Form of Government: Republic
Area: 796 096 sq km
Population: 207 774 520 inhab. (census 2017)
Density: 260.99 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 37° - 23° N; long. 61° - 75° E
Capital: Islāmābād 1 014 825 inhab. (2017), urban agglomeration
Currency: Pakistani rupee (100 paise)
Human development index: 0.562 (rank: 150)
President: Arif Alvi (PTI), elected 4 September 2018, in office since 9 September 2018
Prime Minister: Imran Khan (PTI), since 18 August 2018
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 25 July 2018: PTI (Pakistan Movement for Justice), 116; PML-N (Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz), 64; PPP (Pakistan People's Party), 43; MMA (United Council of Action), 12; independents, 13; others, 22; not assigned, 2
Internet: www.pbs.gov.pk (Bureau of Statistics)
Member of Commonwealth, OAS observer, OIC, SAARC, SCO, UN, WTO

Pakistan

Pakistan, Pākistān, Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Jamhūryat Islāmī Pākistān
Useful information

International license plate code PK
International dialling code 0092
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side left
Internet code .pk

GMT  +5
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Islāmābād 22.3; Karachi 25.9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Islāmābād 10.5/32.5; Karachi 19/30
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Islāmābād 10/7; Karachi 8/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Islāmābād 361; Karachi 203
Days of rainfall (annual average) Islāmābād 27; Karachi 10

Politics and current affairs

The suicide attack by a radical Pakistani Islamic group against a convoy of Indian paramilitaries in Kashmir (14 February 2019) raised tension between the two countries: on 26 February, India carried out aerial raids in Pakistan, which the latter responded to by downing an Indian fighter plane (27 February).

Geography.
Pakistan is bordered to the north-east by China, to the east and south-east by India, to the south-west by Iran, to the northwest by Afghanistan, and to the south by the Arabian Sea. In the north it is enclosed by offshoots of the western Himalayas and the Karakoram, Hindu Kush and Pamir ranges. The highest peak is K2 (8611 m).
Balochistān in the west is also mountainous. The Punjab, the most fertile area, comprises the valleys of the River Indus and its tributaries.

Government


Pakistan gained independence from the British Empire on 18 July 1947 when India was split to create Pakistan (with a Muslim majority population) and the Union (Dominion) of India (with a Hindu-majority population). The split led to bitter conflict and massive population shifts (ten million Hindus from Pakistan to India, seven million Muslims in the opposite direction). After a bloody civil war, Pakistan separated from its eastern province (now Bangladesh) in 1971.
Conflict between Pakistan and the Union of India began as early as 1947-48 with the war in Kashmir, the region which both sides laid claim to. Other wars would follow (1965-66, 1971) and a separatist guerrilla war supported by Pakistan is still being fought. India and Pakistan resumed normal diplomatic relations in 2003 after both had launched missiles with nuclear capability as a show of strength.
Politically, Pakistan has seen an alternation of military regimes and no less authoritarian civilian governments. In 1977, General Mohammed Zia ousted Ali Bhutto, who had become prime minister in 1970 after the first federal elections in the country. The elections in 1988 brought his daughter, Benazir Bhutto, to power but her government quickly fell owing to ethnic conflict in the Sindh province that also engineered the downfalls of later governments.
A military coup on 12 October 1999 brought Pervez Musharraf to power. Having deposed the prime minister, Nawaz Sharif, he suspended the Constitution and dissolved the parliament and provincial governments. The military coup was subsequently declared “legal” by the Supreme Court in 2000 and a popular referendum in 2002 conferred a veneer of legitimacy on the Musharraf regime. Following the elections in 2008, in the run-up to which Benazir Bhutto was murdered (27 December 2007), Musharraf chose to resign (18 August 2008) to avoid impeachment.
The country is troubled by frequent attacks on religious minorities (in particular Shi’ites, Christians and Sufis). In the NWFP (North-West Frontier Province) and the tribal areas (Wazīristān), which are permeated by Afghan Taliban groups and other radical Islamic factions, air attacks by the United States forces have led to numerous civilian casualties, fuelling hostility towards foreign troops and the government. Autonomist guerrilla warfare by ethnic-based armed groups is under way in the Balochistān province.
Under the Constitution of 1973, amended numerous times (most recently in 2015), Pakistan is a parliamentary republic with a President elected for five years by both houses of Parliament and the provincial assemblies.
The Parliament consists of the Senate with 104 members (92 elected by the provincial assemblies, 4 representing the federal capital and 8 representing tribal territories) with a term lasting for 6 years and renewed for half that time every 3 years, and of the National Assembly with 342 members (272 of whom are elective, 60 strictly women and 10 minorities) elected for a five-year term.


Defence.
The country possesses nuclear weapons and tactical missiles; it has never signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.


Justice.
The judicial system is based on British Common Law and Islamic sharia law introduced in some north-western areas in 2009.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force10.9%2015
Army85.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes329.2per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides4per 100 000 pop.2017
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Karāchi14 910 352inhab.2017
Lahore11 126 285inhab.2017
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Karāchi14 910 352inhab.2017
Lahore11 126 285inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

There are approximately 1.3 million Afghan refugees in the country.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate25.62017
Death rate6.72017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Punjabi52.6%2000
Pashtun13.2%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim96%2017
Hindu1.9%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Urdu (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years30.8%2018
15-29 years30.4%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
The growth rate steadily increased between 2015 and 2018, sustained above all by domestic consumption, which, increasing imports, rose the deficit of the current accounts. In 2019, a drop in demand, industrial production and agricultural production slowed growth; furthermore, the rupee quickly depreciated in 2018 and 2019, feeding inflation. The FX reserves diminished significantly, making it difficult to finance imports and forcing the country to ask for a loan from the IMF (May 2019). The textile industry, which is the largest export sector, is vulnerable to the fluctuations in international demand and cotton prices. As a whole, economic growth must remain elevated in order to guarantee employment for the rising population. Remittances from emigrants and international aid play an important role.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)127.61index2016
Balance of trade-36 987M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population69 946 123units2018
Active population, Females21.9%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate3%2018
Unemployment rate, Females37.1%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses6 800 520M LCU2017
Revenues4 962 001M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture41.7%2018
industry23.6%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture24.7%2017
industry19.1%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation4 748.7BN LCU2018
International reserves11 837.2M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Agriculture is concentrated in areas irrigated by the River Indus and its tributaries (Punjab and Sindh). The country produces wheat, rice (mostly exported), sugar cane, cotton and citrus fruits, and local food crops (maize, potatoes, pulses, millet, sorghum) are extremely important. The livestock population is substantial. The main fishing ports are in Karāchi and in the Makrān region.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land40.54%2015
forests1.91%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley58.11000 t2017
cereals, total44 097.21000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes4 142.3991000 t2017
roots and tubers, total4 679.1411000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages77.4691000 t2017
carrots and turnips517.9151000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry126.31000 t2017
beans, green6.9121000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes57.921000 t2017
raisins2.61000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed2.4961000 t2017
groundnuts87.3031000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts10.4331000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ginger0.1221000 t2017
pepper90.41000 t2005
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet105.7831000 t2017
sugar cane73 401.1991000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton5 700.31000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed2.2851000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hempseed0.0141000 t2017
jute0.411000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples488.1021000 t2017
apricots178.9571000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds21.0021000 t2017
pistachios0.6821000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits2 267.4471000 t2017
lemons91.6051000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas135.4421000 t2017
dates524.0411000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley611000 ha2017
maize1 229.71000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes183.9611000 ha2017
sweet potatoes1.6671000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages4.9441000 ha2017
carrots and turnips29.6631000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1771000 ha2017
beans, green1.6061000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape14.4091000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed2.2361000 ha2017
groundnuts90.3681000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts1.5161000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ginger0.271000 ha2017
pepper48.41000 ha2005
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet2.0781000 ha2017
sugar cane1 216.8941000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton2 6991000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed3.1641000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hempseed0.0281000 ha2017
jute0.6651000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples78.3021000 ha2017
apricots30.8771000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds11.111000 ha2017
pistachios0.21000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits195.0521000 ha2017
lemons7.881000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas30.1111000 ha2017
dates98.0231000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber33 593 3492017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle44 4001000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes82 1001000 heads2017
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes37 7001000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep30 1001000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats72 2001000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses5 2001000 heads2017
asses and mules5 4001000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels1 1001000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds498 7371000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey4.3711000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter726.1931000 t2014
condensed milk3 638t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs35 464t2017
freshwater fishes296 396t2017
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Minerals


Secondary
sector
Minerals.
The country has good energy resources: oil and natural gas are extracted in Balochistān, Punjab and Sindh, whereas the main coal deposits are concentrated in Sindh. There is a wide variety of mineral resources, especially copper, iron ore, barite, salt, gypsum, aragonite and marble.
Energy and industry.
Electricity generation is insufficient for the needs of the country and it is mainly obtained by fossil fuels. There is a large hydroelectric plant at Tarbela on the River Indus. Five nuclear power reactors are operational at Karāchi and Chashma, with two more under construction.
Most industries exist to satisfy domestic demand. The largest oil refineries are located in Korangi, Morgāh (near Rāwalpindi), Mahmūd Kot (near Multān) and in Karāchi, where regasification terminals are also active. The chemical works at Multān and Faisalabad mostly produce nitrogenous fertilizers. The main iron and steel works are at Karāchi and Lahore. Cement production at Karāchi, Sukkur, Rohri, Miānwāli and Hyderābād also important. However, the largest industry is cotton textiles (Karāchi, Faisalabad, Hyderābād) which also generate modest exports. There are also wool factories at Karāchi and Bannu. Mechanical engineering consists mainly of ship-building and motor-vehicle assembly. There are many sugar refineries at Punjab, Sindh and North-West Frontier provinces.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal3 0091000 t2016
coal, total3 858.51000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony0.061000 t2018
bauxite1461000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite88.81000 t2018
bentonite74.31000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aragonite6 335.71000 t2018
aragonite and marble8 5761000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
emeralds - kg3.7kg2018
gold1 600kg2012
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal66 622.5M kWh2016
- hydro36 255M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal17 2001000 kW2016
- hydro7 3201000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation109 737.5M kWh2016
total installed capacity26 8951000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coke, metall.115.81000 t2016
lead91000 t2015
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes186 836no.2018
cars223 500no.2018
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
TVs396 999no.2018
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen2231000 t2016
petrol2 171.91000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia3 3001000 t2018
caustic soda276.51000 t2018
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics1 044.4M m²2018
cotton yarn3 430.51000 t2018
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear24 847 000pairs2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley4.51000 t2014
coconut oil111000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes59 058M units2018
cigars and cigarettes59 058M units2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp621000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp821000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement40 8301000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production2 497.9M US$2006
food, beverages and tobacco production4 000.8M US$2006
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Trade


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017) apparel and household linens 8 937, cotton 3 498, rice 1 743, leather goods 632, fruit and vegetables 527, sugar and derived products 512, technical and electro-medical appliances 411, fish 407, alcoholic beverages 381, hides and skins 335


Finance and banking.
The financial system is overseen by the Pakistan Central Bank. The Stock Exchange is in Karāchi.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures74.114% of goods exports2018
food products20.835% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States3 802M US$2018
China1 818M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China14 545M US$2018
United Arab Emirates8 669M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201823 485M US$ -
201721 569M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201860 472M US$ -
201757 746M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures3 223M US$2017
Number of arrivals965 000units2014
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Communications


In 2015, an agreement was signed with China for a vast infrastructure investment plan aimed at connecting China with the Arabian Sea (China–Pakistan Economic Corridor), ending at the Port of Gwādar, where a special economic zone is developing.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown79 500 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried9 919.81000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers9.286per 1000 pop.2017
Computers5.2per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Despite the fact that income disparities are still very high, economic growth has favoured a consistent decline in poverty.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling8.5years2017
Gradautes, percentage2.6%2005-06
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level484 267units2017
Teachers, secondary level646 318units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending0.1% of total expenses2011
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.6per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians1per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2017
Malaria2 190 418cases2017
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Archaeological sites13units2017
Archaeological sites, visitors4 204 958units2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.2% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking43.32%2016
Access to electricity70.79%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear6.5%2013-14
education5.1%2013-14
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