Form of Government: Sultanate
Area: 309 980 sq km
Population: 4 601 706 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 14.85 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 26° - 17° N; long. 52° - 60° E
Capital: Muscat=Masqaț (capital) 290 873 inhab. (2017); Mascate=Masqaț 1 454 518 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Omani rial (1000 baiza)
Human development index: 0.821 (rank: 48)
Sovereign: Sultan Qābūs bin Sa‘īd ‘Āl-Sa‘īd, since 24 July 1970
Internet: www.ncsi.gov.om (National Center for Statistics)
Member of Arab League, GCC, OIC, UN, WTO

Oman

‘Umān, Salțanat ‘Umān
Useful information

International license plate code OM
International dialling code 00968
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 220/240
Driving side rigth
Internet code .om

GMT  +4
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Mascate 28.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Mascate 22/33
Annual average precipitation (mm) Mascate 109
Days of rainfall (annual average) Mascate 8

Geography.
Oman is bordered to the south-west by Yemen, to the west by Saudi Arabia and to the northwest by the UAE. Its coasts are formed to the north-east by the Gulf of Oman, to the east by the Arabian Sea and to the south by the Indian Ocean. The Kuria Muria Islands (78 km²) became a part of Oman in 1967. The Madha and Musandam peninsula exclaves are surrounded by the UAE on their land borders.

Government


A British protectorate from 1891 to 1971, Oman has been ruled by the Āl-Bū-Sa‘īd dynasty since the 18th century.
It has an absolute monarchy; the Sultan controls the state using the Council of Oman, formed by the Consultative Assembly (85 members elected for four years) and the Council of State (up to 85 royally appointed members), which can propose and approve changes in legislation, but is subject to the Sultan’s power; political parties are not allowed.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force11.7%2015
Army58.7%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes313.3per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides0.7per 100 000 pop.2014
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Bawshar477 121inhab.2018
As-Sīb465 607inhab.2018
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Mascate=Masqaț1 454 518inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate19.82017
Death rate1.92017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Arab55.3%2000
Indo-Pakistani31.7%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim85.9%2010
Christian6.5%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years30.1%2018
15-29 years28.7%2018


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Economy


The economy is essentially oil-based, thanks to the presence of many oil fields (Yibāl, Al Ghābah, Hābūr, Fuhūd, al Khuwayr, Marmūl, Qarn Alam) connected by a network of pipelines to the refineries at Mīnā’ al Faḥl and Ṣuḥār. Natural gas, often extracted in the oil production areas, is sent to the liquefaction plant at Qalhāt before being exported. Other mineral products include chromite, copper, gold, gypsum and marble. There are metal-working plants (Rusayl, Ṣuḥār) and cement works (Al-Buraymī, Rusayl, Ṣalālah, Ṣuḥār). Fishing is also important (sardines, tuna). Tourism is on the rise.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)143.69index2016
Balance of trade21 225.6M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 711 530units2018
Active population, Females12.8%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate16%2017
Unemployment rate, Females52.9%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses13 599.2M LCU2018
Revenues10 949.6M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture4.7%2018
industry36.2%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.2%2017
industry47.9%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation1.605BN LCU2018
International reserves17 388.4M US$2018
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land0.22%2015
forests0.01%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1.6951000 t2017
cereals, total63.4111000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes15.7371000 t2017
roots and tubers, total15.7371000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages20.9081000 t2017
carrots and turnips16.4941000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane1.1841000 t2017
tobacco1.1431000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total395.8421000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits6.341000 t2017
lemons6.341000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas18.3971000 t2017
dates360.9171000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley0.6061000 ha2017
maize1.0211000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes0.5851000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.6451000 ha2017
carrots and turnips0.5351000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane0.0511000 ha2017
tobacco0.2541000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits1.3021000 ha2017
lemons1.3021000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas1.5641000 ha2017
dates24.6171000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber47 6792017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle389.131000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes389.131000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep593.421000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats2 257.091000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses23.131000 heads2017
asses and mules23.131000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels262.871000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds4 7761000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.2441000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.7551000 t2014
cheese2.3351000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs10 383t2017
freshwater fishes77.248t2017
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas36 322M m³2017
oil, crude48 805.11000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chromite5701000 t2017
copper81000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clay2861000 t2015
gypsum5 5001000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin1701000 t2016
limestone12 1561000 t2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal32 157.4M kWh2016
non-renewable electricity generation100%2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal8 1651000 kW2016
- other renew.21000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation32 157.4M kWh2016
total installed capacity8 1671000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium2531000 t2017
copper161000 t2015
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol4 133.81000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1 7001000 t2018
nitrogen fertilizers1 5001000 t2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fish, frozen28.11000 t2003
maize oil5.61000 t2014
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper41000 t2017
paper41000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement5 0001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production3 134.5M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production2 566.3M US$2016
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels73.704% of goods exports2017
manufactures15.804% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United Arab Emirates1 702M US$2010
India889.7M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United Arab Emirates4 828M US$2010
China886.6M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201846 637M US$ -
201732 904M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201825 412M US$ -
201726 435M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures2 916M US$2017
Number of arrivals2 372 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown51 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried9 0651000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers75.260per 1000 pop.2017
Computers169per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.7years2016
Graduates28 419units2018
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level37 916units2017
Teachers, secondary level29 653units2017
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.5per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians2per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.2% of adults2014
HIV, total0.04%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums12units2018
Museums, visitors367 000units2018
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.2% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking95.22%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
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