Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy
Area: 462 840 sq km
Population: 8 934 475 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 19.3 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 0° - 12° S; long. 141° - 164° E
Capital: Port Moresby (capital) 366 862 inhab. (2018);
Currency: kina (100 toea)
Human development index: 0.555 (rank: 155)
Head of State: The British Sovereign
Prime Minister: James Marape (PANGU), since 30 May 2019
Parliament: seats based on the elections of 24 June/8 July 2017: PNCP (People's National Congress Party), 27; NA (National Alliance), 14; PANGU Party, 11; URP (United Resources Party), 9; PNGP (Papua New Guinea Party), 6; independents, 14; others, 26; vacant, 4
Internet: www.nso.gov.pg (National Statistical Office)
Member of APEC, Commonwealth, SPC, UN, WTO

Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea, Papua Niugini, Independent State of Papua New Guinea, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini
Useful information

International license plate code PNG
International dialling code 00675
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 240
Driving side left
Internet code .pg

GMT  +10
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Port Moresby 26.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Port Moresby 28/25
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Port Moresby 9/8
Annual average precipitation (mm) Port Moresby 1018
Days of rainfall (annual average) Port Moresby 61

Politics and current affairs

On 17 May 2021, talks began between representatives of the island of Bougainville and the government of Papua following the result in favour of independence in the referendum held on the island in 2019.

Geography.
Papua New Guinea occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and is bordered by the Indonesian province of Papua, several adjacent islands (including the Bismarck Archipelago, the northern Solomon Islands, the D’Entrecasteaux Islands and the Louisiade Archipelago) as well as numerous smaller atolls. The terrain is mountainous. The climate is hot and humid with very heavy rainfall.

Government


Papua New Guinea comprises Papuasia (a former British colony ceded to Australia in 1906) and New Guinea (a former German colony mandated to Australia in 1920). After World War II the two territories were placed under the trusteeship of Australia, which granted self-government in 1973 and full independence on 16 September 1975). A secessionist movement on Bougainville Island (1989-98) went on to win full autonomy for the island. The British sovereign is represented by a Governor General who appoints the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is responsible before Parliament (111 members elected by direct suffrage for five-year terms).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force5.3%2015
Army84.2%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides10.4per 100 000 pop.2010
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Port Moresby366 862inhab.2018
Lae88 608inhab.2011
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate26.7932019
Death rate7.3522019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Papuan84$%1983
Melanesian15$%1983


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant60.7%2011
Catholic26$%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Hiri Motu (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years31.6%2020
15-29 years28$%2020


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Economy


Most of the active population works in the primary sector. Subsistence agriculture varies according to climatic region (bananas, sweet potatoes, yam, taro, cassava). Commercial produce (especially coconut and oil palm, cocoa and coffee, but also rubber, tea and spices) is exported. The main livestock species are pigs; tuna fishing is also practiced. Foreign-owned mining companies, especially Australian ones, are the country’s main source of income. There are substantial deposits of copper (Ok Tedi), gold (Tolukuma, Lihir, Porgera, Ok Tedi, Hidden Valley), silver (Hidden Valley, Ok Tedi), nickel and cobalt (Basamuk), oil (Hedinia, Agogo, Kutubu); to exploit the considerable natural gas reserves, a gas liquefaction plant, set up with foreign capital, has been in operation near the capital since 2014. The nation’s few industries include foodstuffs (sugar), mechanical engineering and wood; an oil refinery is active in Port Moresby, and a cement factory in Lae.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)122.34index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)105.53index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 710 581units2020
Active population, Females48.4%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate2.7%2020
Unemployment rate, Females27.1%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses14 047.1M LCU2019
Revenues13 022.4M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture58.3%2019
industry6.6%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture18.351%2019
industry36.77%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation2.178BN LCU2020
International reserves2 338.9M US$2019
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land2.208%2018
forests79.324%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total19.6641000 t2019
maize13.8621000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava155.1451000 t2019
potatoes1.3191000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
squashes0.1541000 t2019
tomatoes0.5581000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.1391000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1.5511000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits2 681.8781000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts1 192.8161000 t2019
copra32.61000 t2008
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa45.6681000 t2019
coffee55.6341000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane175.5361000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total2 678.5291000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas1 408.2951000 t2019
pineapples23.3681000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize2.3871000 ha2019
rice0.4061000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava15.7431000 ha2019
potatoes0.2261000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pumpkins and squashes0.0881000 ha2019
tomatoes0.1371000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.0511000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1.4991000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit198.481000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts188.8411000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa112.3571000 ha2019
coffee52.1971000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane6.6351000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas81.3891000 ha2019
pineapples1.1921000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber8 049t2019
timber9 605 0002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle93.191000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes93.191000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs2 171.1691000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep7.4011000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats3.0411000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total2.0471000 heads2019
horses2.0471000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds4 6971000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.1531000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs5.2511000 t2019
hides and skins0.5511000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs1 116t2019
freshwater fishes12 414t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas9 992.9M m³2019
oil, crude1 9631000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chromite90$1000 t2019
cobalt2.81000 t2020
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold70 000kg2020
silver90 000kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal3 240M kWh2018
- hydro800M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal5561000 kW2018
- hydro2341000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation4 061.69M kWh2018
total installed capacity865.261000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol1031000 t2014
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley80$1000 t2018
coconut oil26.71000 t2018
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2001000 t2019
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production14$M US$2004
food, beverages and tobacco production61$M US$2004
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ores and metals54.6% of goods exports2012
food products27.1% of goods exports2012
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20208 496M US$ -
201911 399M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20202 750M US$ -
20193 934M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures134M US$2018
Number of arrivals160 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown11 900 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried2 029.71000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers2.133per 1000 pop.2017
Computers63.9per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Gross enrolment ratio, primary - Female103.573index2016
Gross enrolment ratio, primary - Male113.206index2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level1 275 085units2016
Students, secondary level507 278units2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds4$per 1000 pop.1990-2005*
Physicians0.07per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.9% of adults2019
HIV, total0.3%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.032% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking9.3%2019
Access to electricity63.465%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing5.2%1995
energy, water4.9%1995
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