Form of Government: Sultanate
Area: 309 980 sq km
Population: 4 471 148 inhab. (census 2020)
Density: 14.42 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 26° - 17° N; long. 52° - 60° E
Capital: Muscat=Masqaț (capital) 31 409 inhab. (2020); Mascate=Masqaț 1 302 440 inhab. (2020), urban agglomeration
Currency: Omani rial (1000 baiza)
Human development index: 0.813 (rank: 60)
Sovereign: Sultan Haitham bin Ṭāriq bin Taimūr Āl Sa‘īd, since 11 January 2020
Internet: www.ncsi.gov.om (National Center for Statistics)
Member of Arab League, GCC, OIC, UN, WTO

Oman

‘Umān, Salțanat ‘Umān
Useful information

International license plate code OM
International dialling code 00968
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 220/240
Driving side rigth
Internet code .om

GMT  +4
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Mascate 28.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Mascate 22/33
Annual average precipitation (mm) Mascate 109
Days of rainfall (annual average) Mascate 8

Geography.
Oman is bordered to the south-west by Yemen, to the west by Saudi Arabia and to the northwest by the UAE. Its coasts are formed to the north-east by the Gulf of Oman, to the east by the Arabian Sea and to the south by the Indian Ocean. The Kuria Muria Islands (78 km²) became a part of Oman in 1967. The Madha and Musandam peninsula exclaves are surrounded by the UAE on their land borders.

Government


A British protectorate from 1891 to 1971, Oman has been ruled by the Āl-Bū-Sa‘īd dynasty since the 18th century. It has an absolute monarchy; the Sultan controls the state using the Council of Oman, formed by the Consultative Assembly (86 members elected for four years) and the Council of State (up to 85 royally appointed members). Political parties are not allowed. The right to vote is acquired at the age of 21 (military and law enforcement members are allowed to vote at a younger age).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force11.7%2015
Army58.7%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes313.3per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides0.7per 100 000 pop.2014
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
As-Sīb479 893inhab.2020
Bawshar383 257inhab.2020
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Mascate=Masqaț1 302 440inhab.2020
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate18.5132019
Death rate2.4222019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Arab55.3%2000
Indo-Pakistani31.7%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim85.9%2010
Christian6.5%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years29.9%2020
15-29 years27.6%2020


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Economy


The economy is essentially oil-based, thanks to the presence of many oil fields connected by a network of pipelines to the refineries at Mīnā’ al Faḥl and Ṣuḥār (a third is being built at Ad-Duqm). Natural gas, often extracted in the oil production areas, is sent to the liquefaction plant at Qalhāt before being exported. Other mineral products include chromite, copper, gold, gypsum and marble. There are metal-working plants and cement works. Fishing is also important (sardines, tuna).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)143.69index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)132.79index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 677 983units2020
Active population, Females12.7%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5$%2020
Unemployment rate, Females56.8%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses13 063.6M LCU2019
Revenues10 410.1M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture4.6%2019
industry32.8%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.258%2019
industry51.552%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation1.611BN LCU2019
International reserves15 007.357M US$2020
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land0.352%2018
forests0.008%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1.6771000 t2019
cereals, total65.3751000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes15.7661000 t2019
roots and tubers, total15.7661000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages20.2421000 t2019
carrots and turnips18.3031000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane1.4371000 t2019
tobacco1.1641000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total510.4731000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits7.1891000 t2019
lemons7.1891000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas18.4471000 t2019
dates372.5721000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley0.6131000 ha2019
maize1.0271000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes0.5821000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.6691000 ha2019
carrots and turnips0.5821000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane0.1361000 ha2019
tobacco0.2561000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits1.4141000 ha2019
lemons1.4141000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas1.5751000 ha2019
dates25.3821000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber50 1152019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle404.8511000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes404.8511000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep617.3941000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats2 348.2771000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses22.6231000 heads2019
asses and mules22.6231000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels273.491000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds4 9091000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.6161000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.9551000 t2018
cheese3.2131000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs16 469t2019
freshwater fishes192t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas36 930.4M m³2020
oil, crude47 3271000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chromite6901000 t2019
copper8$1000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clay4601000 t2018
gypsum11 0001000 t2020
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin12.51000 t2019
limestone13 9331000 t2018
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold3$kg2017
silver120kg2017
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal35 406.98M kWh2018
non-renewable electricity generation99.989%2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal8 8201000 kW2018
- other renew.8$1000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation35 410.98M kWh2018
total installed capacity8 8281000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium3911000 t2019
copper22$1000 t2018
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol4 133.81000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1 7001000 t2020
nitrogen fertilizers1 603.81000 t2019
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fish, frozen28.11000 t2003
maize oil12$1000 t2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper4$1000 t2019
paper4$1000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement6 0001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production1 087.781M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production740.704M US$2018
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels75.185% of goods exports2018
manufactures15.762% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United Arab Emirates1 702M US$2010
India889.7M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United Arab Emirates4 828M US$2010
China886.6M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202030 915M US$ -
201938 724M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202020 837M US$ -
201923 507M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures3 387M US$2019
Number of arrivals2 500 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown51 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried11 2401000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers102.442per 1000 pop.2019
Computers169per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.311years2019
Graduates27 651units2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level290 045units2019
Students, secondary level436 578units2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.5per 1000 pop.2019
Physicians2.1per 1000 pop.2019
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2019
HIV, total0.04%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums12$units2019
Museums, visitors408 000units2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.22% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
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