Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy
Area: 267 064 sq km
Population: 5 084 300 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 19.04 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 33° - 53° S; long. 162° E - 173° W
Capital: Wellington (capital) 216 200 inhab. (2020); Wellington 436 100 inhab. (2020), urban agglomeration
Currency: New Zealand dollar (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.931 (rank: 14)
Head of State: The British Sovereign
Prime Minister: Jacinda Ardern (NZLP), since 26 October 2017
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 17 October 2020: NZLP (New Zealand Labour Party), 65; NZNP (New Zealand National Party, conservative), 33; Green Party, 10; ACT New Zealand (liberal), 10; Māori Party, 2
Internet: www.stats.govt.nz (Statistics New Zealand)
Member of ANZUS, APEC, Commonwealth, EBRD, OECD, SPC, UN, WTO

New Zealand

New Zealand, Aotearoa
Useful information

International license plate code NZ
International dialling code 0064
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230/240
Driving side left
Internet code .nz

GMT Wellington +12; Chatham Islands +12.45
DST Wellington +13; Chatham Islands +13.45
DST duration (start-end) late September-early April

Annual average temperature (°C) Wellington 12.9; Auckland 15.1
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Wellington 17/8.5; Auckland 19/10.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Wellington 5/9; Auckland 4/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Wellington 1260; Auckland 1265
Days of rainfall (annual average) Wellington 125; Auckland 137

Politics and current affairs

In the legislative elections of 17 October 2020, the Labour Party, already in government, obtained 50% of the votes. The result was influenced by the excellent management of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Geography.
An archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, overlooking the Tasman Sea to the west and having a highly indented coastline. It comprises two main islands separated by the Cook Strait, plus numerous smaller islands. The North Island, morphologically uneven, reaches its highest point at Ruapehu (2797 m). The South Island is traversed by the Southern Alps (highest peak Aoraki/Mt. Cook, 3754 m) and is famous for its geysers. The longest rivers are the Waikato (North Island) and the Clutha and the Waitaki (South Island). The climate produces wet conditions and strong winds on the western coasts. The austral summers are hot, though always rather humid.

Government


Formerly a British colony, New Zealand became a dominion in 1907 and an independent Commonwealth state in 1931. The Labour and National parties have alternated in government since 1940. In 1997 the government paid compensation to the Māoris for its violations of the Treaty of Waitangi (1840) by which the British Crown attained sovereignty over the archipelago. In 2003, New Zealand took part in the RAMSI (Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands) programme and sent a military contingent (now withdrawn) to Iraq. New Zealand has no written constitution. The British Sovereign is represented by a Governor General.
The government answers to the House of Representatives of 120 members, elected by direct suffrage for three years.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force26.8%2015
Army50.3%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes10 009.2per 100 000 pop.2014
Homicides0.9per 100 000 pop.2014
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Auckland525 900inhab.2018
Manukau (Southern Auckland)478 400inhab.2018
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Auckland1 717 500inhab.2020
Wellington436 100inhab.2020
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate11.32020
Death rate6.42020
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
European70.2%2018
Māori16.5%2018


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nonreligious/atheist48.2%2018
Catholic10$%2018


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Māori (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years19.6%2020
15-29 years20.2%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
In 2021, the economy recovered from the recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic due to internal consumption (which increased due to raising the minimum salary) and construction, boosted by higher real estate prices.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)117.31index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)100.78index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 864 075units2020
Active population, Females47$%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.6%2020
Unemployment rate, Females51$%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses106 935M LCU2019
Revenues116 910M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture5.994%2020
industry20.381%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture6.083%2019
industry22.327%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation8.551BN LCU2020
International reserves13 733.289M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The main crops are cereals, vegetables and fruit (citrus, apples, grapes and kiwi fruits). Livestock farming, especially sheep, is more important and produces large quantities of meat, dairy products and wool. Fishing (cod) and Fish-farming (shellfish and salmon) are well developed.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land2.119%2018
forests37.428%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley383.6511000 t2019
cereals, total1 017.8671000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes513.5321000 t2019
roots and tubers, total525.5821000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus2.0471000 t2019
cabbages72.6911000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green6.061000 t2019
lentils2.0871000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes417.91000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed0.8881000 t2019
soybeans0$1000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.8821000 t2019
tobacco0$1000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed2.5191000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples553.6061000 t2019
apricots2.8121000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits24.81000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes8.5831000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados34.3681000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms1.541000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley55.4571000 ha2019
maize16.71000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes10.3171000 ha2019
sweet potatoes1.2021000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1.0661000 ha2019
carrots and turnips1.7271000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.6481000 ha2019
lentils0.771000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape35.971000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed0.4381000 ha2019
soybeans0$1000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.3431000 ha2019
tobacco0$1000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed1.911000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples9.761000 ha2019
apricots0.3851000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
walnuts0.3681000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits2.7891000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes1.0271000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados4.521000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.0091000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber35 969 0002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle10 150.5911000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes10 150.5911000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs255.9341000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep26 821.8461000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats93.6061000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total38.4451000 heads2019
horses38.4451000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds25 0691000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey23$1000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter5021000 t2018
cheese3801000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals26.983t2019
crustaceans and molluscs152 312.273t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector.
The main industry is coal mining (deposits at Buller, Reefton, Garvey Creek, Inangahua, Otago, Ohai, Greymouth, Waikato and Waimumu). There are also oilfields and natural gas reserves (Taranaki basin), and deposits of gold (Otago, Reefton, Waihi), silver (Hauraki), iron ore (Waikato, Taharoa) and salt. The largest hydroelectric plants are at Manapouri, Ohau, Benmore, Clyde, Maraetai and Roxburgh. There are important thermal power stations at Huntly, Stratford, Whirinaki and New Plymouth, and geothermal plants at Taupo and Kawerau. Renewable energy production meets approximately 70% of requirements. North Island and South Island are connected by a submarine power line under the Cook Strait.
The major industrial assets are the oil refinery at Marsden Point (near Whangarei), an aluminium foundry (Bluff), two steelworks (Glenbrook and Otahuhu), and a number of chemical works (Whangarei, Awarua, New Plymouth and Otahuhu). Cement works are active at Whangarei and Tauranga. Other industries include agro-food, textiles, IT sector and boat-building (for sport, tourism and recreational purposes, especially at Whangarei and Auckland).

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal2 931.21000 t2018
coal, total2 818.71000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
iron ore4 0001000 t2019
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite0.7621000 t2013
salt1001000 t2017
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite40$1000 t2020
dolomite25.31000 t2018
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold10 500kg2018
silver5 000kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro25 327.17M kWh2019
- other renew.10 442.07M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro5 3811000 kW2019
- thermal2 093.491000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation43 421.78M kWh2019
total installed capacity9 353.491000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium3511000 t2019
aluminium, primary3511000 t2019
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen66$1000 t2018
petrol2 556.61000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1251000 t2019
nitrogen fertilizers1041000 t2019
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets13 5341000 m²2003
wool yarn21.71000 t2005
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley292.61000 t2018
fish, frozen177.41000 t2003
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes360.4M units2009
tobacco148t2009
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp765.4231000 t2019
chemi-mechanical pulp1 415.2941000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement4501000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production1 058.424M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production8 137.616M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector.
Imports include machinery, basic manufactured goods and hydrocarbons. The central bank is the Reserve Bank of New Zealand, and there is a stock exchange in Wellington.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017)
milk and dairy products 9 917, meat 4 697, timber 3 299, fruit and vegetables 2 202, wine 1 198, fresh and preserved fish 1 193, machinery 1 166, malt extract 897, food preparations 893, aluminium 794, electrical and electronic equipment 737, casein 639, technical and electro-medical appliances 627, wood pulp 591

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products65.027% of goods exports2019
manufactures15.203% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China10 789M US$2020
Australia5 286M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China8 368M US$2020
Australia4 482M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202038 900M US$ -
201939 517M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202037 192M US$ -
201942 363M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures4 408M US$2019
Number of arrivals3 702 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown176 100 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried17 763.61000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers347.239per 1000 pop.2018
Computers526per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education and research.
Education is compulsory from 6 to 17 years. In primary and secondary schools there are bilingual classes in English and Māori, as well as classes where only Māori is used.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling18.879years2018
Gradautes, percentage39.066%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level388 279units2018
Students, secondary level489 898.707units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending29.3% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending19.389% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.57per 1000 pop.2019
Physicians3.35per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2019
HIV, total0.03%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.347% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear2.8%2015-16
education1.6%2015-16
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