Form of Government: Sultanate
Area: 309 980 sq km
Population: 4 559 963 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 14.71 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 26° - 17° N; long. 52° - 60° E
Capital: Muscat=Masqaț (capital) 290 873 inhab. (2017); Mascate=Masqaț 775 878 inhab. (2014), urban agglomeration
Currency: Omani rial (1000 baiza)
Human development index: 0.796 (rank: 52)
Sovereign: Sultan Qābūs bin Sa‘īd ‘Āl-Sa‘īd, since 24 July 1970
Internet: www.ncsi.gov.om (National Center for Statistics)
Member of Arab League, GCC, OIC, UN, WTO

Oman

‘Umān, Salțanat ‘Umān
Useful information

International license plate code OM
International dialling code 00968
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 220/240
Driving side rigth
Internet code .om

GMT  +4
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Mascate 28.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Mascate 22/33
Annual average precipitation (mm) Mascate 109
Days of rainfall (annual average) Mascate 8

Geography.
Oman is bordered to the south-west by Yemen, to the west by Saudi Arabia and to the northwest by the UAE. Its coasts are formed to the north-east by the Gulf of Oman, to the east by the Arabian Sea and to the south by the Indian Ocean. The Kuria Muria Islands (78 km²) became a part of Oman in 1967. The Madha and Musandam peninsula exclaves are surrounded by the UAE on their land borders.

Government


A British protectorate from 1891 to 1971, Oman has been ruled by the Āl-Bū-Sa‘īd dynasty since the 18th century.
It has an absolute monarchy; the Sultan controls the state using the Council of Oman, formed by the Consultative Assembly (85 members elected for four years) and the Council of State (up to 85 royally appointed members), which can propose and approve changes in legislation, but is subject to the Sultan’s power; political parties are not allowed.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force11.7%2015
Army58.7%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes512.6per 100 000 pop.2016
Homicides0.7per 100 000 pop.2014
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
As-Sīb404 279inhab.2017
Bawshar394 631inhab.2017
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Mascate=Masqaț775 878inhab.2014
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate202016
Death rate22016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Arab55.3%2000
Indo-Pakistani31.7%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim85.9%2010
Christian6.5%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years30.1%2017
15-29 years29.3%2017


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Economy


The economy is essentially oil-based, thanks to the presence of many oil fields (Yibāl, Al Ghābah, Hābūr, Fuhūd, al Khuwayr, Marmūl, Qarn Alam) connected by a network of pipelines to the refineries at Mīnā’ al Faḥl and Ṣuḥār. Natural gas, often extracted in the oil production areas, is sent to the liquefaction plant at Qalhāt before being exported. Other mineral products include chromite, copper, gold, gypsum and marble. There are metal-working plants (Rusayl, Ṣuḥār) and cement works (Al-Buraymī, Rusayl, Ṣalālah, Ṣuḥār). Fishing is also important (sardines, tuna). Tourism is on the rise.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)143.69index2016
Balance of trade2 284M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 544 134units2017
Active population, Females12.9%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate16%2017
Unemployment rate, Females25.3%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses13 698.9M LCU2015
Revenues9 067.5M LCU2015
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture6.5%2017
industry38.2%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture1.3%2016
industry58.3%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation1.647BN LCU2016
International reserves16 088.8M US$2017
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land0.22%2015
forests0.01%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1.5911000 t2016
cereals, total17.7821000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes13.2331000 t2016
roots and tubers, total13.2331000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages10.141000 t2016
carrots and turnips3.0761000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane1.1861000 t2016
tobacco1.1441000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total395.8421000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits6.1991000 t2016
lemons6.1991000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas16.5781000 t2016
dates348.6421000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley0.6071000 ha2016
maize1.0071000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes0.51000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.4491000 ha2016
carrots and turnips0.2551000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane0.0511000 ha2016
tobacco0.2621000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits1.2081000 ha2016
lemons1.2081000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas1.4211000 ha2016
dates24.121000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber46 5052016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle381.541000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes381.541000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep573.0451000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats2 212.1961000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses23.4661000 heads2016
asses and mules23.4661000 heads2016
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels245.9071000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds4 7721000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.2441000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.7551000 t2014
cheese2.3351000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs8 948t2016
freshwater fishes33t2016
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas36 322M m³2017
oil, crude48 396.81000 t2017
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chromite7001000 t2015
copper81000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clay3051000 t2014
gypsum6 0001000 t2017
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin671000 t2014
limestone8 7241000 t2014
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal30 792.52M kWh2015
non-renewable electricity generation100%2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal7 8681000 kW2015
- other renew.11000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation30 792.52M kWh2015
total installed capacity7 8691000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium3861000 t2016
copper161000 t2015
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol4 133.81000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1 7001000 t2017
nitrogen fertilizers670.21000 t2014
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fish, frozen28.11000 t2003
maize oil5.61000 t2014
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper41000 t2016
paper41000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement5 3001000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production3 760.7M US$2014
food, beverages and tobacco production539.7M US$2014
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels62.531% of goods exports2016
manufactures17.981% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United Arab Emirates1 702M US$2010
India889.7M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United Arab Emirates4 828M US$2010
China886.6M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201729 440.880M US$ -
201624 454.713M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201727 157.348M US$ -
201623 260.012M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures2 643M US$2016
Number of arrivals2 292 000units2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown51 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried9 0651000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers75.260per 1000 pop.2017
Computers169per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.7years2016
Graduates23 163units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level45 792units2012
Teachers, secondary level21 768units2009
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.6per 1000 pop.2015
Physicians1.9per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.2% of adults2014
HIV, total0.04%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums10units2015
Museums, visitors242 000units2015
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.25% of GDP2015
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking95.22%2016
Access to electricity100%2016
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