Form of Government: Republic
Area: 74 177 sq km
Population: 4 037 043 inhab. (estimate 2016)
Density: 54.42 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 10° - 7° N; long. 83° - 77° W
Capital: Panama City=Panamá (capital) 430 299 inhab. (2010); Panama City 1 672 810 inhab. (2015), urban agglomeration
Currency: balboa (100 centésimos) and US dollar
Human development index: 0.788 (rank: 60)
President and head of government: Juan Carlos Varela (Panameñista Party), elected 4 May 2014, in office since 1 July 2014
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 4 May 2014: CD (Democratic Change, populist centre-right), 29; PRD (Democratic Revolutionary Party), 21; PAN (Panameñista Party, nationalist) 11; independents, 1; others, 9
Internet: www.contraloria.gob.pa/inec (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censo)
Member of OAS, UN, WTO

Panama

Panamá, República de Panamá
Useful information

International license plate code PA
International dialling code 00507
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 110/120
Driving side rigth
Internet code .pa

GMT  -5
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Panamá 26.7
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Panamá 26.5/27
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Panamá 6/4
Annual average precipitation (mm) Panamá 1758
Days of rainfall (annual average) Panamá 101

Geography.
Panama is bordered to the east by Colombia, to the west by Costa Rica, to the north by the Caribbean Sea and to the south by the Pacific Ocean. It is traversed from coast to coast by the Panama Canal. The highest peak is Mount Chiriquí (3478 m).

Government


Panama has been an independent republic since 3 November 1903 when it split from Colombia with the support of the USA, which thereby acquired the lease on the strip of land (the Canal Zone) across which the Panama Canal would subsequently be built. Since then, the USA has maintained a grip on the country, also intervening militarily in its political life (e.g. ousting of Manuel Noriega in 1989).
Under the Constitution of 1972, the President of the Republic, who is also head of the government, is elected by direct suffrage for a non-renewable mandate of five years; the National Assembly is made up of 71 members elected for five years. Panama gained control of the Panama Canal on 1 January 2000.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Paramilitary expenditure1.4% of GDP2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 390.9per 100 000 pop.2006
Homicides11.4per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Panama City=Panamá430 299inhab.2010
San Miguelito315 019inhab.2010
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Panama City1 672 810inhab.2015
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate18.42016
Death rate4.72016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mestizo65%2010
other12.3%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic75.3%2010
Protestant16.4%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English
Spanish (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years26.4%2017
15-29 years24.9%2017


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Economy


Economic situation.
Expansion in the transportation service sector and investments in infrastructure have led to economic growth, but also have caused a major deficit in the public debt. Unequal distribution of income, particularly between urban and rural areas, is a deep-rooted problem, even though the economic development has led to a sizeable reduction in poverty.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)112.22index2016
Balance of trade-8 850M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 992 357units2017
Active population, Females39.6%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5.6%2017
Unemployment rate, Females49.2%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses9 584.9M LCU2014
Revenues9 586M LCU2014
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture15.1%2017
industry18.2%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.6%2016
industry27.9%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation0.669BN LCU2017
International reserves2 703.3M US$2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Rice, bananas, potatoes, yam and cassava are the domestic crops. The main export crops are bananas (around Lake Gatún), pineapples, sugar cane (Coclé, Veraguas and Herrera), palm oil and watermelons. In the province of Colón there is a gold mine. Fishing is an important resource (especially for herrings and anchovies, used to make oil and fodder, and prawns for export). Aquaculture is widespread.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land10.06%2015
forests62.11%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total4251000 t2016
maize1301000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava13.3531000 t2016
potatoes26.4751000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages2.8021000 t2016
carrots and turnips4.3231000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry4.7981000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sesame seed0.2371000 t2016
soybeans0.1091000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits49.0591000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts15.3331000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa0.5321000 t2016
coffee7.551000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane2 419.6381000 t2016
tobacco2.7141000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total694.8141000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits48.4521000 t2016
oranges48.4521000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados8.3991000 t2016
bananas258.8911000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize68.9031000 ha2016
rice95.3411000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava0.8221000 ha2016
potatoes1.11000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.1771000 ha2016
carrots and turnips0.4211000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry11.6271000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sesame seed0.4071000 ha2016
soybeans0.2761000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit4.8211000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts4.3121000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa4.2071000 ha2016
coffee16.8611000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane37.9951000 ha2016
tobacco1.4361000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits5.7671000 ha2016
oranges5.7671000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados1.7821000 ha2016
bananas6.4551000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber1 261 4352016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 554.21000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes1 554.21000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs3891000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats9.0271000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses and mules2.0731000 heads2016
equines, total108.761000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds24 0361000 heads2016
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.0561000 t2014
cheese14.1141000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs8 707t2016
freshwater fishes496t2016
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
The construction industry is largely developed (cement factories in Panama City, Colón, Caimitillo). Other manufactures include brewing (Panama City, Colón), sugar, condensed milk (Natá in the Coclé province and Concepción in the Chiriquí), cigarettes (Panama City), alcohol (in sugar cane areas).
Transit tolls on the Panama Canal generate massive revenue and the free-trade of Colón is expanding rapidly. Panama has a huge merchant navy of foreign-owned ships sailing under the Panamanian flag of convenience. It is also an important investment centre, hosting many foreign banks and finance companies.

Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
salt601000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone2701000 t2010
sand and gravel - t191000 t2012
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold3 000kg2014
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro6 194M kWh2015
- thermal3 355.8M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro1 7261000 kW2015
- thermal1 1481000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation10 023.8M kWh2015
total installed capacity3 2031000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol1.51000 t2006
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soap2181000 t2014
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear9 000pairs2009
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley294.21000 t2014
coconut oil0.021000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigars5M units2014
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2 2001000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production47M US$2004
food, beverages and tobacco production504M US$2004
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) ships and boats 778, petroleum products 724, pharmaceuticals 402, fruit 355, coal products 319, fish 249, 
electric and electronic equipment 175, apparel and footwear 159, natural gas 157, machinery 130, gold and diamonds 127, chemicals 101, timber 73, tyres 72, crude oil 63, animal & vegetable fats and oils 59

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures90.118% of goods exports2016
food products8.656% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States2 308M US$2016
Colombia1 064M US$2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China2 894M US$2016
United States880M US$2016
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201711 450M US$ -
201611 194.931M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201720 300M US$ -
201620 569.2M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 129M US$2016
Number of arrivals2 007 000units2016
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Communications


Panama Canal.
The Canal Zone, a strip of land 8 km wide along both sides of the Canal, was leased to the USA on 18 November 1903 in exchange for an annual fee.
The Canal, which opened on 15 July 1914, is 80 km long. The average transit time is approximately nine hours. As stipulated by the treaties of 7 September 1977, the Canal and Canal Zone, including land occupied by 14 American military bases, were returned to Panamanian control on 1 January 2000. Panama has civil and penal jurisdiction over the area and is responsible for all matters relating the operation of the Canal. On 26 June 2016 the Canal’s expansion was inaugurated, whose capacity will double gradually by 2025 thanks to new larger navigation basins.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown95 100 000km flown2008
Civil aviation, passengers carried13 673.11000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers108.836per 1000 pop.2017
Computers63per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling12.7years2015
Graduates24 031units2015
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level19 072units2015
Teachers, secondary level23 777units2015
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending20.6% of total expenses2001
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.2per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians1.9per 1000 pop.2014
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.8% of adults2016
Malaria811cases2016
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.06% of GDP2013
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking89.01%2016
Access to electricity93.417%2016
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