Form of Government: Republic
Area: 1 285 216 sq km
Population: 31 237 385 inhab. (census 2017)
Density: 24.31 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 0° - 18° S; long. 81° - 69° W
Capital: Lima (capital) 8 567 786 inhab. (2017); Lima 9 562 280 inhab. (2017), metropolitan area
Currency: Peruvian sol (100 céntimos)
Human development index: 0.75 (rank: 89)
President: Martín Alberto Vizcarra Cornejo (PPK), since 23 March 2018
Prime Minister: Salvador Del Solar Labarthe (indep.), since 11 March 2019
Congress: seats based on the elections of 10 April 2016: Popular Force (right-wing, conservative), 71; PPK (Peruvians for Change, centre-right), 20; Broad Front (left-wing coalition), 20; others, 19
Internet: www.inei.gob.pe (Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática)
Member of APEC, CAN, Mercosur associated, OAS, UN, UNASUR, WTO

Peru

Perú, Piruw, República del Perú, Piruw Suyu
Useful information

International license plate code PE
International dialling code 0051
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended for some areas); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .pe

GMT  -5
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Lima 19.1; Cusco 12.1; Iquitos 25.7
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Lima 22.5/16; Cusco 13/10; Iquitos 26.5/23.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Lima 1/5; Cusco 8/6; Iquitos 5/4
Annual average precipitation (mm) Lima 10; Cusco 810; Iquitos 2840
Days of rainfall (annual average) Lima 2; Cusco 102; Iquitos 196

Politics and current affairs

On 9 December 2018, a referendum approved some changes to the constitution, including making it impossible for members of Parliament to rerun for election immediately. On 17 April 2019, former president Alan García committed suicide after being involved in an extensive corruption scandal tied to other former presidents Alejandro Toledo, Ollanta Humala and Pedro Pablo Kuczynski.

Geography.
Peru is bordered to the north by Ecuador and Colombia, to the east by Brazil, to the south-east by Bolivia, to the south by Chile and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. The Andes Mountains run north to south down the country, dividing it into three parallel ranges (the cordilleras Occidental, Central, and Oriental) with lofty peaks (the highest is Mount Huascarán, 6768 m) and volcanic cones. The cordilleras reunite at Mount Cerro de Pasco (4338 m) before separating again into the Cordillera Oriental and the Cordillera Occidental enclosing the vast Altiplano plateau, south-east of which lies Lake Titicaca. To the SE (Montaña) and especially to the NE the high ground slopes down to the Amazon lowland. The main rivers, the River Napo, River Ucayali, River Huallaga and River Marañón, are tributaries of the Amazon. The coastal climate is cool and dry; the climate is equatorial on the Altiplano.

Government


Formerly a Spanish colony, Peru gained independence in 1821 under the leadership of Simón Bolívar. The country has long been ruled by military regimes. Only in 1980, when the new Constitution was approved, did power return into civilian hands. The same year saw the emergence of Sendero Luminoso, an armed Maoist group responsible for the deaths of thousands of people, which has been brutally repressed by government forces. With the terrorism and hyper-inflation of the 1980-90s, things took a new authoritarian turn when President Alberto Fujimori dissolved parliament in 1992 and introduced a new Constitution extending presidential powers. In 2000, however, he was forced to resign and fled the country after being involved in political and financial scandals. Democratic rotation was resumed in 2001. Under the Constitution of 1993, amended several times, the President of the Republic, directly elected for five years, appoints the Prime Minister and oversees the government. The Congress has 130 members elected for a five-year term.


Defence.
Military service is voluntary.


Justice.
The judicial system is based on continental European law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force11.8%2015
Army58.6%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 280.1per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides7.7per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lima8 567 786inhab.2017
Arequipa1 008 290inhab.2017
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lima (metropolitan area)9 562 280inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate18.92017
Death rate5.72017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mestizo60.2%2017
Quechua22.3%2017


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic76%2017
Evangelical14.1%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Aymara (official)
Quechua (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years26%2018
15-29 years26.7%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
The country is heavily dependent on its mineral exports. The rise in prices in 2018-19 and the increase in domestic consumption and public spending for infrastructure have led to an increase in the growth rate compared to 2017, when the effects of the rise in mining production were at a stand-still due to a reduction in public and private investments. Strong fiscal legislation is contributing to keeping the deficit under control and the national debt low.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)150.05index2016
Balance of trade5 693.7M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population18 329 587units2018
Active population, Females45.7%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate6.4%2018
Unemployment rate, Females53.6%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses126 329M LCU2018
Revenues119 562M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture27.5%2018
industry15.6%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture7.4%2017
industry33.8%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation59.244BN LCU2018
International reserves60 333.2M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
Most of the coastal agriculture consists of cash crops, a part of which goes for export: coffee, asparagus, avocados, sugar cane and cotton. Vines are cultivated in all the southern coastal valleys. In the mountain regions, produce includes potatoes and barley in higher areas, wheat up to 2600 m and maize, the staple, up to 3300 m. Coca is widespread here and in Montaña, despite campaigns to eradicate and replace it with other crops (the country is one of the world’s largest producers). Annual average coca production is estimated at 120 000 tonnes. One of the typical Montaña crops is chinchona (quinine).
Forests.
Most of the forests lie far inland (the Montaña) towards the Amazon basin, and contain a wide range of species, including cedar, mahogany and rosewood. There are sawmills at Iquitos and Tingo Maria.
Livestock and fishing.
Livestock farming, mostly sheep and cattle, is widely practised but is insufficient to satisfy the meat and milk requirement of the country. Other livestock includes the llama (milk, meat, pack animal) and the alpaca, which yields fine wool.
Fishing is extremely important (anchovies, mackerel, squids and common dolphinfish), thanks to the abundance of plankton, carried by the Humboldt Current, which sustains large numbers of fish. The main fishing ports are Chimbote, Callao, Chancay, Huacho, Ilo and Huarmey.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land4.32%2015
forests57.79%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley202.9741000 t2017
cereals, total5 062.9021000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava1 196.3841000 t2017
potatoes4 776.2941000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes145.0681000 t2017
asparagus383.0981000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry75.7361000 t2017
beans, green11.7371000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes645.0121000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives80.3491000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed01000 t2017
groundnuts5.7711000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits852.0221000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts32.6451000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa121.8251000 t2017
coffee346.4661000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane9 399.6171000 t2017
tobacco2.0541000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton23.3331000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed1.1321000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.2571000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples149.7871000 t2017
apricots0.2661000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts3.2481000 t2017
walnuts0.31000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits1 160.4271000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes67.2941000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados466.7581000 t2017
bananas2451000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley133.1441000 ha2017
maize446.2511000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava98.0321000 ha2017
potatoes310.41000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes8.6461000 ha2017
cabbages2.2981000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry65.9851000 ha2017
beans, green3.4171000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape29.7771000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive21.1851000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed01000 ha2017
groundnuts4.0131000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit58.9511000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts2.3921000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa145.1691000 ha2017
coffee423.5451000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane77.5251000 ha2017
tobacco0.2081000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton7.5841000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed1.3081000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.1711000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples9.6721000 ha2017
apricots0.1141000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts0.6031000 ha2017
walnuts0.0761000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits77.1991000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes3.7921000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados39.4891000 ha2017
bananas81000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber8 422 8062017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle5 535.5691000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes5 535.5691000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs3 187.2541000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep11 338.4241000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1 885.991000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses647.1471000 heads2017
asses and mules961.7431000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
llamas and alpacas5 6001000 heads2014
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds156 6381000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey1.6351000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter3.7031000 t2014
cheese22.5341000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs378 430.16t2017
freshwater fishes31 418.16t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The mineral resources are abundant and varied, and the government has signed prospecting agreements with several foreign companies.
There are oilfields in the north (Lobitos, Parinas, Negritos, Corrientes, Pavayacu, Capahuari and Shiviyacu) and huge natural gas reserves in Aguaytía, Camisea and Pucallpa regions. Modest amounts of coal are mined at Goyllarisquizga (Cerro de Pasco) and Huayday (La Libertad).
Copper mining is very important. The older northern areas of Cerro de Pasco, Morococha and Casapalca, where the mines encircle the foundries at La Oroya and Casapalca, have now been supplemented by new areas in the south (Toquepala, Cuajone and Quellaveco, exported from Ilo) and north (Quiruvilca).
There are abundant silver deposits in the departments of Cajamarca, Pasco, Arequipa, Ancash, Junín, Huancavelica, Lima, Moquegua and La Libertad.
Other important minerals include gold (departments of Cajamarca, La Libertad, Moquegua, Arequipa and Puno), lead (Pasco and Junín), zinc (Ancash, Pasco, Junín and Lima), molybdenum (near Arequipa), iron ore (at Marcona), vanadium and bismuth (around Cerro de Pasco and in Piura department), tungsten (Puno and Ancash), selenium, antimony and phosphates (at Sechura).
Energy and industry.
The hydroelectric potential of the country has yet to be fully exploited, though there is a major hydroelectric plant on the River Mantaro. The major natural gas power plants are located at Callao and Chilca.
Industry mainly centres on mineral refining and processing. The biggest oil refineries are at Lima, Talara, Iquitos and Conchán. The chemical industry has a certain prominence at Callao (nitrogenous fertilizers) and Lima (synthetic fibres). Metal-working is important at La Oroya and Ilo, with iron and steel at Chimbote. Mechanical engineering includes motor-vehicle assembly (Lima) and ship-building (Callao). There are cotton mills at Lima, Ica, Cusco and Arequipa, and smaller wool factories at Lima, Urcos, Maranganí and Huancayo. Panama hats are made at Catacaos, Etén and Calendín. Food industries include milling, rice husking and the production of chancaca (raw, unrefined, non-centrifugal cane sugar).
Fish preservation is also important. Other industries include cement, tobacco, rubber, beer and paper.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal301.31000 t2017
coal, total301.31000 t2017
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bismuth1.11000 t2011
copper2 4001000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite9.21000 t2017
bentonite19.41000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite1101000 t2018
dolomite19 3881000 t2017
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold145 000kg2018
silver4 300 000kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal24 268.92M kWh2016
- hydro23 916M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal9 0001000 kW2016
- hydro5 1901000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation50 131.92M kWh2016
total installed capacity14 7321000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony0.531000 t2010
cadmium800t2018
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes24 900no.2007
mopeds28 209no.2017
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol2 991.91000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia51000 t2016
fertilizers23 6041000 t2013
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics - m40.628M m2017
cotton yarn23.61000 t2017
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear13 736 942pairs2017
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1 355.11000 t2014
cottonseed oil7.11000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes1 459.7M units2005
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper1 1351000 t2017
paper1 1351000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement8 301.31000 t2017
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production2 008.8M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production6 901.1M US$2016
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
The country has close commercial ties with numerous countries. The main trading partners are China and the USA. The main imports are raw materials, semi-finished goods and machinery.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017)
copper ores 11 999, gold 7 096, fruit and vegetables 3 037, petroleum products 2 649, refined copper 2 188, zinc ores 2 021, residues and wastes of food industry 1 731, metal ores 1 091, lead ores 1 069, fresh and preserved fish 1 040, apparel and accessories 875, refined zinc 812, natural gas 804, coffee 710, fruit & vegetable juices and preserves 570, plastics 454, iron ores 435, refined tin 374, chemicals 362, fish oil 330, machinery 257, cocoa and derived products 236, silver 213, phosphates 207, wool 184


Finance and banking.
The Banco Central de Reserva acts as Peru’s central bank.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ores and metals55.136% of goods exports2017
food products23.074% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China13 238M US$2018
United States8 002M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China10 060M US$2018
United States9 174M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201848 942M US$ -
201745 275M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201843 249M US$ -
201739 884M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Tourism is a major resource, especially in Lima, Cuzco, Machu Picchu, the Amazon forest and Lake Titicaca.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures2 916M US$2017
Number of arrivals4 032 000units2017
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Communications


Transport.
The transport networks are insufficient.
The railways exist mainly to serve the mineral industry (the Lima-La Oroya line is the second highest in the world, travelling through a mountain pass at 4829 m).
The main road is the Pan-American Highway running north to south along the coast. Air transport and Amazon river transport are well developed.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown87 700 000km flown2009
Civil aviation, passengers carried15 728.41000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers71.822per 1000 pop.2017
Computers100.6per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education.
Free education is compulsory from 7 to 16 years but the drop-out rate is high, especially in rural areas.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.6years2016
Gradautes, percentage17.6%2002
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level206 638units2018
Teachers, secondary level195 767units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending40.2% of total expenses2003
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.6per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians1.1per 1000 pop.2013
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.3% of adults2017
HIV, total0.2%2000
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.1% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking75.06%2016
Access to electricity96.362%2017
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