Form of Government: Republic
Area: 1 285 216 sq km
Population: 32 131 400 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 25.00 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 0° - 18° S; long. 81° - 69° W
Capital: Lima (capital) 8 567 786 inhab. (2017); Lima 9 562 280 inhab. (2017), metropolitan area
Currency: Peruvian sol (100 céntimos)
Human development index: 0.759 (rank: 82)
President: Martín Alberto Vizcarra Cornejo (indep.), since 23 March 2018
Prime Minister: Walter Martos (indep.), since 6 August 2020
Congress: seats based on the elections of 26 January 2020: Popular Action (liberal), 25; Alliance for Progress (conservative), 22; Agricultural People’s Front (Christian conservative), 15; Popular Force ( right-wing, conservative), 15; Union for Peru (indigenous nationalism), 13; Podemos Perú (liberal conservative), 11; Democratic Party “We Are Peru” (Christian democratic), 11; others, 18
Internet: www.inei.gob.pe (Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática)
Member of APEC, CAN, Mercosur associated, OAS, PROSUR, UN, WTO

Peru

Perú, Piruw, República del Perú, Piruw Suyu
Useful information

International license plate code PE
International dialling code 0051
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended for some areas); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .pe

GMT  -5
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Lima 19.1; Cusco 12.1; Iquitos 25.7
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Lima 22.5/16; Cusco 13/10; Iquitos 26.5/23.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Lima 1/5; Cusco 8/6; Iquitos 5/4
Annual average precipitation (mm) Lima 10; Cusco 810; Iquitos 2840
Days of rainfall (annual average) Lima 2; Cusco 102; Iquitos 196

Politics and current affairs

Fighting from a strong platform of anticorruption reform, President Vizcarra eventually won his battle with the Peruvian Congress, controlled by the Popular Force party, dissolved the chamber and set long-awaited elections for 26 January 2020. A more heterogeneous new Congress emerged, with Popular Force’s presence heavily reduced. Despite a quick response from the government, COVID-19 has hit Peru badly, leading to a grave economic and social situation.

Geography.
Peru is bordered to the north by Ecuador and Colombia, to the east by Brazil, to the south-east by Bolivia, to the south by Chile and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. The Andes Mountains run north to south down the country, dividing it into three parallel ranges (the cordilleras Occidental, Central, and Oriental) with lofty peaks (the highest is Mount Huascarán, 6768 m) and volcanic cones. The cordilleras reunite at Mount Cerro de Pasco (4338 m) before separating again into the Cordillera Oriental and the Cordillera Occidental enclosing the vast Altiplano plateau, south-east of which lies Lake Titicaca. To the SE (Montaña) and especially to the NE the high ground slopes down to the Amazon lowland. The main rivers, the River Napo, River Ucayali, River Huallaga and River Marañón, are tributaries of the Amazon. The coastal climate is cool and dry; the climate is equatorial on the Altiplano.

Government


Formerly a Spanish colony, Peru gained independence in 1821 under the leadership of Simón Bolívar. The country has long been ruled by military regimes. Only in 1980, when the new Constitution was approved, did power return into civilian hands. The same year saw the emergence of Sendero Luminoso, an armed Maoist group responsible for the deaths of thousands of people, which has been brutally repressed by government forces.
With the terrorism and hyper-inflation of the 1980-90s, things took a new authoritarian turn when President Alberto Fujimori dissolved parliament in 1992 and introduced a new Constitution extending presidential powers. In 2000, however, he was forced to resign and fled the country after being involved in political and financial scandals. Democratic rotation was resumed in 2001. Under the Constitution of 1993, amended several times, the President of the Republic, directly elected for five years, appoints the Prime Minister and oversees the government. The Congress has 130 members elected for a five-year term.


Defence.
Military service is voluntary.


Justice.
The judicial system is based on continental European law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force11.8%2015
Army58.6%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 280.1per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides7.7per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lima8 567 786inhab.2017
Arequipa1 008 290inhab.2017
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lima (metropolitan area)9 562 280inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate182018
Death rate5.52018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mestizo60.2%2017
Quechua22.3%2017


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic76%2017
Evangelical14.1%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Aymara (official)
Quechua (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years26%2018
15-29 years26.7%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
The effects of COVID-19 on the mining industry, on which Peru relies, and on foreign demand have seen the country slide into recession. Poverty, which in recent years had been notably reduced, is back up again.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)150.05index2016
Balance of trade5 430M US$2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population18 864 899units2019
Active population, Females45.7%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate6.6%2019
Unemployment rate, Females47.1%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses135 371M LCU2019
Revenues126 938M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture27.4%2019
industry15.3%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture7.5%2018
industry33.9%2018
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation62.099BN LCU2019
International reserves67 711.5M US$2019
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
Most of the coastal agriculture consists of cash crops, a part of which goes for export: coffee, asparagus, avocados, sugar cane and cotton. Vines are cultivated in all the southern coastal valleys.
In the mountain regions, produce includes potatoes and barley in higher areas, wheat up to 2600 m and maize, the staple, up to 3300 m.
Coca is widespread here and in Montaña, despite campaigns to eradicate and replace it with other crops (the country is one of the world’s largest producers). Annual average coca production is estimated at 120 000 tonnes. One of the typical Montaña crops is chinchona (quinine).
Forests.
Most of the forests lie far inland (the Montaña) towards the Amazon basin, and contain a wide range of species, including cedar, mahogany and rosewood. There are sawmills at Iquitos and Tingo Maria.
Livestock and fishing.
Livestock farming, mostly sheep and cattle, is widely practised but is insufficient to satisfy the meat and milk requirement of the country. Other livestock includes the llama (milk, meat, pack animal) and the alpaca, which yields fine wool. Fishing is extremely important (anchovies, mackerel, squids and common dolphinfish), thanks to the abundance of plankton, carried by the Humboldt Current, which sustains large numbers of fish. The main fishing ports are Chimbote, Callao, Chancay, Huacho, Ilo and Huarmey.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land4.32%2015
forests57.79%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley207.2151000 t2018
cereals, total5 644.2081000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava1 239.7411000 t2018
potatoes5 121.111000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes154.5521000 t2018
asparagus360.631000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry87.961000 t2018
beans, green12.0681000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes645.5451000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives188.9821000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed01000 t2017
groundnuts5.7051000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits921.0011000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts32.9231000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa134.6761000 t2018
coffee369.6221000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane10 336.1781000 t2018
tobacco1.9381000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton44.1951000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.881000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.2631000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples140.5691000 t2018
apricots0.2421000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts2.6681000 t2018
walnuts0.3121000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits1 330.7891000 t2018
citrus fruits, nes69.031000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados504.5171000 t2018
bananas134.6041000 t2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley133.2491000 ha2018
maize456.0451000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava101.7781000 ha2018
potatoes323.0921000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes7.6841000 ha2018
cabbages2.3481000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry73.7891000 ha2018
beans, green3.6331000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape32.5431000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive21.8871000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed01000 ha2017
groundnuts3.7351000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit66.1711000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts2.3831000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa160.4191000 ha2018
coffee446.1371000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane84.8381000 ha2018
tobacco0.2041000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton15.0241000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.9711000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.1771000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples8.6381000 ha2018
apricots0.111000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts0.5691000 ha2018
walnuts0.0751000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits79.641000 ha2018
citrus fruits, nes3.841000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados40.1341000 ha2018
bananas8.1071000 ha2018
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber8 246 2792018
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle5 575.4831000 heads2018
cattle and buffaloes5 575.4831000 heads2018
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs3 227.5641000 heads2018
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep11 331.9081000 heads2018
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1 807.0281000 heads2018
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses648.8441000 heads2018
asses and mules966.5081000 heads2018
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
llamas and alpacas6 042.9181000 heads2018
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds160 6591000 heads2018
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey1.61000 t2018
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter5.41000 t2018
cheese22.5341000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals12t2018
crustaceans and molluscs473 534.379t2018
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The mineral resources are abundant and varied, and the government has signed prospecting agreements with several foreign companies.
There are oilfields in the north (Lobitos, Parinas, Negritos, Corrientes, Pavayacu, Capahuari and Shiviyacu) and huge natural gas reserves in Aguaytía, Camisea and Pucallpa regions.
Modest amounts of coal are mined at Goyllarisquizga (Cerro de Pasco) and Huayday (La Libertad). Copper mining is considerable. The older central areas of Casapalca, Cerro de Pasco, Morococha and Toromocho have now been supplemented by new areas in the south (Cuajone, Marcona, Quellaveco and Toquepala, with mineral exported from Ilo) and north (Quiruvilca). There are abundant silver deposits in the departments of Cajamarca, Pasco, Arequipa, Ancash, Junín, Huancavelica, Lima, Moquegua and La Libertad.
Other important minerals include gold (departments of Cajamarca, La Libertad, Moquegua, Arequipa and Puno), lead (Pasco and Junín), zinc (Ancash, Pasco, Junín and Lima), molybdenum (near Arequipa), iron ore (at Marcona), vanadium and bismuth (around Cerro de Pasco and in Piura department), tungsten (Puno and Ancash), selenium, antimony and phosphates (at Sechura).
Energy and industry.
The hydroelectric potential of the country has yet to be fully exploited, though there is a major hydroelectric plant on the River Mantaro. The major natural gas power plants are located at Callao and Chilca.
Industry mainly centres on mineral refining and processing. The biggest oil refineries are at Lima, Talara, Iquitos and Conchán. The chemical industry has a certain prominence at Callao (nitrogenous fertilizers) and Lima (synthetic fibres). Metal-working is important at La Oroya and Ilo, with iron and steel at Chimbote. Mechanical engineering includes motor-vehicle assembly (Lima) and ship-building (Callao). There are cotton mills at Lima, Ica, Cusco and Arequipa, and smaller wool factories at Lima, Urcos, Maranganí and Huancayo. Panama hats are made at Catacaos, Etén and Calendín. Food industries include milling, rice husking and the production of chancaca (raw, unrefined, non-centrifugal cane sugar).
Fish preservation is also important. Other industries include cement, tobacco, rubber, beer and paper.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal216.71000 t2018
coal, total216.71000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper2 4001000 t2019
iron ore15 0001000 t2019
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite15.61000 t2018
bentonite2.41000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite1101000 t2019
dolomite30 5261000 t2018
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold130 000kg2019
silver3 800 000kg2019
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro30 430M kWh2018
- thermal20 178M kWh2017
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal8 9661000 kW2018
- hydro4 8831000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation51 339M kWh2017
total installed capacity14 7521000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cadmium770t2019
copper333.31000 t2018
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes24 900no.2007
mopeds25 557no.2018
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol2 991.91000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia51000 t2016
fertilizers23 6041000 t2013
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics - m39.644M m2018
cotton yarn23.41000 t2018
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear7 554 057pairs2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1 355.11000 t2014
cottonseed oil7.11000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes1 459.7M units2005
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper496.1061000 t2018
paper496.1061000 t2018
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement8 546.31000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production1 997.1M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production7 554.8M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
The country has close commercial ties with numerous countries. The main imports are raw materials, semi-finished goods and machinery.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017)
copper ores 11 999, gold 7 096, fruit and vegetables 3 037, petroleum products 2 649, refined copper 2 188, zinc ores 2 021, residues and wastes of food industry 1 731, metal ores 1 091, lead ores 1 069, fresh and preserved fish 1 040, apparel and accessories 875, refined zinc 812, natural gas 804, coffee 710, fruit & vegetable juices and preserves 570, plastics 454, iron ores 435, refined tin 374, chemicals 362, fish oil 330, machinery 257, cocoa and derived products 236, silver 213, phosphates 207, wool 184


Finance and banking.
The Banco Central de Reserva acts as Peru’s central bank.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ores and metals53.541% of goods exports2018
food products23.790% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China13 546M US$2019
United States5 748M US$2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China10 265M US$2019
United States8 809M US$2019
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201947 690M US$ -
201849 068M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201942 260M US$ -
201843 262M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Tourism is a major resource, especially in Lima, Cuzco, Machu Picchu, the Amazon forest and Lake Titicaca.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures3 417M US$2018
Number of arrivals4 419 000units2018
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Communications


Transport.
The transport networks are insufficient.
The railways exist mainly to serve the mineral industry (the Lima-La Oroya line is the second highest in the world, travelling through a mountain pass at 4829 m).
The main road is the Pan-American Highway running north to south along the coast. Air transport and Amazon river transport are well developed.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown87 700 000km flown2009
Civil aviation, passengers carried17 758.51000 units2018
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers73.470per 1000 pop.2017
Computers100.6per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education.
Free education is compulsory from 7 to 16 years but the drop-out rate is high, especially in rural areas.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15years2017
Gradautes, percentage17.6%2002
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level206 638units2018
Teachers, secondary level195 767units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending40.2% of total expenses2003
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.6per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians1.3per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.3% of adults2018
HIV, total0.2%2000
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.1% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking75.06%2016
Access to electricity95.2%2018
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