Form of Government: Republic
Area: 74 177 sq km
Population: 4 278 500 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 57.68 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 10° - 7° N; long. 83° - 77° W
Capital: Panama City=Panamá (capital) 430 299 inhab. (2010); Panama City 1 783 490 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: balboa (100 centésimos) and US dollar
Human development index: 0.815 (rank: 57)
President and head of government: Laurentino “Nito” Cortizo Cohen (PRD), elected 5 May 2019, in office since 1 July 2019
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 5 May 2019: PRD (Democratic Revolutionary Party), 35; CD (Democratic Change, populist centre-right), 18; Panameñista Party (nationalist) 8; MOLIRENA (Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement), 5; independents, 5
Internet: www.contraloria.gob.pa/inec (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censo)
Member of OAS, UN, WTO

Panama

Panamá, República de Panamá
Useful information

International license plate code PA
International dialling code 00507
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 110/120
Driving side rigth
Internet code .pa

GMT  -5
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Panamá 26.7
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Panamá 26.5/27
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Panamá 6/4
Annual average precipitation (mm) Panamá 1758
Days of rainfall (annual average) Panamá 101

Geography.
Panama is bordered to the east by Colombia, to the west by Costa Rica, to the north by the Caribbean Sea and to the south by the Pacific Ocean. It is traversed from coast to coast by the Panama Canal. The highest peak is Mount Chiriquí (3478 m).

Government


Panama has been an independent republic since 3 November 1903 when it split from Colombia with the support of the USA, which thereby acquired the lease on the strip of land (the Canal Zone) across which the Panama Canal would subsequently be built. Since then, the USA has maintained a grip on the country, also intervening militarily in its political life (e.g. ousting of Manuel Noriega in 1989).
Under the Constitution of 1972, amended several times, the President of the Republic, who is also head of the government, is elected by direct suffrage for a non-renewable mandate of five years; the National Assembly is made up of 71 members elected for five years. Panama gained control of the Panama Canal on 1 January 2000.

Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 390.9per 100 000 pop.2006
Homicides9.7per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Panama City=Panamá430 299inhab.2010
San Miguelito315 019inhab.2010
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Panama City1 783 490inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate18.7052019
Death rate5.1082019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mestizo65$%2010
other12.3%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic75.3%2010
Protestant16.4%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English
Spanish (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years25.3%2020
15-29 years24.4%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
The recovery of investment in infrastructure has facilitated the exit from the recession following the COVID-19 pandemic, which affected the main sectors of the economy (tourism, transport, construction). The social impact of the crisis was mitigated by government support measures, which however have been added to the public deficit. Unequal distribution of income, particularly between urban and rural areas, is a deep-rooted problem, even though the economic development had led to a sizeable reduction in poverty until the recession of 2020.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)112.22index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)103.52index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 985 363units2020
Active population, Females40.4%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate10.2%2020
Unemployment rate, Females52.3%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses8 958M LCU2017
Revenues8 731.4M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture14.062%2020
industry18.456%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.237%2019
industry30.573%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation0.677BN LCU2020
International reserves9 613.848M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Rice, bananas, potatoes, yam and cassava are the domestic crops. The main export crops are bananas (around Lake Gatún), pineapples, sugar cane (Coclé, Veraguas and Herrera), palm oil and watermelons. In the province of Colón, a gold mine and a copper mine are active. Fishing is an important resource (especially for herrings and anchovies, used to make oil and fodder, and prawns for export). Aquaculture is widespread.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land10.111%2018
forests57.116%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total417.6271000 t2019
maize1101000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava17.2341000 t2019
potatoes25.9671000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages2.5581000 t2019
carrots and turnips4.5031000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry4.5331000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sesame seed0.2471000 t2019
soybeans0.0431000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits27.7561000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts15.6181000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa1$1000 t2019
coffee7.21000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane2 670.9091000 t2019
tobacco2.7971000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total652.6871000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits40.4191000 t2019
oranges40.4191000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados8.5671000 t2019
bananas308.8371000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize50.811000 ha2019
rice89.5591000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava1.0681000 ha2019
potatoes1.051000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.1521000 ha2019
carrots and turnips0.4331000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry10.3281000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sesame seed0.3891000 ha2019
soybeans0.1671000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit2.7411000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts4.4081000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa8.2671000 ha2019
coffee16.1171000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane37.5481000 ha2019
tobacco1.5161000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits4.8191000 ha2019
oranges4.8191000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados1.7891000 ha2019
bananas8.4491000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber1 397 3552019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 497.21000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes1 497.21000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs354.51000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats9.2661000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses and mules1.1021000 heads2019
equines, total96.6071000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds28 2651000 heads2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter5.2491000 t2018
cheese13.8871000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs6 760.717t2019
freshwater fishes551t2019
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
The construction industry is largely developed (cement factories in Caimitillo, La Chorrera, San Juan). Other manufactures include brewing (Panama City, Colón), sugar, condensed milk (Natá in the Coclé province and Concepción in the Chiriquí), cigarettes (Panama City), alcohol (in sugar cane areas).
Transit tolls on the Panama Canal generate massive revenue and the free-trade of Colón is expanding rapidly. Panama has a huge merchant navy of foreign-owned ships sailing under the Panamanian flag of convenience. It is also an important investment centre, hosting many foreign banks and finance companies.

Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
salt38.11000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone2701000 t2010
sand and gravel - t19$1000 t2012
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold400kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro7 776M kWh2018
- thermal2 364.1M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro1 8711000 kW2019
- thermal1 3731000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation10 994.1M kWh2018
total installed capacity3 330.61000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol1.51000 t2006
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soap0.3091000 t2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley303.5911000 t2018
coconut oil0.0191000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigars5$M units2014
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2 0001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production164.2M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production2 022.6M US$2016
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) 
ships and boats 778, petroleum products 724, pharmaceuticals 402, fruit 355, coal products 319, fish 249, electric and electronic equipment 175, apparel and footwear 159, natural gas 157, machinery 130, gold and diamonds 127, chemicals 101

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures93.711% of goods exports2017
food products5.248% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States2 146M US$2017
Colombia946M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China4 351M US$2017
United States4 065M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202010 356M US$ -
201911 318M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202015 358M US$ -
201921 492M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 623M US$2019
Number of arrivals1 753 000units2019
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Communications


Panama Canal.
The Canal Zone, a strip of land 8 km wide along both sides of the Canal, was leased to the USA on 18 November 1903 in exchange for an annual fee.
The Canal, which opened on 15 July 1914, is 80 km long. The average transit time is approximately nine hours. As stipulated by the treaties of 7 September 1977, the Canal and Canal Zone, including land occupied by 14 American military bases, were returned to Panamanian control on 1 January 2000. Panama has civil and penal jurisdiction over the area and is responsible for all matters relating the operation of the Canal. On 26 June 2016 the Panama Canal expansion was opened, which doubled its capacity.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown95 100 000km flown2008
Civil aviation, passengers carried12 497.81000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers123.287per 1000 pop.2019
Computers63$per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling12.906years2016
Graduates29 365units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level418 852units2017
Students, secondary level322 913units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending20.6% of total expenses2001
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.2per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians1.6per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.9% of adults2018
Malaria1 597cases2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.147% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity95.835%2019
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