Form of Government: Republic
Area: 74 177 sq km
Population: 4 098 135 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 55.25 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 10° - 7° N; long. 83° - 77° W
Capital: Panama City=Panamá (capital) 430 299 inhab. (2010); Panama City 1 783 490 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: balboa (100 centésimos) and US dollar
Human development index: 0.789 (rank: 66)
President and head of government: Laurentino “Nito” Cortizo Cohen (PRD), elected 5 May 2019, in office since 1 July 2019
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 5 May 2019: PRD (Democratic Revolutionary Party), 35; CD (Democratic Change, populist centre-right), 18; Panameñista Party (nationalist) 8; MOLIRENA (Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement), 5; independents, 5
Internet: www.contraloria.gob.pa/inec (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censo)
Member of OAS, UN, WTO

Panama

Panamá, República de Panamá
Useful information

International license plate code PA
International dialling code 00507
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 110/120
Driving side rigth
Internet code .pa

GMT  -5
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Panamá 26.7
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Panamá 26.5/27
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Panamá 6/4
Annual average precipitation (mm) Panamá 1758
Days of rainfall (annual average) Panamá 101

Geography.
Panama is bordered to the east by Colombia, to the west by Costa Rica, to the north by the Caribbean Sea and to the south by the Pacific Ocean. It is traversed from coast to coast by the Panama Canal. The highest peak is Mount Chiriquí (3478 m).

Government


Panama has been an independent republic since 3 November 1903 when it split from Colombia with the support of the USA, which thereby acquired the lease on the strip of land (the Canal Zone) across which the Panama Canal would subsequently be built. Since then, the USA has maintained a grip on the country, also intervening militarily in its political life (e.g. ousting of Manuel Noriega in 1989).
Under the Constitution of 1972, the President of the Republic, who is also head of the government, is elected by direct suffrage for a non-renewable mandate of five years; the National Assembly is made up of 71 members elected for five years. Panama gained control of the Panama Canal on 1 January 2000.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Paramilitary expenditure1.4% of GDP2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 390.9per 100 000 pop.2006
Homicides9.7per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Panama City=Panamá430 299inhab.2010
San Miguelito315 019inhab.2010
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Panama City1 783 490inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate18.32017
Death rate52017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mestizo65%2010
other12.3%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic75.3%2010
Protestant16.4%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English
Spanish (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years26.1%2018
15-29 years24.7%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
Expansion in the transportation service sector and investments in infrastructure have led to economic growth, but also have significantly affected the public debt. Unequal distribution of income, particularly between urban and rural areas, is a deep-rooted problem, even though the economic development has led to a sizeable reduction in poverty.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)112.22index2016
Balance of trade-11 525.5M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 014 910units2018
Active population, Females39.7%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate3.9%2018
Unemployment rate, Females51.3%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses8 958M LCU2017
Revenues8 731.4M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture14.3%2018
industry18.6%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.5%2017
industry29.8%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation0.694BN LCU2018
International reserves2 121.3M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Rice, bananas, potatoes, yam and cassava are the domestic crops. The main export crops are bananas (around Lake Gatún), pineapples, sugar cane (Coclé, Veraguas and Herrera), palm oil and watermelons. In the province of Colón, a gold mine and a copper mine are active. Fishing is an important resource (especially for herrings and anchovies, used to make oil and fodder, and prawns for export). Aquaculture is widespread.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land10.06%2015
forests62.11%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total4451000 t2017
maize1301000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava16.5731000 t2017
potatoes29.4171000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages2.7961000 t2017
carrots and turnips4.3431000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry4.7911000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sesame seed0.241000 t2017
soybeans0.111000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits44.4861000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts15.6261000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa0.6621000 t2017
coffee5.731000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane2 444.4561000 t2017
tobacco2.7241000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total694.8141000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits39.2521000 t2017
oranges39.2521000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados8.3851000 t2017
bananas247.0141000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize63.5851000 ha2017
rice99.9451000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava0.9861000 ha2017
potatoes1.2051000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.1751000 ha2017
carrots and turnips0.4151000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry11.3151000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sesame seed0.4071000 ha2017
soybeans0.2851000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit4.3741000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts4.3951000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa5.2021000 ha2017
coffee12.7981000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane38.6291000 ha2017
tobacco1.4631000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits4.6661000 ha2017
oranges4.6661000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados1.7711000 ha2017
bananas6.2071000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber1 286 7022017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 521.51000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes1 521.51000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs398.91000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats9.0311000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses and mules1.9981000 heads2017
equines, total107.4631000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds25 5651000 heads2017
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.0561000 t2014
cheese14.1141000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs8 725.2t2017
freshwater fishes577.16t2017
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
The construction industry is largely developed (cement factories in Caimitillo, La Chorrera, San Juan). Other manufactures include brewing (Panama City, Colón), sugar, condensed milk (Natá in the Coclé province and Concepción in the Chiriquí), cigarettes (Panama City), alcohol (in sugar cane areas).
Transit tolls on the Panama Canal generate massive revenue and the free-trade of Colón is expanding rapidly. Panama has a huge merchant navy of foreign-owned ships sailing under the Panamanian flag of convenience. It is also an important investment centre, hosting many foreign banks and finance companies.

Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
salt601000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone2701000 t2010
sand and gravel - t191000 t2012
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold400kg2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro6 458M kWh2016
- thermal3 415.96M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro1 7701000 kW2016
- thermal1 2401000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation10 602.96M kWh2016
total installed capacity3 4001000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol1.51000 t2006
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soap0.2921000 t2017
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley294.21000 t2014
coconut oil0.021000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigars5M units2014
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 9001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production164.2M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production2 023.4M US$2016
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) ships and boats 778, petroleum products 724, pharmaceuticals 402, fruit 355, coal products 319, fish 249, electric and electronic equipment 175, apparel and footwear 159, natural gas 157, machinery 130, gold and diamonds 127, chemicals 101, timber 73, tyres 72, crude oil 63, animal & vegetable fats and oils 59

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures90.118% of goods exports2016
food products8.656% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States2 146M US$2017
Colombia946M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China4 351M US$2017
United States4 065M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201811 480M US$ -
201711 093M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201823 006M US$ -
201721 939M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 128M US$2017
Number of arrivals1 843 000units2017
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Communications


Panama Canal.
The Canal Zone, a strip of land 8 km wide along both sides of the Canal, was leased to the USA on 18 November 1903 in exchange for an annual fee.
The Canal, which opened on 15 July 1914, is 80 km long. The average transit time is approximately nine hours. As stipulated by the treaties of 7 September 1977, the Canal and Canal Zone, including land occupied by 14 American military bases, were returned to Panamanian control on 1 January 2000. Panama has civil and penal jurisdiction over the area and is responsible for all matters relating the operation of the Canal. On 26 June 2016 the Canal’s expansion was inaugurated, whose capacity will double gradually by 2025 thanks to new larger navigation basins.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown95 100 000km flown2008
Civil aviation, passengers carried13 673.11000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers108.836per 1000 pop.2017
Computers63per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling12.7years2015
Graduates26 031units2015
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level19 072units2016
Teachers, secondary level23 777units2016
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending20.6% of total expenses2001
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.3per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians1.6per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV1% of adults2017
Malaria689cases2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.06% of GDP2013
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking89.01%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
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