Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy
Area: 267 064 sq km
Population: 4 885 550 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 18.29 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 33° - 53° S; long. 162° E - 173° W
Capital: Wellington (capital) 215 400 inhab. (2018); Wellington 418 500 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: New Zealand dollar (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.917 (rank: 16)
Head of State: The British Sovereign
Prime Minister: Jacinda Ardern (NZLP), since 26 October 2017
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 23 September 2017: NZNP (New Zealand National Party, conservative), 56; NZLP (New Zealand Labour Party), 46; New Zealand First (nationalist), 9; Green Party, 8; ACT New Zealand (liberal), 1
Internet: www.stats.govt.nz (Statistics New Zealand)
Member of ANZUS, APEC, Commonwealth, EBRD, OECD, SPC, UN, WTO

New Zealand

New Zealand, Aotearoa
Useful information

International license plate code NZ
International dialling code 0064
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230/240
Driving side left
Internet code .nz

GMT Wellington +12; Chatham Islands +12.45
DST Wellington +13; Chatham Islands +13.45
DST duration (start-end) late September-early April

Annual average temperature (°C) Wellington 12.9; Auckland 15.1
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Wellington 17/8.5; Auckland 19/10.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Wellington 5/9; Auckland 4/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Wellington 1260; Auckland 1265
Days of rainfall (annual average) Wellington 125; Auckland 137

Politics and current affairs

On 15 March 2019, an Australian citizen attacked two mosques in Christchurch, killing 51 people.

Geography.
An archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, overlooking the Tasman Sea to the west and having a highly indented coastline. It comprises two main islands separated by the Cook Strait, plus numerous smaller islands.
The North Island, morphologically uneven, reaches its highest point at Ruapehu (2797 m). The South Island is traversed by the Southern Alps (highest peak Aoraki/Mount Cook, 3754 m) and is famous for its geysers.
The longest rivers are the Waikato (North Island) and the Clutha and the Waitaki (South Island). The climate produces wet conditions and strong winds on the western coasts. The austral summers are hot, though always rather humid.

Government


Formerly a British colony, New Zealand became a dominion in 1907 and an independent Commonwealth state in 1931. The Labour and National parties have alternated in government since 1940. In 1997 the government paid compensation to the Māoris for its violations of the Treaty of Waitangi (1840) by which the British Crown attained sovereignty over the archipelago. In 2003, New Zealand took part in the RAMSI (Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands) programme and sent a military contingent (now withdrawn) to Iraq. New Zealand has no written constitution. The British Sovereign is represented by a Governor General.
The government answers to the House of Representatives of 120 members, elected by direct suffrage for three years.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force26.8%2015
Army50.3%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes10 009.2per 100 000 pop.2014
Homicides0.9per 100 000 pop.2014
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Auckland525 900inhab.2018
Manukau (Southern Auckland)478 400inhab.2018
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Auckland1 570 100inhab.2018
Wellington418 500inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate11.92018
Death rate6.82018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
European74%2013
Māori14.9%2013


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nonreligious/atheist38.6%2013
other religions12.8%2013


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Māori (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years19.6%2018
15-29 years20%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
Growth has been good since 2010, supported by government incentives and recovery in exports and internal consumption, although it is still sensitive to foreign demand. Unemployment is in gradual decline, but has still not returned to levels prior to the 2008-09 recession.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)117.31index2016
Balance of trade-4 080.1M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 753 825units2018
Active population, Females47.5%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.3%2018
Unemployment rate, Females49.4%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses93 949M LCU2017
Revenues93 949M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture5.8%2018
industry19.8%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture5.4%2017
industry22.9%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation60.3BN LCU2016
International reserves17 656.6M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The main crops are cereals, vegetables and fruit (citrus, apples, grapes and kiwi fruits). Livestock farming, especially sheep, is more important and produces large quantities of meat, dairy products and wool. Fishing (cod) and Fish-farming (shellfish and salmon) are well developed.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land2.5%2015
forests38.56%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley297.5991000 t2017
cereals, total936.9951000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes465.9861000 t2017
roots and tubers, total477.1981000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus2.5961000 t2017
cabbages54.6961000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green3.7191000 t2017
lentils2.2221000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes3961000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed2.5391000 t2017
soybeans01000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.8721000 t2017
tobacco01000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed2.4421000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples454.0911000 t2017
apricots3.2241000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits30.2991000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes8.6771000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados23.7161000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms1.4971000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley41.9671000 ha2017
maize17.4591000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes9.451000 ha2017
sweet potatoes1.1411000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.8041000 ha2017
carrots and turnips1.8511000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.631000 ha2017
lentils0.8521000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape33.9811000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed1.2231000 ha2017
soybeans01000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.3381000 ha2017
tobacco01000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed1.9511000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples8.6151000 ha2017
apricots0.4451000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
walnuts0.4551000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits2.6481000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes0.9861000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados3.9791000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.0081000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber29 097 0002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle10 145.9021000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes10 145.9021000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs273.861000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep27 526.5371000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats98.8121000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total43.6841000 heads2017
horses43.6841000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds24 1091000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey17.6081000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter4721000 t2014
cheese3251000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals41.801t2017
crustaceans and molluscs129 403.005t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector.
The main industry is coal mining (deposits at Buller, Reefton, Garvey Creek, Inangahua, Otago, Ohai, Greymouth, Waikato and Waimumu). There are also oilfields and natural gas reserves (Taranaki basin), and deposits of gold (Otago, Reefton, Waihi), silver (Hauraki), iron ore (Waikato, Taharoa) and salt. The largest hydroelectric plants are at Manapouri, Ohau, Benmore, Clyde, Maraetai and Roxburgh. There are important thermal power stations at Huntly, Stratford, Whirinaki and New Plymouth, and geothermal plants at Taupo and Kawerau. Renewable energy production meets approximately 70% of requirements. North Island and South Island are connected by a submarine power line under the Cook Strait.
The major industrial assets are the oil refinery at Marsden Point (near Whangarei), an aluminium foundry (Bluff), two steelworks (Glenbrook and Otahuhu), and a number of chemical works (Whangarei, Awarua, New Plymouth and Otahuhu). Cement works are active at Whangarei and Tauranga. Other industries include agro-food, textiles, IT sector and boat-building (for sport, tourism and recreational purposes, especially at Whangarei and Auckland).

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal2 599.11000 t2017
coal, total3 167.21000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
iron ore3 4961000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite0.7621000 t2013
salt1001000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite401000 t2016
dolomite27.11000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold9 866kg2016
silver7 960kg2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro25 657M kWh2016
- other renew.10 433M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro5 3601000 kW2016
- thermal2 1031000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation42 534.64M kWh2016
total installed capacity9 3011000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium3371000 t2017
aluminium, primary3371000 t2017
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1441000 t2016
petrol2 556.61000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1251000 t2016
nitrogen fertilizers109.41000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets13 5341000 m²2003
wool yarn21.71000 t2005
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley282.31000 t2014
fish, frozen177.41000 t2003
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes360.4M units2009
tobacco148t2009
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp1 009.551000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp1 690.1161000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement3601000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production952.2M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production7 320.7M US$2016
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Trade


Tertiary sector.
Imports include machinery, basic manufactured goods and hydrocarbons. The central bank is the Reserve Bank of New Zealand, and there is a stock exchange in Wellington.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017)
milk and dairy products 9 917, meat 4 697, timber 3 299, fruit and vegetables 2 202, wine 1 198, fresh and preserved fish 1 193, machinery 1 166, malt extract 897, food preparations 893, aluminium 794, electrical and electronic equipment 737, casein 639, technical and electro-medical appliances 627, wood pulp 591, gold and jewels 498, iron and steel 468, crude oil 444, wool and its products 391, plastics 351, animal products 341, paper 320, pharmaceuticals 302

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products62.579% of goods exports2018
manufactures16.430% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China9 641M US$2018
Australia6 336M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China8 633M US$2018
Australia5 013M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201839 713M US$ -
201738 063M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201843 793M US$ -
201740 115M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures4 445M US$2017
Number of arrivals3 555 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown176 100 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried16 271.51000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers336.179per 1000 pop.2017
Computers526per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education and research.
Education is compulsory from 6 to 17 years. In primary and secondary schools there are bilingual classes in English and Māori, as well as classes where only Māori is used.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling18.8years2017
Gradautes, percentage37.7%2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level25 762units2017
Teachers, secondary level35 684units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending30.2% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending18.9% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.7per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians3per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2017
HIV, total0.03%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.28% of GDP2015
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear2.8%2015-16
education1.6%2015-16
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