Form of Government: Republic
Area: 406 752 sq km
Population: 7 252 672 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 17.83 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 19° - 27° S; long. 63° - 54° W
Capital: Asunción (capital) 523 184 inhab. (2018); Asunción 2 284 500 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: guaraní (100 céntimos)
Human development index: 0.728 (rank: 103)
President and head of government: Mario Abdo Benítez (Colorado Party), elected 22 April 2018, in office since 15 August 2018
Chamber of Deputies: seats based on the elections of 22 April 2018: ANR-PC (National Republican Association-Colorado Party, conservative), 42; PLRA (Authentic Radical Liberal Party), 17; GANAR (Great Renewed National Alliance, centre-left), 13; others 8
Internet: www.ine.gov.py (Instituto Nacional de Estadística)
Member of Mercosur, OAS, PROSUR, UN, WTO

Paraguay

Paraguay, República del Paraguay, Tetä Paraguáype
Useful information

International license plate code PY
International dialling code 00595
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .py

GMT  -4
DST  -3
DST duration (start-end) early October-mid April

Annual average temperature (°C) Asunción 23.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Asunción 28.5/17.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Asunción 6/10
Annual average precipitation (mm) Asunción 1385
Days of rainfall (annual average) Asunción 77

Geography.
Paraguay is bordered to the north by Bolivia, to the east by Brazil, and to the south and west by Argentina. The River Paraguay, which runs from north to south through the centre of the country, creates two distinct areas: to the east a series of upland plains descending towards the River Paraná, and to the west the steppe-like Chaco Boreal plateau. The climate is sub-tropical.

Government


A former Spanish colony, Paraguay has been independent since 1811. Following the War of the Triple Alliance against Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay (1864-70) it lost most of its territory, but emerged victorious in the war against Bolivia for control of the Chaco (1929-35). In 1954 General Alfredo Stroessner installed a dictatorship with the support of the ANR-PC (National Republican Association-Colorado Party), which ruled until Stroessner was deposed (1989) and held its majority until the elections in 2008, won by the former bishop Fernando Lugo, deposed in 2012.
The Paraguayan People’s Army (EPP) operates in the country, a small group that was founded in 2008 and is responsible for attacks in the north-eastern areas in particular.
Under the Constitution of 1967, Paraguay is a presidential republic. The President, who is also head of the government, is elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term, as too is the parliament, comprising of the Chamber of Deputies (80 members) and the Senate (45 members). The presidential mandate is not renewable.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force10.3%2015
Army71.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes355.5per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides7.3per 100 000 pop.2017
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Asunción523 184inhab.2018
Ciudad del Este222 274inhab.2002
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Asunción2 284 500inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate20.3412019
Death rate5.5392019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mestizo86$%2000
white9.3%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic89.6%2010
Protestant6.3%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Guaraní (official)
Spanish (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years23.2%2020
15-29 years27.1%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
Growth is supported by the export of agricultural products and is very sensitive to global market prices, weather conditions and epidemics.
In 2021, the country emerged from the recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, which hit it as it was recovering from the slowdown of 2018-19 due to drought and an unfavourable Argentine economy. The impact of the crisis has been mitigated by wide-ranging support initiatives for families and the economy, which the government has adopted at the expense of tight grip over public accounts.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)163.86index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)101.6index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population3 563 080units2020
Active population, Females40.5%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate7.6%2020
Unemployment rate, Females48.7%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses36 287 586M LCU2018
Revenues32 532 850M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture21.275%2020
industry19.086%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture11.236%2019
industry35.832%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation17 113.328BN LCU2020
International reserves9 202.412M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Approximately 66% of the arable land is owned by 10% of the population, creating marked social inequality. The main commercial crops are soya (grown in the departments of Alto Paraná, Canindeyú, Itapúa and Caaguazú) – of which Paraguay is one of the world’s largest exporters – maize and sugar cane (Guairá, Paraguarí and Central), used especially to produce rum and alcohol. Other important export crops are wheat, tobacco and cotton (Caaguazú, San Pedro, Itapúa). The main subsistence crops are maize, cassava and dried beans. A certain amount of rice is also grown. Forestry products include tannin, obtained from the quebracho, and yerba mate, the leaves of the Ilex paraguariensis) which, when dried and crushed, are used to make a drink. Valuable woods (walnut, cedar, mahogany) are grown and exploited. Livestock farming, mostly cattle, is practiced extensively.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land12.129%2018
forests41.935%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total8 112.031000 t2019
maize5 576.91000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava3 3841000 t2019
potatoes3.8671000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carrots and turnips13.21000 t2019
chillies and peppers10.6061000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry65.521000 t2019
broad beans, dry15.871000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes1.931000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed6$1000 t2019
groundnuts21.251000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits157.8641000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tung
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tung nuts51.1551000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0.3991000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane5 819.51000 t2019
tobacco7.1751000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton27$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.4151000 t2019
fruits, total764.8471000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits334.051000 t2019
grapefruits50.0251000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados10.3731000 t2019
bananas89.9961000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize1 085.0051000 ha2019
rice1621000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava1881000 ha2019
potatoes0.271000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carrots and turnips1.11000 ha2019
chillies and peppers0.9231000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry72.81000 ha2019
broad beans, dry23.8831000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape0.351000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed6$1000 ha2019
groundnuts25$1000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit16.7091000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tung
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tung nuts8.9651000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0.311000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane1031000 ha2019
tobacco3.51000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton18$1000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.0511000 ha2019
peaches0.2011000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits11.2581000 ha2019
grapefruits1.0581000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados1.6891000 ha2019
bananas8.7381000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber11 627 7642019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle13 801.9931000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes13 801.9931000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 332.2241000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep295.7951000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats111.9721000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses35.1171000 heads2019
asses and mules45.6841000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds26 5821000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey1.8531000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.481000 t2018
eggs117.841000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes28 940.479t2019
total catch28 940.479t2019
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
Verified mineral resources are limited to a few (unexploited) deposits of manganese, copper ore, gypsum, limestone, clay and marble. There is abundant hydroelectric power thanks to the Itaipú (with Brazil) and Yacyretá (with Argentina) dams on the River Paraná, and the power station on the River Acaray.
Industries, mostly in the Asunción region and Central Department, include textiles and paper (Concepción, Asunción, Pilar, Caazapá, Villarrica), as well as tobacco, beer, sugar, cement (Vallemí, Villa Hayes, Villeta) and tannin (Puerto Casado, Puerto Pinasco). There is an oil-refinery near Asunción.

Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum5$1000 t2017
talc0.21000 t2011
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin6$1000 t2011
limestone1001000 t2011
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro48 934.71M kWh2019
- other renew.701.41M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro8 8101000 kW2019
- other renew.22.061000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation59 322.18M kWh2018
total installed capacity8 850.481000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pig iron41$1000 t2019
steel, crude22$1000 t2020
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol27.41000 t2006
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tannin8 052t1993
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley299.51000 t2018
cottonseed oil1.41000 t2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper67$1000 t2019
paper67$1000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 4001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production325.9M US$2010
food, beverages and tobacco production1 035.7M US$2010
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) 
soya beans 2 132, electric energy 2 104, meat 1 215, residues and wastes of food industry 766, soybean oil 477, rice and other cereals 254, maize 245, electrical and electronic equipment 242, hides and skins 115, plastics 98, oil seeds 71, timber 68, animal products 68, household linens 63

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products63.193% of goods exports2019
fuels20.503% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Brazil3 025M US$2020
Argentina2 150M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Brazil2 390M US$2020
Argentina1 808M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20208 529M US$ -
20197 652M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202010 217M US$ -
201912 544M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures552M US$2019
Number of arrivals1 216 000units2019
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Communications


The country’s sea trade mainly passes through the Chileans ports of Iquique and Antofagasta.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown7 200 000km flown2006
Civil aviation, passengers carried632.41000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers53.57per 1000 pop.2019
Computers77.9per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling12.3years2010
Gradautes, percentage7.5%2002
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level727 363units2016
Students, secondary level611 308units2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.2per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians1.35per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.5% of adults2019
Malaria5$cases2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.146% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking68.2%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
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