Form of Government: Republic
Area: 796 096 sq km
Population: 207 774 520 inhab. (census 2017)
Density: 260.99 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 37° - 23° N; long. 61° - 75° E
Capital: Islāmābād 1 014 825 inhab. (2017), urban agglomeration
Currency: Pakistani rupee (100 paise)
Human development index: 0.55 (rank: 147)
President: Arif Alvi (PTI), elected 4 September 2018, in office since 9 September 2018
Prime Minister: Imran Khan (PTI), since 18 August 2018
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 25 July 2018: PTI (Pakistan Movement for Justice), 116; PML-N (Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz), 64; PPP (Pakistan People's Party), 43; MMA (United Council of Action), 12; independents, 13; others, 22; not assigned, 2
Internet: www.pbs.gov.pk (Bureau of Statistics)
Member of Commonwealth, OAS observer, OIC, SAARC, SCO, UN, WTO

Pakistan

Pakistan, Pākistān, Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Jamhūryat Islāmī Pākistān
Useful information

International license plate code PK
International dialling code 0092
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side left
Internet code .pk

GMT  +5
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Islāmābād 22.3; Karachi 25.9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Islāmābād 10.5/32.5; Karachi 19/30
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Islāmābād 10/7; Karachi 8/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Islāmābād 361; Karachi 203
Days of rainfall (annual average) Islāmābād 27; Karachi 10

Politics and current affairs

On 28 July 2017, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif resigned after being removed from office by the Supreme Court for having lied about his family’s property. The role was maintained until the elections on 25 July 2018, when the governing party, the Pakistan Muslim League, was strongly reduced in favour of the nationalist Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf.

Geography.
Pakistan is bordered to the north-east by China, to the east and south-east by India, to the south-west by Iran, to the northwest by Afghanistan, and to the south by the Arabian Sea. In the north it is enclosed by offshoots of the western Himalayas and the Karakoram, Hindu Kush and Pamir ranges. The highest peak is K2 (8611 m).
Balochistān in the west is also mountainous. The Punjab, the most fertile area, comprises the valleys of the River Indus and its tributaries.

Government


Pakistan gained independence from the British Empire on 18 July 1947 when India was split to create Pakistan (with a Muslim majority population) and the Union (Dominion) of India (with a Hindu-majority population). The split led to bitter conflict and massive population shifts (ten million Hindus from Pakistan to India, seven million Muslims in the opposite direction). After a bloody civil war, Pakistan separated from its eastern province (now Bangladesh) in 1971.
Conflict between Pakistan and the Union of India began as early as 1947-48 with the war in Kashmir, the region which both sides laid claim to. Other wars would follow (1965-66, 1971) and a separatist guerrilla war supported by Pakistan is still being fought. India and Pakistan resumed normal diplomatic relations in 2003 after both had launched missiles with nuclear capability as a show of strength.
Politically, Pakistan has seen an alternation of military regimes and no less authoritarian civilian governments. In 1977, General Mohammed Zia ousted Ali Bhutto, who had become prime minister in 1970 after the first federal elections in the country. The elections in 1988 brought his daughter, Benazir Bhutto, to power but her government quickly fell owing to ethnic conflict in the Sindh province that also engineered the downfalls of later governments.
A military coup on 12 October 1999 brought Pervez Musharraf to power. Having deposed the prime minister, Nawaz Sharif, he suspended the Constitution and dissolved the parliament and provincial governments. The military coup was subsequently declared “legal” by the Supreme Court in 2000 and a popular referendum in 2002 conferred a veneer of legitimacy on the Musharraf regime. Following the elections in 2008, in the run-up to which Benazir Bhutto was murdered (27 December 2007), Musharraf chose to resign (18 August 2008) to avoid impeachment.
The country is troubled by frequent attacks on religious minorities (in particular Shi’ites, Christians and Sufis). In the NWFP (North-West Frontier Province) and the tribal areas (Wazīristān), which are permeated by Afghan Taliban groups and other radical Islamic factions, air attacks by the United States forces have led to numerous civilian casualties, fuelling hostility towards foreign troops and the government. Autonomist guerrilla warfare by ethnic-based armed groups is under way in the Balochistān province.
Under the Constitution of 1973, amended numerous times (most recently in 2015), Pakistan is a parliamentary republic with a President elected for five years by both houses of Parliament and the provincial assemblies.
The Parliament consists of the Senate with 104 members (92 elected by the provincial assemblies, 4 representing the federal capital and 8 representing tribal territories) with a term lasting for 6 years and renewed for half that time every 3 years, and of the National Assembly with 342 members (272 of whom are elective, 60 strictly women and 10 minorities) elected for a five-year term.


Defence.
The country possesses nuclear weapons and tactical missiles; it has never signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.


Justice.
The judicial system is based on British Common Law and Islamic sharia law introduced in some north-western areas in 2009.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force10.9%2015
Army85.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes350.7per 100 000 pop.2016
Homicides4.4per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Karāchi14 910 352inhab.2017
Lahore11 126 285inhab.2017
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Karāchi14 910 352inhab.2017
Lahore11 126 285inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

There are approximately 1.3 million Afghan refugees in the country.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate25.62016
Death rate6.72016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Punjabi52.6%2000
Pashtun13.2%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim96.4%2010
Hindu1.9%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Urdu (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years31.4%2017
15-29 years30.6%2017


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Economy


Economic situation.
The growth rate steadily increased between 2015 and 2017, sustained above all by domestic consumption, while the budget deficit decreased, thanks in part to an intensive set of structural reforms. The balance of trade is feeling the effects of weak exports and is structurally in deficit despite tariffs being imposed on imported goods and the increase in interest rates in 2018 in order to cool demand. The textile industry, which is the largest export sector, is vulnerable to the fluctuations in international demand and cotton prices. As a whole, economic growth must remain elevated in order to guarantee employment for the rising population. Remittances from emigrants and international aid play an important role.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)127.61index2016
Balance of trade-36 177M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population69 958 167units2017
Active population, Females22.4%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4%2017
Unemployment rate, Females38.8%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses5 796 302M LCU2016
Revenues4 475 753M LCU2016
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture42%2017
industry23.7%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture25.2%2016
industry19.2%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation4 119.5BN LCU2017
International reserves18 455.9M US$2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Agriculture is concentrated in areas irrigated by the River Indus and its tributaries (Punjab and Sindh). The country produces wheat, rice (mostly exported), sugar cane, cotton and citrus fruits, and local food crops (maize, potatoes, pulses, millet, sorghum) are extremely important. The livestock population is substantial. The main fishing ports are in Karāchi and in the Makrān region.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land40.54%2015
forests1.91%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley611000 t2016
cereals, total43 075.6941000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes4 000.3611000 t2016
roots and tubers, total4 531.6681000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages77.9451000 t2016
carrots and turnips509.0661000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry111.771000 t2016
beans, green5.8931000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes64.5161000 t2016
raisins2.61000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed2.321000 t2016
groundnuts87.281000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts10.1681000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ginger0.1221000 t2016
pepper90.41000 t2005
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet117.5461000 t2016
sugar cane65 450.7041000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton4 942.7461000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed2.1781000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hempseed0.0181000 t2016
jute0.411000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples590.0391000 t2016
apricots177.6581000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds21.521000 t2016
pistachios0.6641000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits2 270.1361000 t2016
lemons85.061000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas128.1711000 t2016
dates494.6011000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley661000 ha2016
maize1 3341000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes178.2231000 ha2016
sweet potatoes1.5281000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages5.0351000 ha2016
carrots and turnips29.0381000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry168.5641000 ha2016
beans, green1.3381000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape16.1911000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed2.2591000 ha2016
groundnuts89.4691000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts1.5141000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ginger0.2751000 ha2016
pepper48.41000 ha2005
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet2.8891000 ha2016
sugar cane1 130.821000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton2 4891000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed3.0991000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hempseed0.0381000 ha2016
jute0.6651000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples91.9281000 ha2016
apricots26.4611000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds10.6531000 ha2016
pistachios0.1941000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits197.911000 ha2016
lemons7.7791000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas29.5011000 ha2016
dates95.8021000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber32 523 3492016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle42 8001000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes79 4001000 heads2016
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes36 6001000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep29 8001000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats70 3001000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses5 082.9261000 heads2016
asses and mules5 268.6351000 heads2016
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels1 041.4281000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds509 6921000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey4.3711000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter726.1931000 t2014
condensed milk3 638t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs33 955t2016
freshwater fishes293 041t2016
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The country has good energy resources: oil and natural gas are extracted in Balochistān, Punjab and Sindh, whereas the main coal deposits are concentrated in Sindh. There is a wide variety of mineral resources, especially copper, iron ore, barite, salt, gypsum, aragonite and marble.
Energy and industry.
Electricity generation is insufficient for the needs of the country and it is mainly obtained by fossil fuels. There is a large hydroelectric plant at Tarbela on the River Indus. Five nuclear power reactors are operational at Karāchi and Chashma, with two more under construction.
Most industries exist to satisfy domestic demand. The largest oil refineries are at Karāchi, Korangi, Morgāh (near Rāwalpindi) and Mahmūd Kot (near Multān). The chemical works at Multān and Faisalabad mostly produce nitrogenous fertilizers. The main iron and steel works are at Karāchi and Lahore. Cement production at Karāchi, Sukkur, Rohri, Miānwāli and Hyderābād also important. However, the largest industry is cotton textiles (Karāchi, Faisalabad, Hyderābād) which also generate modest exports. There are also wool factories at Karāchi and Bannu. Mechanical engineering consists mainly of ship-building and motor-vehicle assembly.
There are many sugar refineries at Punjab, Sindh and North-West Frontier provinces.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal2 9551000 t2015
coal, total4 0561000 t2017
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony0.11000 t2017
bauxite301000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite1401000 t2017
bentonite33.61000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aragonite and marble8 5761000 t2015
dolomite2681000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold1 600kg2012
silver3 000kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal65 742.66M kWh2015
- hydro33 664M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal14 1001000 kW2015
- hydro7 2641000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation104 579.66M kWh2015
total installed capacity22 8341000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coke, metall.219.81000 t2015
lead91000 t2015
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes195 913no.2015
cars188 690no.2017
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
TVs422 327no.2015
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1821000 t2015
petrol2 171.91000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia2 6001000 t2017
caustic soda206.81000 t2015
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics1 040.3M m²2015
cotton yarn3 273.61000 t2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley4.51000 t2014
coconut oil111000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes59 740M units2015
cigars and cigarettes59 740M units2015
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp621000 t2016
chemi-mechanical pulp821000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement33 2321000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production2 497.9M US$2006
food, beverages and tobacco production4 000.8M US$2006
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Trade


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017) 
apparel and household linens 8 937, cotton 3 498, rice 1 743, leather goods 632, fruit and vegetables 527, sugar and derived products 512, technical and electro-medical appliances 411, fish 407, alcoholic beverages 381, hides and skins 335, synthetic and artificial fibres and yarns 280, plastics 272


Finance and banking.
The financial system is overseen by the Pakistan Central Bank. The Stock Exchange is in Karāchi.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures78.226% of goods exports2016
food products18.587% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States3 560M US$2017
United Kingdom1 635M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China15 383M US$2017
United Arab Emirates7 524M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201721 569M US$ -
201620 375M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201757 746M US$ -
201646 847M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures2 728M US$2016
Number of arrivals965 000units2014
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Communications


In 2015, an agreement was signed with China for a vast infrastructure investment plan aimed at connecting China with the Arabian Sea (China–Pakistan Economic Corridor), ending at the Port of Gwādar, where a special economic zone is developing.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown79 500 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried9 919.81000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers9.286per 1000 pop.2017
Computers5.2per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Despite the fact that income disparities are still very high, economic growth has favoured a consistent decline in poverty.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling8.6years2016
Gradautes, percentage2.6%2005-06
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level452 414units2016
Teachers, secondary level590 003units2016
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending0.1% of total expenses2011
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.6per 1000 pop.2013
Physicians0.1per 1000 pop.2015
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2016
Malaria2 115 941cases2016
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Archaeological sites13units2013
Archaeological sites, visitors1 978 770units2013
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.25% of GDP2015
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking43.32%2016
Access to electricity99.147%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear6.5%2013-14
education5.1%2013-14
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