Form of Government: Republic
Area: 796 096 sq km
Population: 216 565 318 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 272.03 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 37° - 23° N; long. 61° - 75° E
Capital: Islāmābād 1 009 003 inhab. (2017), urban agglomeration
Currency: Pakistani rupee (100 paise)
Human development index: 0.557 (rank: 154)
President: Arif Alvi (PTI), elected 4 September 2018, in office since 9 September 2018
Prime Minister: Imran Khan (PTI), since 18 August 2018
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 25 July 2018: PTI (Pakistan Movement for Justice), 116; PML-N (Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz), 64; PPP (Pakistan People's Party), 43; MMA (United Council of Action), 12; independents, 13; others, 22; not assigned, 2
Internet: www.pbs.gov.pk (Bureau of Statistics)
Member of Commonwealth, OAS observer, OIC, SAARC, SCO, UN, WTO

Pakistan

Pakistan, Pākistān, Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Jamhūryat Islāmī Pākistān
Useful information

International license plate code PK
International dialling code 0092
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side left
Internet code .pk

GMT  +5
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Islāmābād 22.3; Karachi 25.9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Islāmābād 10.5/32.5; Karachi 19/30
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Islāmābād 10/7; Karachi 8/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Islāmābād 361; Karachi 203
Days of rainfall (annual average) Islāmābād 27; Karachi 10

Politics and current affairs

Despite the economic recovery of 2021, the social effects of the recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic remain severe, with over two million people ending up in poverty.

Geography.
Pakistan is bordered to the north-east by China, to the east and south-east by India, to the south-west by Iran, to the northwest by Afghanistan, and to the south by the Arabian Sea. In the north it is enclosed by offshoots of the western Himalayas and the Karakoram, Hindu Kush and Pamir ranges. The highest peak is K2 (8611 m).
Balochistān in the west is also mountainous. The Punjab, the most fertile area, comprises the valleys of the River Indus and its tributaries.

Government


Pakistan gained independence from the British Empire on 18 July 1947 when India was split to create Pakistan (with a Muslim majority population) and the Union (Dominion) of India (with a Hindu-majority population). The split led to bitter conflict and massive population shifts (ten million Hindus from Pakistan to India, seven million Muslims in the opposite direction). After a bloody civil war, Pakistan separated from its eastern province (now Bangladesh) in 1971.
Conflict between Pakistan and the Union of India began as early as 1947-48 with the war in Kashmir, the region which both sides laid claim to. Other wars would follow (1965-66, 1971) and a separatist guerrilla war supported by Pakistan is still being fought. India and Pakistan resumed normal diplomatic relations in 2003 after both had launched missiles with nuclear capability as a show of strength.
Politically, Pakistan has seen an alternation of military regimes and no less authoritarian civilian governments. In 1977, General Mohammed Zia ousted Ali Bhutto, who had become prime minister in 1970 after the first federal elections in the country. The elections in 1988 brought his daughter, Benazir Bhutto, to power but her government quickly fell owing to ethnic conflict in the Sindh province that also engineered the downfalls of later governments.
A military coup on 12 October 1999 brought Pervez Musharraf to power. Having deposed the prime minister, Nawaz Sharif, he suspended the Constitution and dissolved the parliament and provincial governments. The military coup was subsequently declared “legal” by the Supreme Court in 2000 and a popular referendum in 2002 conferred a veneer of legitimacy on the Musharraf regime. Following the elections in 2008, in the run-up to which Benazir Bhutto was murdered (27 December 2007), Musharraf chose to resign (18 August 2008) to avoid impeachment.
The country is troubled by frequent attacks on religious minorities (in particular Shi’ites, Christians and Sufis). In the NWFP (North-West Frontier Province) and the tribal areas (Wazīristān), which are permeated by Afghan Taliban groups and other radical Islamic factions, air attacks by the United States forces have led to numerous civilian casualties, fuelling hostility towards foreign troops and the government. Autonomist guerrilla warfare by ethnic-based armed groups is under way in the Balochistān province.
Under the Constitution of 1973, amended numerous times, Pakistan is a parliamentary republic with a President elected for five years by both houses of Parliament and the provincial assemblies. The Parliament consists of the Senate with 104 members (92 elected by the provincial assemblies, 4 representing the federal capital and 8 representing tribal territories) with a term lasting for 6 years and renewed for half that time every 3 years, and of the National Assembly with 342 members (272 of whom are elective, 60 strictly women and 10 minorities) elected for a five-year term.


Defence.
The country possesses nuclear weapons and tactical missiles; it has never signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.


Justice.
The judicial system is based on British Common Law and Islamic sharia law introduced in some north-western areas in 2009.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force10.9%2015
Army85.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes329.2per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides4$per 100 000 pop.2017
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Karāchi14 884 402inhab.2017
Lahore11 119 985inhab.2017
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Karāchi14 884 402inhab.2017
Lahore11 119 985inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

There are over 1.4 million Afghan refugees in the country.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate27.8412019
Death rate6.8932019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Punjabi38.8%2017
Pashtun18.2%2017


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim96.5%2017
Hindu1.7%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Urdu (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years35.9%2020
15-29 years27.4%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
After the recession caused by the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, the second half of 2020 saw a slow recovery of the economy, driven by domestic consumption, remittances from emigrants and investments in some manufacturing sectors. To aid credit access the central bank lowered interest tax, which had previously been kept high in order to keep a lid on inflation, which nevertheless remains high, in particular due to the rise in food prices. Rising prices and the depreciation of the Pakistani rupee have eaten away at the foreign exchange reserves, which makes financing imports difficult and which has already forced the country to borrow from the International Monetary Fund (May 2019). The textile industry, which is the largest export sector, is vulnerable to the fluctuations in international demand and cotton prices. As a whole, economic growth must remain elevated in order to guarantee employment for the rising population. Remittances from emigrants and international aid play an important role.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)127.61index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)117.99index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population72 335 052units2020
Active population, Females20.3%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.7%2020
Unemployment rate, Females25.5%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses8 345 640M LCU2019
Revenues4 933 747M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture36.7%2019
industry25.3%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture23.03%2019
industry20.236%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation6 543.806BN LCU2020
International reserves18 521.734M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Agriculture is concentrated in areas irrigated by the River Indus and its tributaries (Punjab and Sindh). The country produces wheat, rice (mostly exported), sugar cane, cotton and citrus fruits, and local food crops (maize, potatoes, pulses, millet, sorghum) are extremely important. The livestock population is substantial. The main fishing ports are in Karāchi and in the Makrān region.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land40.603%2018
forests4.941%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley54.6851000 t2019
cereals, total43 260.3181000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes4 869.3121000 t2019
roots and tubers, total5 415.1021000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages78.5461000 t2019
carrots and turnips504.4251000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry139.151000 t2019
beans, green7.5051000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes67.9531000 t2019
raisins2.61000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed1.1071000 t2019
groundnuts94.5471000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts9.9171000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ginger0.0081000 t2019
pepper90.41000 t2005
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet38.621000 t2019
sugar cane66 880.0111000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton4 494.6451000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed1.8861000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hempseed0.0051000 t2017
jute0.0111000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples499.491000 t2019
apricots104.7431000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds19.9941000 t2019
pistachios0.6951000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits2 289.2621000 t2019
lemons77.5971000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas135.661000 t2019
dates483.0711000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley56.4831000 ha2019
maize1 413.2461000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes195.6541000 ha2019
sweet potatoes1.6881000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages4.8541000 ha2019
carrots and turnips29.1871000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry200.6361000 ha2019
beans, green1.4931000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape16.3111000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.9841000 ha2019
groundnuts102.9091000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts1.4491000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ginger0.0121000 ha2019
pepper48.41000 ha2005
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet1.0141000 ha2019
sugar cane1 039.7771000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton2 526.9991000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed2.5971000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hempseed0.0081000 ha2017
jute0.011000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples73.9951000 ha2019
apricots19.3721000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds9.6021000 ha2019
pistachios0.1691000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits201.4721000 ha2019
lemons13.5691000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas29.7351000 ha2019
dates104.8361000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber33 593 3492019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle47 8211000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes87 8231000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes40 0021000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep30 8591000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats76 1431000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses5 4171000 heads2019
asses and mules5 6131000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels1 0901000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds1 324 8671000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey4.4951000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter1 024.4531000 t2018
condensed milk3 862t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs40 487t2019
freshwater fishes304 560t2019
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Minerals


Secondary
sector
Minerals.

The country has good energy resources: oil and natural gas are extracted in Balochistān, Punjab and Sindh, whereas the main coal deposits are concentrated in Sindh. There is a wide variety of mineral resources, especially copper, iron ore, barite, salt, gypsum, aragonite and marble.
Energy and industry.
Electricity generation is insufficient for the needs of the country and is mainly obtained from fossil fuels (especially natural gas) and hydroelectric plants, the largest of which is active at Tarbela on the River Indus. Six nuclear power reactors are operational at Karāchi and Chashma, with one more being built.
Most industries exist to satisfy domestic demand. The largest oil refineries are located in Korangi, Morgāh (near Rāwalpindi), Mahmūd Kot (near Multān) and in Karāchi, where regasification terminals are also active.
The chemical works at Multān and Faisalabad mostly produce nitrogenous fertilizers. The main iron and steel works are at Karāchi and Lahore. Cement production at Karāchi, Sukkur, Rohri, Miānwāli and Hyderābād also important. However, the largest industry is cotton textiles (Karāchi, Faisalabad, Hyderābād) which also generate modest exports. There are also wool factories at Karāchi and Bannu. Mechanical engineering consists mainly of ship-building and motor-vehicle assembly. There are many sugar refineries at Punjab, Sindh and North-West Frontier provinces.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal3 3171000 t2018
coal, total7 740.61000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony0.031000 t2019
bauxite1251000 t2019
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite1101000 t2020
bentonite53.11000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aragonite6 335.71000 t2018
aragonite and marble8 5761000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
emeralds - kg3.7kg2018
gold1 600kg2012
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal90 488.16M kWh2018
- hydro37 006.2M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal22 8001000 kW2018
- hydro9 8741000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation143 985.76M kWh2018
total installed capacity35 143.541000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coke, metall.139.71000 t2017
lead1$1000 t2018
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes186 836no.2018
cars95 504no.2020
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
TVs396 999no.2018
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen2881000 t2018
petrol2 171.91000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia3 1001000 t2020
caustic soda276.51000 t2018
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics1 044.4M m²2018
cotton yarn3 430.51000 t2018
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear24 847 000pairs2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley3$1000 t2018
coconut oil4.91000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes59 058M units2018
cigars and cigarettes59 058M units2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp41$1000 t2019
chemi-mechanical pulp82$1000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement40 8301000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production2 497.9M US$2006
food, beverages and tobacco production4 000.8M US$2006
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Trade


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017) apparel and household linens 8 937, cotton 3 498, rice 1 743, leather goods 632, fruit and vegetables 527, sugar and derived products 512, technical and electro-medical appliances 411, fish 407, alcoholic beverages 381, hides and skins 335


Finance and banking.
The financial system is overseen by the Pakistan Central Bank. The Stock Exchange is in Karāchi.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures73.944% of goods exports2019
food products20.675% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States4 141M US$2020
China1 867M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China12 486M US$2020
United Arab Emirates4 474M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202021 976M US$ -
201923 334M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202045 847M US$ -
201950 349M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures3 000M US$2019
Number of arrivals965 000units2014
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Communications


In 2015, an agreement was signed with China for a vast infrastructure investment plan aimed at connecting China with the Arabian Sea (China-Pakistan Economic Corridor), ending at the Port of Gwādar, where a special economic zone is developing.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown79 500 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried7 420.41000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers8.131per 1000 pop.2019
Computers5.2per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Income disparities are still very high, despite the fact that economic growth has favoured a consistent decline in poverty in recent years.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling8.276years2018
Gradautes, percentage2.6%2005-06
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level22 931 305units2018
Students, secondary level13 357 618units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending0.1% of total expenses2011
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.64per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians1.06per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2019
Malaria413 533cases2019
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Archaeological sites13$units2018
Archaeological sites, visitors6 636 623units2018
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.236% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking49.1%2019
Access to electricity73.914%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear7.5%2018-19
education4$%2018-19
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