Form of Government: Republic
Area: 312 679 sq km
Population: 38 422 346 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 122.88 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 55° - 49° N; long. 14° - 24° E
Capital: Warsaw=Warszawa (capital) 1 758 143 inhab. (2017); Warsaw 3 100 844 inhab. (2016), urban agglomeration
Currency: Polish złoty (100 groszy)
Human development index: 0.855 (rank: 36)
President: Andrzej Duda (PiS), since 6 August 2015
Prime Minister: Mateusz Morawiecki (PiS), since 11 December 2017
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 25 October 2015: PiS (Law and Justice, conservative), 235; PO (Civic Platform, liberal), 138; Kukiz’15 (right-wing), 42; Modern (liberal), 28; PSL (Polish People’s Party, centrist), 16; German minority, 1
Internet: www.stat.gov.pl (Central Statistical Office of Poland)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Poland

Polska, Rzeczpospolita Polska
Useful information

International license plate code PL
International dialling code 0048
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .pl

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Warsaw 8.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Warsaw -2.5/18.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Warsaw 8/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Warsaw 520
Days of rainfall (annual average) Warsaw 93

Politics and current affairs

On 11 June 2017, a new government led by Mateusz Morawiecki (Law and Justice) replaced the executive branch under Beata Szydlo, a move that was meant to be a conciliatory act towards the EU following tensions over the redistribution of migrants. The conflict with the EU was nonetheless aggravated when, on 20 December 2017, the European Commission enacted for the first time the disciplinary procedure listed in art. 7 of the Treaties, which could lead to the suspension of Poland’s right to vote in Europe.
The Eurosceptic conservative government of the Law and Justice (PiS) party nonetheless moved forward with its controversial justice reform, which is weakening the judiciary’s independence. After increasing political control over judges in recent years, in 2018, a new law for the Supreme Court went into effect that imposes early retirement for many judges in the court.

Geography.
Poland is bordered to the north-east by Russia and Lithuania, to the east by Belarus and Ukraine, to the south by Slovakia and the Czech Republic, to the west by Germany and to the north by the Baltic Sea.
Occupying the middle part of the great European plain that extends from the North Sea to the Urals, Poland links the German plain to the Russian plain in a series of alluvial plains and low-lying hills that rise to a significant height only to the south in the Sudetes and the Beskids. Sand spits on the Baltic coast encircle enormous lagoons.
Inland the River Vistula, the longest and most important river in Poland, flows through a wide plain. The climate is continental, with cold winters and hot summers.

Government


After the elimination of democratic and pro-Western elements during World War II, Poland became part of the Communist bloc in 1947. It embraced democracy in 1987 under the impetus of the Solidarity (Solidarność) trade union, which won a landslide victory in the partially-free elections on 4 and 18 June 1989. Since then centre-left and centre-right coalitions alternated in power up until the election of 25 October 2015, which led to the formation of a single-party government. Poland has been a member of NATO since 1999 and on 1 May 2004, it became a member of the European Union.
Under the Constitution approved by referendum on 25 May 1997, the President of the Republic, directly elected for a five-year term, appoints the Prime Minister who must be voted in by the both houses of Parliament. Parliament comprises the Lower House (460 seats) and Senate (100 seats), whose members are elected for four-year terms.


Defence.
Military service has been voluntary since 2009. In response to tensions with Russia, the government has significantly increased military spending: an agreement was signed for $4.75 billion to purchase US Patriot missiles.


Justice.
The legal system is based on Napoleonic Law, reviewed and brought in line with Western European tradition. Recent reforms by PiS have been contested.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force16.7%2015
Army48.5%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes2 906per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides0.7per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Warsaw=Warszawa1 758 143inhab.2017
Cracow=Kraków766 739inhab.2017
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Warsaw3 100 844inhab.2016
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate9.92016
Death rate10.12016
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total210 328units2017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Polish94.8%2011
Silesian2.2%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic87.7%2011
other8.8%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Belarusian
German
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years14.8%2017
15-29 years17.6%2017


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Economy


Economic situation.

The economy continues to grow over 4% in 2018 (3.7% in 2019), thanks to consumption and investments supported by EU funds. Unemployment is on the decline.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)113.09index2016
Balance of trade496M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population17 266 600units2017
Active population, Females44.8%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.9%2017
Unemployment rate, Females45%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses496 486M LCU2017
Revenues421 389M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture10.2%2017
industry31.5%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.4%2017
industry34.5%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation198.4BN LCU2017
International reserves113 267.4M US$2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
Agriculture employs a significant share of the workforce. The most important crops are cereals (wheat, barley, maize and oats), potatoes, sugar beet, fruit (especially apples) and vegetables.
Livestock.
The main livestock species are pigs, cattle and farmyard animals. The number of horses raised is particularly high, especially draught horses.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land36.84%2015
forests30.81%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley3 441.091000 t2016
cereals, total29 849.2231000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes8 872.4451000 t2016
roots and tubers, total8 872.4451000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus2.3381000 t2016
cabbages1 091.6531000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry59.5841000 t2016
beans, green3.1641000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed2 219.271000 t2016
soybeans14.7441000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops2.0031000 t2016
sugar beet13 523.7811000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.051000 t2016
linseed8.2871000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste0.0571000 t2016
hempseed0.031000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples3 604.2711000 t2016
apricots3.0731000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts5.5261000 t2016
walnuts7.2151000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms260.141000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley926.1471000 ha2016
maize595.4051000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes311.621000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages24.0911000 ha2016
carrots and turnips22.3081000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry22.2721000 ha2016
beans, green0.1231000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed826.9461000 ha2016
soybeans7.5141000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops1.261000 ha2016
sugar beet205.5721000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.1621000 ha2016
linseed7.4571000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste0.0881000 ha2016
hempseed0.0631000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples177.2031000 ha2016
apricots1.0781000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts3.7221000 ha2016
walnuts2.8021000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber42 136 0002016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle5 939.0461000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes5 939.0461000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs10 865.3181000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep239.1381000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats41.8781000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total188.5281000 heads2016
horses188.5281000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds187 6031000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey12.8361000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter1811000 t2014
cheese744.0441000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes41 439t2016
marine fishes196 199t2016
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The Silesian coalfield is one of the largest in Europe, and there are secondary fields at Lublin, Wałbrzych and Nowa Ruda.
At Bogatynia (Turoszów basin) and near Konin and Bełchatów there are rich lignite deposits. Production of oil and natural gas is modest. Other mineral resources include lead and zinc in Silesia, copper, salt, sulfur, silver, magnesite, gypsum and feldspar.
Energy and industry.
Power generation relies almost exclusively on coal-fired power stations. The country has sizeable reserves of shale gas, but exploration has been slowed by administrative procedures and strict European regulations. Oil refineries (the main ones at Plock and Gdańsk) work with imported crude oil, especially from Russia, also supplied via the main “Druzhba” oil pipeline. In Świnoujście there is a regasification terminal.
The traditional heavy metal industry has been reformed progressively to respond to international competition, to attract foreign investments and to reduce the environmental impact. Some of the most polluting factories and mines in Silesia and the “black areas” of Poland have been shut down or modernized. The iron and steel industry is concentrated in Silesia and on the edges of the Silesian coalfield, with other centres at Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski, Stalowa Wola, Warsaw and Szczecin. Metal-working is important in Wrocław, Poznań and Silesia. There are numerous cement works.
Mechanical industry covers a wide range of productions, including tractors, farm machinery, electrical machinery and home appliances. The railway sector is also relevant.
The motor industry, which relies heavily on foreign capital, is located at Warsaw-Żerań, Poznań, Lublin, Tychy, Gliwice and Bielsko-Biala (cars and vans), as well as Sanok (buses), Dęba (engines), and Starachowice, Tychy and Lublin (trucks). The ship-building industry at Gdańsk, Szczecin and Gdynia is in serious crisis. Chemical works are widepsread throughout the country, while the pharmaceutical industry is concentrated in Warsaw. There are rubber-processing plants at Poznań and Piastów.
The cotton industry is concentrated around Łódź, with wool in southern Poland and the Białystok area; synthetic and artificial textile fibres are also relevant, as in the flax industry. Glass-making is important in Silesia, and porcelain at Ćmielów, Chodzież and Wałbrzych. Other industries include brewing, distilling and tobacco.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal72 175.91000 t2015
coal, total127 0761000 t2017
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper478.71000 t2015
lead401000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
feldspar6001000 t2017
gypsum9051000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite3 1641000 t2015
kaolin2871000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold2 703kg2015
silver1 400 000kg2017
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal132 978.98M kWh2015
- other renew.20 796M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal28 9821000 kW2015
- other renew.5 9701000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation155 588.98M kWh2015
total installed capacity37 3221000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium2.21000 t2015
cadmium500t2016
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes1 135 194no.2015
cars514 700no.2017
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watches and clocks10 900no.2015
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners247 428no.2015
computers46 340no.2015
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1 4801000 t2015
petrol5 368.51000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia2 2001000 t2017
caustic soda60.71000 t2015
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets2 7191000 m²2015
cotton fabrics18.9M m²2015
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear37 131 000pairs2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley3 9901000 t2014
coconut oil0.31000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes171 000M units2015
cigars and cigarettes171 000M units2015
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp1 073.2641000 t2016
chemi-mechanical pulp1 146.11000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement15 5001000 t2015
sheet glass98 5001000 m²2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production6 580.2M US$2013
food, beverages and tobacco production14 511.4M US$2013
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.

The trade balance has returned to being active. The main trading partners are EU countries (especially Germany), followed by China, Russia and the United States.
The main imports are machinery, electronics and chemicals.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) vehicles and parts thereof 26 500, machinery and home appliances 25 025, electrical and electronic equipment 17 080, furniture and accessories 12 874, iron and steel 11 347, plastics 10 271, telecommunications equipment 6 890, tyres and rubber articles 5 229, apparel and accessories 5 130, meat 5 090, pharmaceuticals 4 342, timber 4 265, computers and accessories 4 234, technical and electro-medical appliances 4 041


Finance and banking.
The central bank is the Narodowy Bank Polski. The Italian group Unicredit also took part in the commercial banking merger process. The presence of JP Morgan Chase is growing. The Stock Exchange is in Warsaw.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures80.304% of goods exports2016
food products12.661% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany60 210M US$2017
United Kingdom14 071M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany49 469M US$2017
China26 474M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2017230 932.596M US$ -
2016202 526.504M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2017230 436.206M US$ -
2016197 299.501M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The main destinations are the heritage cities (Warsaw, Cracow) and religious centres (Częstochowa).
Over 40% of tourists come from Germany.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures8 617M US$2016
Number of arrivals17 471 000units2016
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Communications


Media and telecommunication.
In December 2015 the parliament approved a much-disputed act that provides for the government appointment of public information access summits. The law was criticized harshly by the opposition and the European Commission.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown72 900 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried7 376.91000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers184.783per 1000 pop.2017
Computers169.3per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education.
Education is free and compulsory from 7 to 15 years (primary and lower secondary).
Upper secondary schooling, lasting for 3 or 4 years, covers various subjects and paves the way to higher education.


Social security and health.
The social protection system is financed partly by workers and partly by the state. Free healthcare is provided by the state. The number of private clinics is increasing. In 2016, the government introduced the program 500+, which includes economic incentives for families with two or more children.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.4years2016
Gradautes, percentage28.7%2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level219 826units2015
Teachers, secondary level273 481units2015
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending38.3% of total expenses2015
Social protection spending19.1% of GDP2014
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds6.6per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians2.4per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2014
Tuberculosis18per 100 000 pop.2016
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums926units2015
Museums, visitors33 271 000units2015
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.97% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2016
Access to electricity100%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5.2%2016
education1%2016
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