Form of Government: Republic
Area: 406 752 sq km
Population: 7 052 983 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 17.34 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 19° - 27° S; long. 63° - 54° W
Capital: Asunción (capital) 523 184 inhab. (2018); Asunción 2 284 500 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: guaraní (100 céntimos)
Human development index: 0.702 (rank: 110)
President and head of government: Mario Abdo Benítez (Colorado Party), elected 22 April 2018, in office since 15 August 2018
Chamber of Deputies: seats based on the elections of 22 April 2018: ANR-PC (National Republican Association-Colorado Party, conservative), 42; PLRA (Authentic Radical Liberal Party), 17; GANAR (Great Renewed National Alliance, centre-left), 13; others 8
Internet: www.dgeec.gov.py (Dirección General de Estadística)
Member of Mercosur, OAS, UN, UNASUR, WTO

Paraguay

Paraguay, República del Paraguay, Tetä Paraguáype
Useful information

International license plate code PY
International dialling code 00595
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .py

GMT  -4
DST  -3
DST duration (start-end) early October-mid April

Annual average temperature (°C) Asunción 23.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Asunción 28.5/17.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Asunción 6/10
Annual average precipitation (mm) Asunción 1385
Days of rainfall (annual average) Asunción 77

Geography.
Paraguay is bordered to the north by Bolivia, to the east by Brazil, and to the south and west by Argentina. The River Paraguay, which runs from north to south through the centre of the country, creates two distinct areas: to the east a series of upland plains descending towards the River Paraná, and to the west the steppe-like Chaco Boreal plateau. The climate is sub-tropical.

Government


A former Spanish colony, Paraguay has been independent since 1811. Following the War of the Triple Alliance against Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay (1864-70) it lost most of its territory, but emerged victorious in the war against Bolivia for control of the Chaco (1929-35). In 1954 General Alfredo Stroessner installed a dictatorship with the support of the ANR-PC (National Republican Association-Colorado Party), which ruled until Stroessner was deposed (1989) and held its majority until the elections in 2008, won by the former bishop Fernando Lugo, deposed in 2012.
The Paraguayan People’s Army (EPP) operates in the country, a small group that was founded in 2008 and is responsible for attacks in the north-eastern areas in particular.
Under the Constitution of 1967, Paraguay is a presidential republic. The President, who is also head of the government, is elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term, as too is the parliament, comprising of the Chamber of Deputies (80 members) and the Senate (45 members). The presidential mandate is not renewable.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force10.3%2015
Army71.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes355.5per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides7.3per 100 000 pop.2017
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Asunción523 184inhab.2018
Ciudad del Este222 274inhab.2002
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Asunción2 284 500inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate20.72017
Death rate5.82017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mestizo86%2000
white9.3%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic89.6%2010
Protestant6.3%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Guaraní (official)
Spanish (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years24.1%2018
15-29 years28.2%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
Growth is supported by the export of agricultural products and is very sensitive to global market prices, weather conditions and epidemics. The slowdown in 2018-19 is due to the unfavorable economic situation in Argentina and to a severe drought. Several foreign manufacturing companies, especially Brazilian, have moved their production to the country in order to exploit favourable taxation.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)163.86index2016
Balance of trade-4 322M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population3 453 079units2018
Active population, Females39.8%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.7%2018
Unemployment rate, Females48.7%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses30 401 010M LCU2015
Revenues26 570 885M LCU2015
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture20%2018
industry20.1%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture20%2017
industry29.8%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation13 756.6BN LCU2018
International reserves7 738.5M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Approximately 66% of the arable land is owned by 10% of the population, creating marked social inequality. The main commercial crops are soya (grown in the departments of Alto Paraná, Canindeyú, Itapúa and Caaguazú) – of which Paraguay is one of the world’s largest exporters – maize and sugar cane (Guairá, Paraguarí and Central), used especially to produce rum and alcohol.
Other important export crops are wheat, tobacco and cotton (Caaguazú, San Pedro, Itapúa). The main subsistence crops are maize, cassava and dried beans. A certain amount of rice is also grown. Forestry products include tannin, obtained from the quebracho, and yerba mate, the leaves of the Ilex paraguayensis) which, when dried and crushed, are used to make a drink. Valuable woods (walnut, cedar, mahogany) are grown and exploited.
Livestock farming, mostly cattle, is practiced extensively.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land12.3%2015
forests38.56%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total7 207.781000 t2017
maize5 155.91000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava3 166.81000 t2017
potatoes3.761000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carrots and turnips12.651000 t2017
chillies and peppers8.31000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry61.21000 t2017
broad beans, dry15.5951000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes1.931000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed71000 t2017
groundnuts26.781000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits140.431000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tung
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tung nuts52.751000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0.4421000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane6 6081000 t2017
tobacco6.41000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton141000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.6881000 t2017
fruits, total563.921000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits331.581000 t2017
grapefruits50.021000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados15.8891000 t2017
bananas72.2661000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize9401000 ha2017
rice1401000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava1821000 ha2017
potatoes0.261000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carrots and turnips1.11000 ha2017
chillies and peppers0.691000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry721000 ha2017
broad beans, dry26.5791000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape0.351000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed61000 ha2017
groundnuts261000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit14.841000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tung
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tung nuts9.091000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0.321000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane1181000 ha2017
tobacco3.21000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton101000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.0861000 ha2017
peaches0.1941000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits11.2951000 ha2017
grapefruits1.11000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados2.6731000 ha2017
bananas7.8551000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber11 399 2102017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle13 821.5261000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes13 821.5261000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 311.8871000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep517.6411000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats155.0041000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses34.9431000 heads2017
asses and mules45.6231000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds19 5161000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey1.7951000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.751000 t2014
eggs85.991000 t2017
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes24 181t2017
total catch24 181t2017
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
Verified mineral resources are limited to a few (unexploited) deposits of manganese, copper ore, gypsum, limestone, clay and marble. Oil prospecting is under way in the Chaco department. There is abundant hydroelectric power thanks to the Itaipú (with Brazil) and Yacyretá (with Argentina) dams on the River Paraná, and the power station on the River Acaray. Industries, mostly in the Asunción region and Central Department, include textiles and paper (Concepción, Asunción, Pilar, Caazapá, Villarrica), as well as tobacco, beer, sugar, cement (Vallemí, Villa Hayes, Villeta) and tannin (Puerto Casado, Puerto Pinasco). There is an oil-refinery near Asunción.

Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum51000 t2016
talc0.21000 t2011
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin61000 t2011
limestone1001000 t2011
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro63 132M kWh2016
renewable electricity generation100%2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro8 8101000 kW2016
- other renew.401000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation63 132.94M kWh2016
total installed capacity8 8701000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pig iron391000 t2018
steel, crude251000 t2018
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol27.41000 t2006
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tannin8 052t1993
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1451000 t2014
cottonseed oil2.41000 t2014
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper131000 t2017
paper131000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 2001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production325.9M US$2010
food, beverages and tobacco production1 035.7M US$2010
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) 
soya beans 2 132, electric energy 2 104, meat 1 215, residues and wastes of food industry 766, soybean oil 477, rice and other cereals 254, maize 245, electrical and electronic equipment 242, hides and skins 115, plastics 98, oil seeds 71, timber 68, animal products 68, household linens 63, sugar 63

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products62.586% of goods exports2018
fuels23.353% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Brazil2 812M US$2018
Argentina2 306M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China3 764M US$2018
Brazil2 978M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20189 045M US$ -
20178 680M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201813 367M US$ -
201711 873M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures545M US$2017
Number of arrivals1 584 000units2017
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Communications


The country’s sea trade mainly passes through the Chileans ports of Iquique and Antofagasta.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown7 200 000km flown2006
Civil aviation, passengers carried457.21000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers40.839per 1000 pop.2017
Computers77.9per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling12.3years2010
Gradautes, percentage7.5%2002
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level34 694units2012
Teachers, secondary level34 286units2012
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.2per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians1.6per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.5% of adults2017
Malaria5cases2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.2% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking66.22%2016
Access to electricity99.3%2017
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