Baltic coast encircle enormous lagoons.
Inland the River Vistula, the longest and most important river in Poland, flows through a wide plain. The climate is continental, with cold winters and hot summers.

Government


After the elimination of democratic and pro-Western elements during World War II, Poland became part of the Communist bloc in 1947. It embraced democracy in 1987 under the impetus of the Solidarity (Solidarność) trade union, which won a landslide victory in the partially-free elections on 4 and 18 June 1989. Since then centre-left and centre-right coalitions alternated in power up until the election of 25 October 2015, which led to the formation of a single-party government. Poland has been a member of NATO since 1999 and on 1 May 2004, it became a member of the European Union.
Under the Constitution approved by referendum on 25 May 1997, the President of the Republic, directly elected for a five-year term, appoints the Prime Minister who must be voted in by the both houses of Parliament. Parliament comprises the Lower House (460 seats) and Senate (100 seats), whose members are elected for four-year terms.


Defence.
Military service has been voluntary since 2009. In response to tensions with Russia, the government has significantly increased military spending.
On 12 June 2019, the US announced the deployment of 1000 soldiers in the country.


Justice.
The legal system is based on Napoleonic Law, reviewed and brought in line with Western European tradition. Recent reforms by PiS have been contested.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force16.7%2015
Army48.5%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes2 906per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides0.7per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Warsaw=Warszawa1 769 529inhab.2018
Cracow=Kraków769 498inhab.2018
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Warsaw3 100 844inhab.2016
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate10.52017
Death rate10.52017
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total239 230units2018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Polish94.8%2011
Silesian2.2%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic87.7%2011
other8.8%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Belarusian
German
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years14.8%2018
15-29 years17.1%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
The economy grew 5.1% in 2018 and is expected to maintain this rhythm in 2019-20, thanks in part to the government’s social spending. The use of EU funds has declined; unemployment is at historic lows (3.9%).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)113.09index2016
Balance of trade-5 897.6M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population17 143 300units2018
Active population, Females44.9%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate3.9%2018
Unemployment rate, Females44.9%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses477 882M LCU2018
Revenues464 488M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture9.6%2018
industry31.7%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.8%2018
industry33.6%2018
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation219.2BN LCU2018
International reserves116 956.6M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
Agriculture employs a significant share of the workforce. The most important crops are cereals (wheat, barley, maize and oats), potatoes, sugar beet, fruit (especially apples) and vegetables.
Livestock.
The main livestock species are pigs, cattle and farmyard animals. The number of horses raised is particularly high, especially draught horses.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land36.84%2015
forests30.81%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley3 793.0321000 t2017
cereals, total31 924.9641000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes9 171.7331000 t2017
roots and tubers, total9 171.7331000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus2.7361000 t2017
cabbages1 083.6081000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry49.9241000 t2017
beans, green3.1631000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed2 697.2651000 t2017
soybeans20.2971000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops3.2511000 t2017
sugar beet15 732.9521000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.0351000 t2017
linseed9.11000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste0.0611000 t2017
hempseed0.0291000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples2 441.3931000 t2017
apricots1.3351000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts4.6351000 t2017
walnuts3.7181000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms302.9161000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley953.7841000 ha2017
maize562.1051000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes329.3231000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages24.4421000 ha2017
carrots and turnips22.1181000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry18.0031000 ha2017
beans, green0.1251000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed914.2661000 ha2017
soybeans9.3331000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops1.6711000 ha2017
sugar beet231.7161000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.1741000 ha2017
linseed5.8751000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste0.0961000 ha2017
hempseed0.061000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples176.3521000 ha2017
apricots1.0491000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts3.741000 ha2017
walnuts2.7221000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber45 346 4002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle6 143.0831000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes6 143.0831000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs11 352.7191000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep261.2241000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats44.2041000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total185.4941000 heads2017
horses185.4941000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds197 2221000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey12.8361000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter1811000 t2014
cheese744.0441000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs34.77t2017
freshwater fishes41 421t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The Silesian coalfield is one of the largest in Europe. Rich lignite deposits are located near Bogatynia, Konin and Bełchatów. Other mineral resources include lead and zinc in Silesia, copper, salt, sulfur, silver, magnesite, gypsum and feldspar.
Energy and industry.
Power generation relies almost exclusively on coal-fired power stations. The country has sizeable reserves of shale gas, although still little explored, and is crossed by the Yamal-Europe gas pipeline (from Russia). To diversify the sources of supply, a gas pipeline with Denmark (Baltic Pipe) is under construction. In Świnoujście there is a regasification terminal. Oil refineries (the main ones at Plock and Gdańsk) work with imported crude oil, especially from Russia, also supplied via the main Druzhba oil pipeline, whose flow was temporarily interrupted in April 2019 due to the presence of contaminants. In May 2019, the government announced new plans to develop the nuclear sector.
The traditional heavy metal industry has been reformed progressively to respond to international competition, to attract foreign investments and to reduce the environmental impact. Some of the most polluting plants have been shut down or modernized. The steel industry is concentrated on the edges of the coalfields, with active steelworks in Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski, Stalowa Wola, Warsaw and Szczecin. Metal-working is important in Wrocław, Poznań and Silesia. There are numerous cement works.
Mechanical industry covers a wide range of productions, including tractors, farm machinery, electrical machinery and home appliances. The railway sector is also relevant.
The motor industry, which relies heavily on foreign capital, is located at Warsaw-Żerań, Poznań, Lublin, Tychy, Gliwice and Bielsko-Biala (cars and vans), as well as Sanok (buses), Dęba (engines), and Starachowice, Tychy and Lublin (trucks). The ship-building industry is in serious crisis. Chemical works are widepsread throughout the country, while the pharmaceutical industry is concentrated in Warsaw. Rubber-processing plants are also active.
The cotton industry is concentrated around Łódź; alongside the wool industry, the manufacture of synthetic and artificial textile fibres and the flax industry are also relevant. Glass-making is important in Silesia, and porcelain at Ćmielów, Chodzież and Wałbrzych. Other industries include brewing, distilling and tobacco.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal63 6001000 t2018
coal, total122 2001000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper4521000 t2018
lead401000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
feldspar5001000 t2018
gypsum9051000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite3 1641000 t2015
kaolin2901000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silver1 300 000kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal134 482.04M kWh2016
- other renew.20 581M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal28 7841000 kW2016
- other renew.6 9361000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation156 918.04M kWh2016
total installed capacity38 1061000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium10.11000 t2018
cadmium320t2017
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes814 000no.2018
cars451 600no.2018
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watches and clocks10 900no.2015
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners263 000no.2017
computers43 728no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1 4271000 t2016
petrol4 5431000 t2018
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia2 3001000 t2018
caustic soda56.21000 t2018
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets11 7601000 m²2017
cotton fabrics19.7M m²2017
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear35 600 000pairs2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley3 9901000 t2014
coconut oil0.31000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes212 000M units2018
cigars and cigarettes98 539M units2016
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp1 075.1081000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp1 1561000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement18 9001000 t2018
sheet glass101 0001000 m²2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production6 361.5M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production14 168M US$2016
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.

The trade balance has returned to a slight deficit.
The main trading partners are the EU countries (especially Germany), followed by China, Russia and the US.
The country mainly imports machinery, electronic and chemical products.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017)
vehicles and parts thereof 26 500, machinery and home appliances 25 025, electrical and electronic equipment 17 080, furniture and 
accessories 12 874, iron and steel 11 347, plastics 10 271, 
telecommunications equipment 6 890, tyres and rubber articles 5 229, 
apparel and accessories 5 130, meat 5 090, pharmaceuticals 4 342, timber 4 265, computers and accessories 4 234, technical and 
electro-medical appliances 4 041


Finance and banking.
The central bank is the Narodowy Bank Polski. The stock exchange is in Warsaw.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures80.160% of goods exports2018
food products12.886% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany73 692M US$2018
Czechia16 657M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany59 957M US$2018
China30 972M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018260 607M US$ -
2017234 364M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018266 505M US$ -
2017233 812M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The main destinations are the heritage cities (Warsaw, Cracow) and religious centres (Częstochowa).
Over 40% of tourists come from Germany.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures9 567M US$2017
Number of arrivals18 258 000units2017
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Communications


Media and telecommunication.
In December 2015, a disputed law that provides for the government appointment of public media heads was severely criticized by the opposition and the European Commission.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown72 900 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried7 376.91000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers184.783per 1000 pop.2017
Computers169.3per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education.
Education is free and compulsory from 7 to 15 years (primary and lower secondary). Upper secondary schooling, lasting for 3 or 4 years, covers various subjects and paves the way to higher education.


Social security and health.
The social protection system is financed partly by workers and partly by the state. Free healthcare is provided by the state. The number of private clinics is increasing. In 2016, the government introduced the program 500+, which includes economic incentives for families with two or more children, while in 2019, a retirement plan was approved for mothers of four or more children; it does not have any requisites for accessing one’s pension.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.4years2016
Gradautes, percentage29.9%2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level229 490units2016
Teachers, secondary level267 777units2016
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending40.5% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending21.1% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds7.5per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians2.3per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2014
Tuberculosis17per 100 000 pop.2017
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums945units2017
Museums, visitors38 124 000units2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.03% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5.3%2017
education1%2017
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