Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy
Area: 323 808 sq km
Population: 5 295 619 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 16.35 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 71° - 58° N; long. 5° - 32° E
Capital: Oslo (capital) 673 469 inhab. (2018); Oslo 988 873 inhab. (2017), urban agglomeration
Currency: Norwegian krone (100 øre)
Human development index: 0.949 (rank: 1)
Sovereign: King Harald V, since 17 January 1991
Prime Minister: Erna Solberg (Conservative Party), since 16 October 2013
Parliament: seats based on the elections of 11 September 2017: AP (Labour Party), 49; H (Conservative Party), 45; FrP (Progress Party, liberal), 27; SP (Centre Part), 19; SV (Socialist Left Party), 11; V (Left Liberal Party), 8; KrF (Christian Democratic Party), 8; Green Party, 1; R (Red Party, far-left), 1
Internet: www.ssb.no (Statistics Norway)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EFTA, NATO, Nordic Council, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Norway

Norge, Noreg, Kongeriket Norge, Kongeriket Noreg
Useful information

International license plate code N
International dialling code 0047
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .no

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Oslo 6.2; Tromsø 2.9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Oslo -4.5/17.5; Tromsø -4/12.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Oslo 8/1; Tromsø 7/0
Annual average precipitation (mm) Oslo 735; Tromsø 995
Days of rainfall (annual average) Oslo 108; Tromsø 152

Geography.
Extending along the Atlantic shore of the Scandinavian peninsula, Norway is bordered to the north-east by Russia and Finland, to the east by Sweden, to the north by the Arctic Sea and the Barents Sea, to the south by the North Sea and to the west by the Atlantic Ocean.
The highest terrain is in the south-west (Galdhøpiggen, 2469 m), covered with glaciers and scoured by glacial valleys that have filled with seawater to create fiords.
The offshore islands form two archipelagos, the Lofoten Islands and Vesterålen Islands. The largest river is the Glåma, and there are numerous lakes totalling an area of 14 000 km². Despite the high latitude of the country, the climate can be unusually mild owing to the mitigating effect of the North Atlantic Stream.

Government


Joined to Denmark until 1814 and to Sweden until 1905, Norway is now a constitutional monarchy. Labour and centre-right parties (conservatives and Christian democrats) have alternated in power since 1950. Referendums in 1972 and 1994 decided that the country would not join the EEC and EU, though in 1996 it did sign up to the Schengen Treaty allowing free circulation of people within the EU.
Under the 1814 Constitution (amended many times over the decades), legislative power is exercised by the unicameral Parliament (Storting), made up of 169 members elected directly for a four-year term, which casts a vote of confidence for the government (Statsråd), today sustained by a minority conservative coalition, which proposes a ban on niqābs in schools.


Defence.
Military service is compulsory and lasts 12 months, followed by four or five top-up training periods.


Justice.
The judicial system is based on a combination of continental European law and Common Law. In 2015, reform of the criminal law came into effect, allowing for a maximum of 30 years of imprisonment for the most serious crimes.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force14.6%2015
Army35.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes6 452.1per 100 000 pop.2016
Homicides0.6per 100 000 pop.2014
TOP

Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Oslo673 469inhab.2018
Bergen279 792inhab.2018
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Oslo988 873inhab.2017
TOP

Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate10.82017
Death rate7.72017
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total567 769units2018
Poles103 800units2018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Norwegian89.4%2017
other9.2%2017


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant72.9%2016
other17.6%2016


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Bokmål (official)
Nynorsk (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years18%2017
15-29 years19.7%2017


TOP

Economy


Economic situation.
After a recovery in 2017, growth should stop at around 2% in 2018-19, thanks also in part to new investments in the oil industry, deriving from the rebound in oil prices. Expansive fiscal and financial policies will gradually be reduced.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)107.09index2016
Balance of trade19 223M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 758 700units2017
Active population, Females47.1%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.2%2017
Unemployment rate, Females42.2%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses1 343 804M LCU2017
Revenues1 507 832M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.1%2017
industry19.4%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.3%2017
industry33.7%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation48.4BN LCU2017
International reserves65 923.9M US$2017
TOP

Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
The main crops are cereals (oats, barley, wheat, rye) and, in the south, fruit and vegetables (carrots, apples, plums).
Norway is the least forested of the Scandinavian countries. The most common species is fir, which is used to make mechanical pulp, chemical pulp, cellulose and paper.
Livestock farming, principally sheep, followed by cattle, pigs and fur animals (fox and mink) is well developed. Reindeer are reared by the Laps in the north of the country.
Fishing.
The main catches are cod in the northern seas off the Lofoten Islands, and herring further south. Fish farming is widespread, especially salmon.
Though it initially subscribed to moratorium on whaling introduced by the IWC (International Whaling Commission), Norway now hunts for whales (mainly as food) with an upper limit on catches fixed year by year. As of 2015, government-approved seal hunting was suspended.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land2.22%2015
forests33.16%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley626.91000 t2016
cereals, total1 312.6811000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes363.21000 t2016
roots and tubers, total363.21000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages39.2061000 t2016
carrots and turnips52.5891000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.9951000 t2016
peas, dry5.31000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed11.41000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples12.3561000 t2016
blueberries0.0091000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley137.1851000 ha2016
oats75.9721000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes11.9721000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1.1351000 ha2016
carrots and turnips1.6661000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.1281000 ha2016
peas, dry2.461000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed4.1461000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples1.3511000 ha2016
blueberries0.021000 ha2016
TOP

Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber12 062 7932016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle871.4751000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes871.4751000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs845.8641000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep2 476.7291000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats68.5611000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total34.9581000 heads2016
horses34.9581000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds14 0901000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey1.011000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter14.21000 t2014
cheese76.21000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs196 865.8t2016
freshwater fishes470.4t2016
TOP

Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Norway has large oil and natural gas reserves on the continental shelf under the North Sea (Statfjord, Ekofisk, Oseberg, Gullfaks, Snorre, Heidrun, Valhall, Eldfisk). Part of the enormous revenue from exports is invested in a sovereign wealth fund, today aimed at higher transparency regarding the environmental impact of the participating companies. There are also significant deposits of iron ore (Mo i Rana, Sydvaranger, Kirkenes), copper and nickel (Narvik), titanium (Tellnes), pyrites (Hjerkinn), olivine (Raubergvik) and graphite.
Energy and industry.
Almost all the electricity generation is hydroelectric (over 95%).
The main oil refineries are located at Slagen-Valloy and Mongstad, while chemical plants are found at Rjukan, Notodden, Odda and Herøya. Abundant electricity has encouraged the development of the iron and steel industry and the production of other metals (aluminium); zinc production is also sizeable as well as silicon carbide.
Ship-building is highly developed, with yards at Oslo, Moss, Fredrikstad, Stavanger and Bergen.
The main textile centres are Bergen, Oslo, Sandnes and Halden. Other industries include beer and margarine. The most important fish processing centres are Bergen, Trondheim and Stavanger.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal1 1061000 t2015
coal, total1 1061000 t2015
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ilmenite2601000 t2017
iron ore3 5191000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
feldspar761000 t2015
graphite81000 t2017
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite4721000 t2015
limestone5 8651000 t2015
TOP

Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro137 306M kWh2015
- other renew.2 934M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro29 9391000 kW2015
- thermal1 3801000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation142 851.32M kWh2015
total installed capacity33 8521000 kW2015
TOP

Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium1 2201000 t2017
aluminium, primary1 2251000 t2015
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ships62 340G.T.2003
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol4 408.71000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia3001000 t2016
nitrogen fertilizers443.41000 t2014
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
wool fabrics0.5M m²2007
wool yarn1.61000 t2007
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley239.61000 t2014
fish, frozen918.21000 t2006
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp1401000 t2016
chemi-mechanical pulp8741000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 6001000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production3 008.6M US$2014
food, beverages and tobacco production6 386.8M US$2014
TOP

Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
The trade balance is extremely healthy.
The main trading partners are the UK, Germany, Sweden, and the Netherlands.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017)
natural gas 26 488, crude oil 25 875, fresh and preserved fish 11 040, petroleum products 5 222, machinery 4 028, aluminium 3 997, electrical and electronic equipment 2 682, chemicals 2 399, iron and steel 2 003, ships and boats 1 593, technical and electro-medical appliances 1 413, nickel 904, vehicles and parts thereof 892, pharmaceuticals 756, electric energy 703, timber 585, aircraft and parts thereof 550, refined zinc 514, furniture and accessories 508, plastics 490, paper 440


Finance and banking.
The Norges Bank acts as the country’s central bank, which manages the sovereign fund. The main merchant banks are privately owned, and there are numerous savings banks. The Stock Exchange is in Oslo.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels53.004% of goods exports2016
manufactures22.667% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United Kingdom21 523M US$2017
Germany15 823M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Sweden9 819M US$2017
Germany9 487M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2017101 976.143M US$ -
201689 483.062M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201782 753.121M US$ -
201672 669.313M US$ -
TOP

Tourism


Tourism. Tourism is a major source of income and has modern, highly developed infrastructures. The main attractions are the fiords and winter sports resorts.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures16 656M US$2016
Number of arrivals5 960 000units2016
TOP

Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown128 000 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried29 905.71000 units2011
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers402.252per 1000 pop.2017
Computers629per 1000 pop.2008
TOP

Social and welfare


Education, culture & research.
Education is compulsory from 7 to 15 years.


Social security and health.
Norway has first-class social services. An equal opportunity law introduced in 2002 stipulates that 40% of the board members of every company should be women.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling17.9years2016
Gradautes, percentage43%2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level48 583units2015
Teachers, secondary level51 337units2015
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending40% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending27.9% of GDP2015
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.7per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians4.7per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.2% of adults2014
HIV, total0.04%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums115units2015
Museums, visitors11 315 283units2015
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending2.03% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2016
Access to electricity100%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5%2015
education0.4%2015
TOP