Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy
Area: 323 808 sq km
Population: 5 391 369 inhab. (estimate 2021)
Density: 16.65 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 71° - 58° N; long. 5° - 32° E
Capital: Oslo (capital) 697 010 inhab. (2021); Oslo 1 036 059 inhab. (2020), urban agglomeration
Currency: Norwegian krone (100 øre)
Human development index: 0.957 (rank: 1)
Sovereign: King Harald V, since 17 January 1991
Prime Minister: Erna Solberg (Conservative Party), since 16 October 2013, reconfirmed 24 January 2020
Parliament: seats (July 2021 update): AP (Labour Party), 48; H (Conservative Party), 45; FrP (Progress Party, liberal), 26; SP (Centre Part), 20; SV (Socialist Left Party), 11; V (Liberal Party, left), 8; KrF (Christian Democratic Party), 8; others, 3
Internet: www.ssb.no (Statistics Norway)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EFTA, NATO, Nordic Council, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Norway

Norge, Noreg, Kongeriket Norge, Kongeriket Noreg
Useful information

International license plate code N
International dialling code 0047
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .no

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Oslo 6.2; Tromsø 2.9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Oslo -4.5/17.5; Tromsø -4/12.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Oslo 8/1; Tromsø 7/0
Annual average precipitation (mm) Oslo 735; Tromsø 995
Days of rainfall (annual average) Oslo 108; Tromsø 152

Politics and current affairs

In late 2020, Norway introduced the Longship Project, with an investment of 1.7 billion euro. The project aims to store liquid CO2 in former oil fields under the North Sea, hence ensuring “net zero emissions” in the country by 2050.

Geography.
Extending along the Atlantic shore of the Scandinavian peninsula, Norway is bordered to the north-east by Russia and Finland, to the east by Sweden, to the north by the Arctic Sea and the Barents Sea, to the south by the North Sea and to the west by the Atlantic Ocean.
The highest terrain is in the south-west (Galdhøpiggen, 2469 m), covered with glaciers and scoured by glacial valleys that have filled with seawater to create fiords.
The offshore islands form two archipelagos, the Lofoten Islands and Vesterålen Islands. The largest river is the Glåma, and there are numerous lakes totalling an area of 14 000 km². Despite the high latitude of the country, the climate can be unusually mild owing to the mitigating effect of the North Atlantic Stream.

Government


Joined to Denmark until 1814 and to Sweden until 1905, Norway is now a constitutional monarchy. Labour and centre-right parties (conservatives and Christian democrats) have alternated in power since 1950. Referendums in 1972 and 1994 decided that the country would not join the EEC and EU, though in 1996 it did sign up to the Schengen Treaty allowing free circulation of people within the EU.
Under the 1814 Constitution (amended many times over the decades), legislative power is exercised by the unicameral Parliament (Storting), made up of 169 members elected directly for a four-year term, which casts a vote of confidence for the government (Statsråd).


Defence.
Military service is compulsory and lasts 12 months, followed by four or five top-up training periods.


Justice.
The judicial system is based on a combination of continental European law and Common Law. In 2015, reform of the criminal law came into effect, allowing for a maximum of 30 years of imprisonment for the most serious crimes.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force14.6%2015
Army35.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes5 820.3per 100 000 pop.2019
Homicides0.5per 100 000 pop.2018
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Oslo697 010inhab.2021
Bergen285 601inhab.2021
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Oslo1 036 059inhab.2020
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate9.92020
Death rate7.62020
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total601 567units2021
Poles110 301units2021
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Norwegian88.7%2020
other10$%2020


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant70$%2019
other20.1%2019


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Bokmål (official)
Nynorsk (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years18$%2020
15-29 years18.9%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
The pandemic had a limited effect on the Norwegian economy in 2020 (GDP -0.8%). A hike in oil prices and minor restrictions are expected to bring 3.9% growth in 2021.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)107.09index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)101.87index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 827 000units2020
Active population, Females46.9%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.4%2020
Unemployment rate, Females44$%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses1 631 472M LCU2020
Revenues1 547 898M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.113%2020
industry19.43%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.13%2020
industry29.356%2020
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation41.006BN LCU2020
International reserves75 258.813M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
The main crops are cereals (oats, barley, wheat, rye) and, in the south, fruit and vegetables (carrots, apples, plums).
Norway is the least forested of the Scandinavian countries. The most common species is fir, which is used to make mechanical pulp, chemical pulp, cellulose and paper.
Livestock farming, principally sheep, followed by cattle, pigs and fur animals (fox and mink) is well developed. Reindeer are reared by the Laps in the north of the country.
Fishing.
The main catches are cod in the northern seas and herring further south. Fish farming is widespread (salmon). Though it initially subscribed to moratorium on whaling introduced by the IWC (International Whaling Commission), Norway now hunts for whales (mainly as food) with an upper limit on catches fixed year by year. Since 2015, the annual public subsidy for seal hunting has been suspended.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land2.208%2018
forests33.317%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley5811000 t2019
cereals, total1 323.71000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes332.21000 t2019
roots and tubers, total332.21000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages32.3641000 t2019
carrots and turnips49.2821000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green1.3081000 t2019
peas, dry4$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed15$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples15.5931000 t2019
blueberries0.0441000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley129.9191000 ha2019
oats54.8031000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes11.6851000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1.3441000 ha2019
carrots and turnips1.8231000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.1731000 ha2019
peas, dry2.771000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed3.4211000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples1.4891000 ha2019
blueberries0.0191000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber12 733 4662019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle872.9551000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes872.9551000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs792.5591000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep2 300.391000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats65.3431000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total34.7871000 heads2019
horses34.7871000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds16 4201000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey1.2131000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter15.81000 t2018
cheese78.171000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs273 882.753t2019
marine fishes2 039 957.465t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Norway has large oil and natural gas reserves in the North Sea; the debate continues on whether to expand the exploitation of the deposits. A gas liquefaction terminal is active near Hammerfest; there are also other plants aimed at exporting oil and gas to Europe through a dense pipeline network.
Part of the enormous revenue from exports is invested in a sovereign wealth fund, which is now committed to reducing stakeholdings in highly polluting sectors. The fund is worth approximately 1275 billion dollars (2020), up from 1148 billion in 2019.
There are also significant deposits of iron ore (Mo i Rana and Sydvaranger, reopened in 2019), copper and nickel (Narvik), titanium (Tellnes), pyrites, olivine and graphite.
Energy and industry.
Almost all the electricity generation is hydroelectric. A large investment program in renewables was announced in 2020.
Norway is hosting two refineries, in Mongstad and in Slagen, and several basic chemical plants. Abundant electricity has encouraged the expansion of the iron and steel industry and the production of other metals (aluminium, zinc and silicon carbide).
Ship-building is highly developed, with yards at Oslo, Moss, Fredrikstad, Stavanger and Bergen.
Other industries include textiles, beer and margarine; fish processing centres are active on the coast.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal70.41000 t2020
coal, total70.41000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ilmenite4001000 t2020
iron ore3 5201000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
feldspar50$1000 t2017
graphite15$1000 t2020
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite7301000 t2018
limestone5 6691000 t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro123 662.88M kWh2019
- other renew.5 991.78M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro31 1821000 kW2019
- other renew.2 7061000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation131 881.94M kWh2019
total installed capacity35 4161000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium1 4001000 t2020
aluminium, primary1 4001000 t2019
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ships62 340G.T.2003
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol4 408.71000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia3001000 t2019
nitrogen fertilizers615.41000 t2019
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
wool fabrics0.5M m²2007
wool yarn1.61000 t2007
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley545.3241000 t2018
fish, frozen918.21000 t2006
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mechanical pulp8331000 t2019
newsprint5631000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 9501000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production1 888.639M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production5 887.357M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
The trade balance remains positive, despite the drop in oil prices. The main trading partners are the UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and China.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017)
natural gas 26 488, crude oil 25 875, fresh and preserved fish 11 040, petroleum products 5 222, machinery 4 028, aluminium 3 997, electrical and electronic equipment 2 682, chemicals 2 399, iron and steel 2 003, ships and boats 1 593, technical and electro-medical appliances 1 413, nickel 904, vehicles and parts thereof 892, pharmaceuticals 756, electric energy 703, timber 585, aircraft and parts thereof 550, refined zinc 514, furniture and accessories 508, plastics 490, paper 440


Finance and banking.
The Norges Bank acts as the country’s central bank, which manages the sovereign fund. The main merchant banks are privately owned, and there are numerous savings banks. The Stock Exchange is in Oslo.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels55.988% of goods exports2019
manufactures19.705% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United Kingdom14 408M US$2020
Germany9 634M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China9 810M US$2020
Germany9 327M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202084 459M US$ -
2019102 799M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202080 447M US$ -
201985 319M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Tourism is a major source of income and has modern, highly developed infrastructures. The main attractions are the fiords and winter sports resorts.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures17 992M US$2019
Number of arrivals5 879 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown128 000 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried29 905.71000 units2011
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers420.276per 1000 pop.2019
Computers629per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education, culture & research.
Education is compulsory from 7 to 15 years.


Social security and health.
Norway has first-class social services. An equal opportunity law introduced in 2002 stipulates that 40% of the board members of every company should be women.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling18.12years2018
Gradautes, percentage44.129%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level447 355units2018
Students, secondary level449 330units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending38.24% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending25.316% of GDP2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.53per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians4.93per 1000 pop.2019
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2018
HIV, total0.04%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums98$units2019
Museums, visitors10 433 301units2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending2.15% of GDP2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.8%2020
education0.4%2020
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