Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy
Area: 267 085 sq km
Population: 4 793 840 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 17.95 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 33° - 53° S; long. 162° E - 173° W
Capital: Wellington (capital) 211 800 inhab. (2017); Wellington 412 500 inhab. (2017), urban agglomeration
Currency: New Zealand dollar (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.915 (rank: 13)
Head of State: The British Sovereign
Prime Minister: Jacinda Ardern (NZLP), since 26 October 2017
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 23 September 2017: NZNP (New Zealand National Party, conservative), 56; NZLP (New Zealand Labour Party), 46; New Zealand First (nationalist), 9; Green Party, 8; ACT New Zealand (liberal), 1
Internet: www.stats.govt.nz (Statistics New Zealand)
Member of ANZUS, APEC, Commonwealth, EBRD, OECD, SPC, UN, WTO

New Zealand

New Zealand, Aotearoa
Useful information

International license plate code NZ
International dialling code 0064
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230/240
Driving side left
Internet code .nz

GMT Wellington +12; Chatham Islands +12.45
DST Wellington +13; Chatham Islands +13.45
DST duration (start-end) late September-early April

Annual average temperature (°C) Wellington 12.9; Auckland 15.1
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Wellington 17/8.5; Auckland 19/10.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Wellington 5/9; Auckland 4/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Wellington 1260; Auckland 1265
Days of rainfall (annual average) Wellington 125; Auckland 137

Politics and current affairs

During the elections on 23 September 2017, the National Party did not obtain the absolute majority, resulting in a coalition between the Labour Party, the Green Party and the nationalist, right New Zealand First.

Geography.
An archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, overlooking the Tasman Sea to the west and having a highly indented coastline. It comprises two main islands separated by the Cook Strait, plus numerous smaller islands.
The North Island, morphologically uneven, reaches its highest point at Ruapehu (2797 m). The South Island is traversed by the Southern Alps (highest peak Aoraki/Mount Cook, 3754 m) and is famous for its geysers.
The longest rivers are the Waikato (North Island) and the Clutha and the Waitaki (South Island). The climate produces wet conditions and strong winds on the western coasts. The austral summers are hot, though always rather humid.

Government


Formerly a British colony, New Zealand became a dominion in 1907 and an independent Commonwealth state in 1931. The Labour and National parties have alternated in government since 1940. In 1997 the government paid compensation to the Māoris for its violations of the Treaty of Waitangi (1840) by which the British Crown attained sovereignty over the archipelago.
In 2003, New Zealand took part in the RAMSI (Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands) programme and sent a military contingent (now withdrawn) to Iraq.
New Zealand has no written constitution. The British Sovereign is represented by a Governor General.
The government answers to the House of Representatives of 120 members, elected by direct suffrage for three years.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force26.8%2015
Army50.3%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes10 009.2per 100 000 pop.2014
Homicides0.9per 100 000 pop.2014
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Auckland512 900inhab.2017
Manukau (Southern Auckland)468 700inhab.2017
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Auckland1 534 700inhab.2017
Wellington412 500inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate12.42017
Death rate6.92017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
European74%2013
Māori14.9%2013


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nonreligious/atheist38.6%2013
other religions12.8%2013


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Māori (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years19.7%2017
15-29 years20.2%2017


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Economy


Economic situation.
Growth has been good since 2010, supported by government incentives and recovery in exports and internal consumption, although it is still sensitive to foreign demand. Unemployment is in gradual decline, but has still not returned to levels prior to the 2008-09 recession.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)117.31index2016
Balance of trade-2 071M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 694 550units2017
Active population, Females47.3%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.7%2017
Unemployment rate, Females52.3%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses86 574M LCU2016
Revenues89 252M LCU2016
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture6.6%2017
industry20.2%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture6%2016
industry23%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation60.3BN LCU2016
International reserves20 683.7M US$2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The main crops are cereals, vegetables and fruit (citrus, apples, grapes and kiwi fruits). Livestock farming, especially sheep, is more important and produces large quantities of meat, dairy products and wool. Fishing (cod) and Fish-farming (shellfish and salmon) are well developed.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land2.5%2015
forests38.56%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley364.1861000 t2016
cereals, total1 096.491000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes526.7731000 t2016
roots and tubers, total538.3941000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus1.5461000 t2016
cabbages50.1871000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green5.151000 t2016
lentils1.9271000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes408.5311000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed2.5891000 t2016
soybeans01000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.8651000 t2016
tobacco01000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed2.4291000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples411.6831000 t2016
apricots2.8311000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits27.5791000 t2016
citrus fruits, nes8.6691000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados27.0031000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms1.741000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley51.8921000 ha2016
maize17.9931000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes10.7531000 ha2016
sweet potatoes1.0931000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.7471000 ha2016
carrots and turnips1.5261000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.8661000 ha2016
lentils0.7441000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape40.1231000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed1.2511000 ha2016
soybeans01000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.3381000 ha2016
tobacco01000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed1.8581000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples7.9141000 ha2016
apricots0.4081000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
walnuts0.5391000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits2.341000 ha2016
citrus fruits, nes0.9581000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados4.5771000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.0091000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber28 663 0002016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle10 151.8541000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes10 151.8541000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs254.6071000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep27 583.6731000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats112.3851000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total48.8011000 heads2016
horses48.8011000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds23 0861000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey17.6081000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter4721000 t2014
cheese3251000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals11.9t2016
crustaceans and molluscs148 185.2t2016
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Minerals


Secondary sector.
The main industry is coal (at Buller, Reefton, Garvey Creek, Otago, Maramarua, Ohai and Greymouth). There are also oilfields (at McKee, Kapuni, Waihapa, Maui, Kaimiro) natural gas reserves (at Taranaki) and deposits of gold (at Waihi and Waitakauri), silver (Hauraki), iron ore (Onekaka), copper (Parakao and Pupuke), scheelite (Otago and Marlborough), bentonite (Porangahau, Coalgate) and salt. The largest hydroelectric plants are at Manapouri, Ohau, Benmore, Clyde, Maraetai, Roxburgh and Ohau. There are important thermal power stations at Huntly, Otahuhu and Taranaki, and geothermal plants at Wairakei and Nga Awa Purua. Wind energy production meets approximately 70% of requirements. North Island and South Island are connected by a submarine power line under the Cook Strait.
The major industrial assets are the oil refinery at Marsden Point (near Whangarei), an aluminium foundry (Bluff), two steelworks (Glenbrook and Otahuhu), and a number of chemical works (Whangarei, Awarua, New Plymouth and Otahuhu). Cement works are active at Whangarei and Tauranga. Other industries include agro-food, textiles, IT sector and boat-building (for sport, tourism and recreational purposes, especially at Whangarei and Auckland).

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal3 065.71000 t2015
coal, total2 944.71000 t2017
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
iron ore3 1941000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite0.7621000 t2013
salt1001000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite27.11000 t2015
kaolin13.71000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold12 687kg2015
silver12 498kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro24 292M kWh2015
- other renew.10 397M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro5 3401000 kW2015
- thermal2 2651000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation42 912.12M kWh2015
total installed capacity9 4541000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium3391000 t2016
aluminium, primary3391000 t2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1021000 t2015
petrol2 556.61000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1251000 t2016
nitrogen fertilizers109.41000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets13 5341000 m²2003
wool yarn21.71000 t2005
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley282.31000 t2014
fish, frozen177.41000 t2003
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes360.4M units2009
tobacco148t2009
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp801.5251000 t2016
chemi-mechanical pulp1 482.8691000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 2001000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production846.6M US$2012
food, beverages and tobacco production6 718.8M US$2012
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Trade


Tertiary sector.
Imports include machinery, basic manufactured goods and hydrocarbons. The central bank is the Reserve Bank of New Zealand, and there is a stock exchange in Wellington.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017)
milk and dairy products 9 917, meat 4 697, timber 3 299, fruit and vegetables 2 202, wine 1 198, fresh and preserved fish 1 193, machinery 1 166, malt extract 897, food preparations 893, aluminium 794, electrical and electronic equipment 737, casein 639, technical and electro-medical appliances 627, wood pulp 591, gold and jewels 498, iron and steel 468, crude oil 444, wool and its products 391, plastics 351, animal products 341, paper 320, pharmaceuticals 302

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products61.200% of goods exports2016
manufactures18.373% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China8 482M US$2017
Australia6 252M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China7 748M US$2017
Australia4 911M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201738 043.504M US$ -
201633 740.175M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201740 114.772M US$ -
201636 062.608M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures4 010M US$2016
Number of arrivals3 370 000units2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown176 100 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried16 271.51000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers336.179per 1000 pop.2017
Computers526per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education and research.
Education is compulsory from 6 to 17 years. In primary and secondary schools there are bilingual classes in English and Māori, as well as classes where only Māori is used.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling18.9years2016
Gradautes, percentage36.3%2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level25 407units2016
Teachers, secondary level35 277units2016
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending30.2% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending19.7% of GDP2015
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.7per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians3per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2011
HIV, total0.03%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.28% of GDP2015
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2016
Access to electricity100%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear2.8%2012-13
education1.6%2012-13
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