Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy
Area: 323 805 sq km
Population: 5 328 212 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 16.46 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 71° - 58° N; long. 5° - 32° E
Capital: Oslo (capital) 681 071 inhab. (2019); Oslo 1 000 467 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Norwegian krone (100 øre)
Human development index: 0.953 (rank: 1)
Sovereign: King Harald V, since 17 January 1991
Prime Minister: Erna Solberg (Conservative Party), since 16 October 2013
Parliament: seats based on the elections of 11 September 2017: AP (Labour Party), 49; H (Conservative Party), 45; FrP (Progress Party, liberal), 27; SP (Centre Part), 19; SV (Socialist Left Party), 11; V (Left Liberal Party), 8; KrF (Christian Democratic Party), 8; others, 2
Internet: www.ssb.no (Statistics Norway)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EFTA, NATO, Nordic Council, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Norway

Norge, Noreg, Kongeriket Norge, Kongeriket Noreg
Useful information

International license plate code N
International dialling code 0047
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .no

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Oslo 6.2; Tromsø 2.9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Oslo -4.5/17.5; Tromsø -4/12.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Oslo 8/1; Tromsø 7/0
Annual average precipitation (mm) Oslo 735; Tromsø 995
Days of rainfall (annual average) Oslo 108; Tromsø 152

Politics and current affairs

On 17 January 2019, Prime Minister Erna Solberg successfully formed a government with a centre-right majority.
In foreign policy, tensions grew with Russia in the Arctic region, which has become increasingly strategic.

Geography.
Extending along the Atlantic shore of the Scandinavian peninsula, Norway is bordered to the north-east by Russia and Finland, to the east by Sweden, to the north by the Arctic Sea and the Barents Sea, to the south by the North Sea and to the west by the Atlantic Ocean.
The highest terrain is in the south-west (Galdhøpiggen, 2469 m), covered with glaciers and scoured by glacial valleys that have filled with seawater to create fiords.
The offshore islands form two archipelagos, the Lofoten Islands and Vesterålen Islands. The largest river is the Glåma, and there are numerous lakes totalling an area of 14 000 km². Despite the high latitude of the country, the climate can be unusually mild owing to the mitigating effect of the North Atlantic Stream.

Government


Joined to Denmark until 1814 and to Sweden until 1905, Norway is now a constitutional monarchy. Labour and centre-right parties (conservatives and Christian democrats) have alternated in power since 1950. Referendums in 1972 and 1994 decided that the country would not join the EEC and EU, though in 1996 it did sign up to the Schengen Treaty allowing free circulation of people within the EU.
Under the 1814 Constitution (amended many times over the decades), legislative power is exercised by the unicameral Parliament (Storting), made up of 169 members elected directly for a four-year term, which casts a vote of confidence for the government (Statsråd), today sustained by a minority conservative coalition, which proposes a ban on niqābs in schools.


Defence.
Military service is compulsory and lasts 12 months, followed by four or five top-up training periods.


Justice.
The judicial system is based on a combination of continental European law and Common Law. In 2015, reform of the criminal law came into effect, allowing for a maximum of 30 years of imprisonment for the most serious crimes.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force14.6%2015
Army35.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes6 003.6per 100 000 pop.2018
Homicides0.5per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Oslo681 071inhab.2019
Bergen281 090inhab.2019
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Oslo1 000 467inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate10.42018
Death rate7.72018
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total584 233units2019
Poles105 192units2019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Norwegian89.3%2018
other9.4%2018


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant71%2017
other14.4%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Bokmål (official)
Nynorsk (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years18%2018
15-29 years19.5%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
The moderate economic growth recorded in 2018 should continue in 2019-20 (+1.4%), supported in part by the rise in energy prices. Unemployment is stably below 4%; the Central Bank has begun to increase interest rates.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)107.09index2016
Balance of trade35 346.4M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 791 900units2018
Active population, Females47%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate3.9%2018
Unemployment rate, Females44%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses1 395 431M LCU2018
Revenues1 673 744M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.1%2018
industry19.5%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.1%2018
industry35.3%2018
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation44.8BN LCU2018
International reserves63 145.5M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
The main crops are cereals (oats, barley, wheat, rye) and, in the south, fruit and vegetables (carrots, apples, plums).
Norway is the least forested of the Scandinavian countries. The most common species is fir, which is used to make mechanical pulp, chemical pulp, cellulose and paper.
Livestock farming, principally sheep, followed by cattle, pigs and fur animals (fox and mink) is well developed. Reindeer are reared by the Laps in the north of the country.
Fishing.
The main catches are cod in the northern seas off the Lofoten Islands, and herring further south. Fish farming is widespread, especially salmon.
Though it initially subscribed to moratorium on whaling introduced by the IWC (International Whaling Commission), Norway now hunts for whales (mainly as food) with an upper limit on catches fixed year by year. As of 2015, government-approved seal hunting was suspended.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land2.22%2015
forests33.16%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley563.81000 t2017
cereals, total1 284.7631000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes314.51000 t2017
roots and tubers, total314.51000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages39.291000 t2017
carrots and turnips47.6541000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.961000 t2017
peas, dry4.061000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed101000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples12.6641000 t2017
blueberries0.0031000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley134.4341000 ha2017
oats67.3321000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes11.6551000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1.4041000 ha2017
carrots and turnips1.5311000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.1251000 ha2017
peas, dry2.6111000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed2.371000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples1.3791000 ha2017
blueberries0.021000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber12 187 0002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle861.0121000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes861.0121000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs811.0471000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep2 393.3481000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats62.3711000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total33.9851000 heads2017
horses33.9851000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds15 2391000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey1.011000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter14.21000 t2014
cheese76.21000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs184 759.838t2017
freshwater fishes470.4t2016
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Norway has large oil and natural gas reserves on the continental shelf under the North Sea; a gas liquefaction terminal is active near Hammerfest. Part of the enormous revenue from exports is invested in a sovereign wealth fund, today aimed at higher transparency regarding the environmental impact of the participating companies. There are also significant deposits of iron ore (Mo i Rana and Sydvaranger, reopened in 2019), copper and nickel (Narvik), titanium (Tellnes), pyrites, olivine and graphite.
Energy and industry.
Almost all the electricity generation is hydroelectric (over 95%).
The main oil refineries are located at Slagen-Valloy and Mongstad, while chemical plants are found at Rjukan, Notodden, Odda and Herøya. Abundant electricity has encouraged the development of the iron and steel industry and the production of other metals (aluminium); zinc production is also sizeable as well as silicon carbide.
Ship-building is highly developed, with yards at Oslo, Moss, Fredrikstad, Stavanger and Bergen.
The main textile centres are Bergen, Oslo, Sandnes and Halden. Other industries include beer and margarine.
The most important fish processing centres are Bergen, Trondheim and Stavanger.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal133.61000 t2017
coal, total133.61000 t2017
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ilmenite2001000 t2018
iron ore3 5201000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
feldspar501000 t2016
graphite161000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite7301000 t2016
limestone5 5471000 t2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro143 006M kWh2016
- thermal2 609.44M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro30 2981000 kW2016
- other renew.1 0851000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation147 739.44M kWh2016
total installed capacity33 8551000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium1 3001000 t2018
aluminium, primary1 2201000 t2016
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ships62 340G.T.2003
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol4 408.71000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia3001000 t2016
nitrogen fertilizers4201000 t2017
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
wool fabrics0.5M m²2007
wool yarn1.61000 t2007
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley239.61000 t2014
fish, frozen918.21000 t2006
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp144.4851000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp9021000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 8501000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production469M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production4 678.5M US$2016
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
The trade balance is extremely healthy.
The main trading partners are the UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and China.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017)
natural gas 26 488, crude oil 25 875, fresh and preserved fish 11 040, petroleum products 5 222, machinery 4 028, aluminium 3 997, electrical and electronic equipment 2 682, chemicals 2 399, iron and steel 2 003, ships and boats 1 593, technical and electro-medical appliances 1 413, nickel 904, vehicles and parts thereof 892, pharmaceuticals 756, electric energy 703, timber 585, aircraft and parts thereof 550, refined zinc 514, furniture and accessories 508, plastics 490, paper 440


Finance and banking.
The Norges Bank acts as the country’s central bank, which manages the sovereign fund. The main merchant banks are privately owned, and there are numerous savings banks. The Stock Exchange is in Oslo.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels57.217% of goods exports2017
manufactures19.120% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United Kingdom26 542M US$2018
Germany19 593M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Sweden10 568M US$2018
Germany9 531M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018122 973M US$ -
2017104 098M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201887 626M US$ -
201782 900M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Tourism is a major source of income and has modern, highly developed infrastructures. The main attractions are the fiords and winter sports resorts.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures17 800M US$2017
Number of arrivals6 252 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown128 000 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried29 905.71000 units2011
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers402.252per 1000 pop.2017
Computers629per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education, culture & research.
Education is compulsory from 7 to 15 years.


Social security and health.
Norway has first-class social services. An equal opportunity law introduced in 2002 stipulates that 40% of the board members of every company should be women.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling18.1years2017
Gradautes, percentage43.2%2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level48 644units2016
Teachers, secondary level50 972units2016
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending40% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending25% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.7per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians4.7per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2017
HIV, total0.04%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums106units2017
Museums, visitors11 224 608units2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending2.09% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.6%2018
education0.5%2018
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