Form of Government: Republic
Area: 1 285 216 sq km
Population: 32 625 948 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 25.39 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 0° - 18° S; long. 81° - 69° W
Capital: Lima (capital) 8 567 786 inhab. (2017); Lima 9 562 280 inhab. (2017), metropolitan area
Currency: Peruvian sol (100 céntimos)
Human development index: 0.777 (rank: 79)
President: José Pedro Castillo Terrones (Free Peru), elected 11 April 2021, in office since 28 July 2021
Prime Minister: Guido Bellido (Free Peru), since 29 July 2021
Congress: seats based on the elections of 11 April 2021: PL (Free Peru, socialist), 37; FP (Popular Force, right-wing, conservative), 24; AP (Popular Action, liberal), 16; APP (Alliance for Progress, conservative), 15; RP (Popular Renewal, conservative), 13; others, 25
Internet: www.inei.gob.pe (Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática)
Member of APEC, CAN, Mercosur associated, OAS, PROSUR, UN, WTO

Peru

Perú, Piruw, República del Perú, Piruw Suyu
Useful information

International license plate code PE
International dialling code 0051
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended for some areas); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .pe

GMT  -5
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Lima 19.1; Cusco 12.1; Iquitos 25.7
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Lima 22.5/16; Cusco 13/10; Iquitos 26.5/23.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Lima 1/5; Cusco 8/6; Iquitos 5/4
Annual average precipitation (mm) Lima 10; Cusco 810; Iquitos 2840
Days of rainfall (annual average) Lima 2; Cusco 102; Iquitos 196

Politics and current affairs

On 9 November 2020, the parliament removed President Martín Vizcarra (AP) following a corruption scandal and poor management of the COVID-19 pandemic; for a few days (10-15 November), he was replaced by Manuel Merino (AP), who stepped down after widespread public protests. On 17 November, Francisco Sagasti (Purple Party) took office to bring the country to the election held on 11 April 2021, which was won by Pedro Castillo, who was voted by the poorest classes in particular. He defeated Keiko Fujimori, daughter of the former president Alberto Fujimori, by a large margin.

Geography.
Peru is bordered to the north by Ecuador and Colombia, to the east by Brazil, to the south-east by Bolivia, to the south by Chile and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. The Andes Mountains run north to south down the country, dividing it into three parallel ranges (the cordilleras Occidental, Central, and Oriental) with lofty peaks (the highest is Mount Huascarán, 6768 m) and volcanic cones. The cordilleras reunite at Mount Cerro de Pasco (4338 m) before separating again into the Cordillera Oriental and the Cordillera Occidental enclosing the vast Altiplano plateau, south-east of which lies Lake Titicaca. To the SE (Montaña) and especially to the NE the high ground slopes down to the Amazon lowland.
The main rivers, the River Napo, River Ucayali, River Huallaga and River Marañón, are tributaries of the Amazon. The coastal climate is cool and dry; the climate is equatorial on the Altiplano.

Government


Formerly a Spanish colony, Peru gained independence in 1821 under the leadership of Simón Bolívar. The country has long been ruled by military regimes. Only in 1980, when the new Constitution was approved, did power return into civilian hands. The same year saw the emergence of Sendero Luminoso, an armed Maoist group responsible for the deaths of thousands of people, which has been brutally repressed by government forces.
With the terrorism and hyper-inflation of the 1980-90s, things took a new authoritarian turn when President Alberto Fujimori dissolved parliament in 1992 and introduced a new Constitution extending presidential powers. In 2000, however, he was forced to resign and fled the country after being involved in political and financial scandals. Democratic rotation was resumed in 2001. Under the Constitution of 1993, amended several times, the President of the Republic, directly elected for five years, appoints the Prime Minister and oversees the government. The Congress has 130 members elected for a five-year term.


Defence and justice.
Military service is voluntary.
The judicial system is based on continental European law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force11.8%2015
Army58.6%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 280.1per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides7.7per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lima8 567 786inhab.2017
Arequipa1 008 290inhab.2017
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lima (metropolitan area)9 562 280inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate17.7562019
Death rate5.5792019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mestizo60.2%2017
Quechua22.3%2017


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic76$%2017
Evangelical14.1%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Aymara (official)
Quechua (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years25.3%2020
15-29 years26.1%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
The strong recovery in 2021 follows the serious recession in 2020 caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, which resulted in considerable unemployment and increased poverty. Government support measures significantly increased the deficit.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)150.05index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)117.29index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population16 182 362units2020
Active population, Females45.7%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate6.2%2020
Unemployment rate, Females47.1%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses135 371M LCU2019
Revenues126 938M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture33.656%2020
industry15.875%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture7.563%2019
industry32.839%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation82.689BN LCU2020
International reserves67 711.5M US$2019
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
Among the commercial crops, which fuel exports, are important coffee and oil palm (in particular in the San Martín department), asparagus, avocado, sugar cane. Vines are cultivated in all the southern coastal valleys.
In the mountain regions, produce includes potatoes and barley in higher areas, wheat up to 2600 m and maize, the staple, up to 3300 m. Coca is widespread here and in Montaña, despite campaigns to eradicate and replace it with other crops (the country is one of the world’s largest producers). Annual average coca production is estimated at 120 000 tonnes. One of the typical Montaña crops is chinchona (quinine).
Forests.
Most of the forests lie far inland (the Montaña) towards the Amazon basin, and contain a wide range of species, including cedar, mahogany and rosewood. Sawmills are widespread.
Livestock and fishing.
Livestock farming, mostly sheep and cattle, is widely practised but is insufficient to satisfy the meat and milk requirement of the country. Other livestock includes the llama (milk, meat, pack animal) and the alpaca, which yields fine wool. Fishing is extremely important (anchovies, mackerel, squids and common dolphinfish), thanks to the abundance of plankton, carried by the Humboldt Current, which sustains large numbers of fish. The main fishing ports are Chimbote, Callao, Chancay, Huacho, Ilo and Huarmey.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land3.757%2018
forests56.778%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley215.5091000 t2019
cereals, total5 292.631000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava1 286.0131000 t2019
potatoes5 331.0631000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes131.8821000 t2019
asparagus366.7581000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry85.9421000 t2019
beans, green11.2241000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes638.2041000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives190.9861000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0$1000 t2017
groundnuts5.2881000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits912.9291000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts34.3561000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa135.9281000 t2019
coffee363.2911000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane10 929.3411000 t2019
tobacco2.0451000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton58.3081000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed1.0891000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.261000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples142.2841000 t2019
apricots0.2541000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts1.6991000 t2019
walnuts0.4831000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits1 399.3221000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes68.3531000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados535.9111000 t2019
bananas134.6041000 t2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley136.1031000 ha2019
maize455.5011000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava104.041000 ha2019
potatoes329.981000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes7.0281000 ha2019
cabbages2.3261000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry72.2151000 ha2019
beans, green3.9611000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape32.4081000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive21.3861000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0$1000 ha2017
groundnuts3.5091000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit72.8611000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts2.1511000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa130.3781000 ha2019
coffee359.5081000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane87.0951000 ha2019
tobacco0.2121000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton19.6091000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed1.1681000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.1761000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples7.8211000 ha2019
apricots0.1071000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts0.5111000 ha2019
walnuts0.0691000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits68.9091000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes3.7861000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados42.7881000 ha2019
bananas8.1071000 ha2018
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber8 578 3742019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle5 599.8911000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes5 599.8911000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs3 258.9281000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep11 261.7881000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1 807.9191000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses650.0081000 heads2019
asses and mules967.5191000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
llamas and alpacas6 123.6731000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds168 1731000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey1.631000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter5.5011000 t2018
cheese23.751000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals12.408t2019
crustaceans and molluscs791 533.237t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The mineral resources are abundant and varied, and the government has signed prospecting agreements with several foreign companies.
There are oilfields in the north (Lobitos, Parinas, Negritos, Corrientes, Pavayacu, Capahuari and Shiviyacu) and huge natural gas reserves in Aguaytía, Ayacucho, Camisea and Pucallpa regions. A liquefaction plant is active near San Vicente de Cañete.
Modest amounts of coal are mined at Goyllarisquizga (Cerro de Pasco) and Huayday (La Libertad). Copper mining is considerable. The older central areas of Casapalca, Cerro de Pasco, Morococha and Toromocho have now been supplemented by new areas in the south (Cuajone, Marcona, Quellaveco and Toquepala, with mineral exported from Ilo) and north (Quiruvilca). There are abundant silver deposits in the departments of Cajamarca, Pasco, Arequipa, Ancash, Junín, Huancavelica, Lima, Moquegua and La Libertad.
Other important minerals include gold (departments of Cajamarca, La Libertad, Moquegua, Arequipa and Puno), lead (Pasco and Junín), zinc (Ancash, Pasco, Junín and Lima), molybdenum (near Arequipa), iron ore (at Marcona), vanadium and bismuth (around Cerro de Pasco and in Piura department), tungsten (Puno and Ancash), selenium, antimony and phosphates (at Sechura).
Energy and industry.
The hydroelectric potential of the country has yet to be fully exploited, though there is a major hydroelectric plant on the River Mantaro. The major natural gas power plants are located at Callao and Chilca.
Industry mainly centres on mineral refining and processing. The biggest oil refineries are at Lima, Talara, Iquitos and Conchán. The chemical industry has a certain prominence at Callao (nitrogenous fertilizers) and Lima (synthetic fibres). Metal-working is important at La Oroya and Ilo, with iron and steel at Chimbote. Mechanical engineering includes motor-vehicle assembly (Lima) and ship-building (Callao). There are cotton mills at Lima, Ica, Cusco and Arequipa, and smaller wool factories at Lima, Urcos, Maranganí and Huancayo. Panama hats are made at Catacaos, Etén and Calendín. Food industries include milling, rice husking and the production of chancaca (raw, unrefined, non-centrifugal cane sugar).
Fish preservation is also important. Other industries include cement, tobacco, rubber, beer and paper.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal782.21000 t2019
coal, total782.21000 t2019
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper2 2001000 t2020
iron ore15 0001000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite16.41000 t2019
bentonite46.91000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite1101000 t2020
dolomite30 5261000 t2018
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold120 000kg2020
silver3 400 000kg2020
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro31 255.29M kWh2019
- thermal21 274.08M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal8 9661000 kW2018
- hydro5 1561000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation55 481.37M kWh2019
total installed capacity14 747.511000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cadmium700t2020
copper3301000 t2020
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes24 900no.2007
mopeds25 557no.2018
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol2 991.91000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia5$1000 t2016
fertilizers23 6041000 t2013
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics - m39.644M m2018
cotton yarn23.41000 t2018
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear7 554 057pairs2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1 4481000 t2018
cottonseed oil3.61000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes1 459.7M units2005
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper578.3391000 t2019
paper578.3391000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement8 546.31000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production2 042.681M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production7 726.992M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
The country has close commercial ties with numerous countries. The main imports are raw materials, vehicles and machinery.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017)
copper ores 11 999, gold 7 096, fruit and vegetables 3 037, petroleum products 2 649, refined copper 2 188, zinc ores 2 021, residues and wastes of food industry 1 731, metal ores 1 091, lead ores 1 069, fresh and preserved fish 1 040, apparel and accessories 875, refined zinc 812, natural gas 804, coffee 710, fruit & vegetable juices and preserves 570, plastics 454, iron ores 435, refined tin 374, chemicals 362, fish oil 330, machinery 257, cocoa and derived products 236


Finance and banking.
The Banco Central de Reserva acts as Peru’s central bank.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ores and metals45.497% of goods exports2019
food products22.575% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China10 963M US$2020
United States6 241M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China10 310M US$2020
United States6 661M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202042 411M US$ -
201947 690M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202036 097M US$ -
201942 284M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Tourism is a major resource, especially in Lima, Cuzco, Machu Picchu, the Amazon forest and Lake Titicaca.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures3 671M US$2019
Number of arrivals4 372 000units2019
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Communications


Transport.
The transport networks are insufficient.
The railways exist mainly to serve the mineral industry (the Lima-La Oroya line is the second highest in the world, travelling through a mountain pass at 4829 m).
The main road is the Pan-American Highway running north to south along the coast. Air transport and Amazon river transport are well developed.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown87 700 000km flown2009
Civil aviation, passengers carried18 820.61000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers79.279per 1000 pop.2018
Computers100.6per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education.
Free education is compulsory from 7 to 16 years but the drop-out rate is high, especially in rural areas.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.991years2017
Gradautes, percentage17.6%2002
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level3 592 865units2018
Students, secondary level2 779 973units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending40.2% of total expenses2003
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.59per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians1.3per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.3% of adults2019
HIV, total0.2%2000
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.127% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking83.3%2019
Access to electricity98.347%2019
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