Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 923 769 sq km
Population: 200 963 603 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 217.55 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 14° - 4° N; long. 3° - 15° E
Capital: Abuja 3 564 126 inhab. (2016), urban agglomeration
Currency: naira (100 kobo)
Human development index: 0.539 (rank: 161)
Head of State and government: Muhammadu Buhari (APC), elected 29 March 2015, in office since 29 May 2015, reconfirmed 23 February 2019
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 23 February 2019: APC (All Progressives Congress), 217; PDP (People's Democratic Party), 115; others, 28
Internet: www.nigerianstat.gov.ng (National Bureau of Statistics)
Member of AU, Commonwealth, ECOWAS, OAS observer, OIC, OPEC, UN, WTO

Nigeria

Nigeria, Federal Republic of Nigeria
Useful information

International license plate code WAN
International dialling code 00234
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 240
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ng

GMT  +1
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Abuja 22.5; Lagos 27
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Abuja 21/21; Lagos 27/25.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Abuja 5/9; Lagos 5/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Abuja 1405; Lagos 1812
Days of rainfall (annual average) Abuja 94; Lagos 96

Politics and current affairs

The socio-economic crisis has been exacerbated by the continued climate of insecurity. In addition to attacks by integralist militia and ethnic clashes, students are often abducted for blackmail purposes.

Geography.
Nigeria is bordered to the north by Niger, to the north-east by Chad, to the east by Cameroon and to the west by Benin. To the south it lies on the Gulf of Guinea.
The country has a low and lagoon-like coast, particularly in the area of the River Niger delta. The highest landmass is the Mambilla Plateau (Chappal Waddi 2419 m), sloping down towards the Niger basin and its tributary, the River Benue, and towards Chad from the easternmost ridges. There are plains to the north of the country. The climate is hot and humid on the coast; rainfall is much lower towards inland areas.

Government


Formerly a British colony, Nigeria became independent on 1 October 1960; since 1 October 1963, it has been part of the Commonwealth. From 1967 to 1970, the country was the stage of a bloody civil war due to the secession of the eastern region of Biafra, later reunited with the country. In power from 1966 to 1979, the military kept control of the country through a series of coups d’état. In 1993, General Sani Abacha concentrated power in the Provisional Ruling Council (PRC), setting up a dictatorship which only came to an end on his death in 1998. He was succeeded by General Olusegun Obasanjo, leader of the People’s Democratic Party (PDP), who won all the elections from 1999 until he withdrew from office in 2007. The PDP remained in control until 2015. The 2009 amnesty led to a decrease in attacks against oil companies in the Niger Delta, carried out especially by MEND (Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta), who demand the local communities be given greater autonomy and a share of the revenue coming from oil extractions; in May 2016, the attacks began again by a group who calls themselves the Niger Delta Avengers. Tensions between Muslim and Christian communities in the north of the country result in bloody clashes at times; the conflict between semi-nomadic pastoralists and farmers over the use of land has been particularly violent, and since 2009 attacks by the radical Islamic group Boko Haram have been particularly fierce, mostly operating in the country’s northeast, even over the border in neighbouring countries. In 2016, the group split, resulting in the emergence of a faction known as the Islamic State’s West Africa Province, linked to international Sunni fundamentalism.
On the basis of the Constitution of 29 May 1999, the President of the Republic, who is also head of the government, is elected by direct suffrage with a single ballot for a term of four years, as is the National Assembly, which holds legislative power, and is made up of a Chamber of Representatives (360 members) and a Senate (109 members).


Defence.
The armed forces carry out a central role in the country’s political life, even following the establishment of formal democracy in 1999.


Justice.
The legal system is founded on British Common Law, on Islamic Law and on tribal customs. Islamic Law has been adopted by the majority of states in the north.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force12.5%2015
Army77.5%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides9.8per 100 000 pop.2015
Police personnel208.3per 100 000 pop.2013
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lagos13 340 000inhab.2015
Kano4 030 000inhab.2015
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lagos13 340 000inhab.2015
Kano4 030 000inhab.2015
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

In the north of the country most of the population is made up of Hausas and the Fulas (Fulani) and is predominantly Muslim, whilst in the south the population is mostly made up of Yorubas and Ibos and is predominantly Christian.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate37.4462019
Death rate11.632019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other32.2%2013
Hausa27.4%2013


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim48.8%2010
Protestant37.8%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Sudanese dialects (Hausa, Ibo, Yoruba)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years41.7%2020
15-29 years27.6%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
Despite having rolled out diversification policies, the country’s economy is still mostly based on oil exports and is thus very sensitive to changes in prices on the international market. Although in 2021 the growth rate returned to positive after the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, it remains low and fails to keep pace with a high population increase and the resulting need for new jobs. which failed to keep pace with a high population increase and the resulting need for new jobs. The country’s most dynamic sectors include IT and communications, along with construction: this latter industry is supported by public expenditure, which in turn is financed partly by bond issues, but debt interests weigh heavily on the budget. Inflation is a entrenched problem and not helped by the depreciation of the naira, which has undermined foreign exchange reserves. Difficult domestic conditions (rampant corruption, violence and lack of infrastructure) are also hampering development. Wealth distribution remains profoundly unequal.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)118.86index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)106.65index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population62 242 745units2020
Active population, Females44.8%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate9$%2020
Unemployment rate, Females49.4%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses9 714 843M LCU2019
Revenues10 262 300M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture35.1%2019
industry12.2%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture22.123%2019
industry27.654%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation2 908.462BN LCU2020
International reserves36 729.566M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Exported crops include cocoa, peanuts, cashew nuts, palm oil, sesame and cotton. Crops grown for the domestic market include cassava, yam, maize and sorghum. However, agricultural production only covers two thirds of domestic requirements. Forests contain valuable woods (obeche, mahogany and abura). There are large rubber tree plantations (India rubber) in the area of Benin City. Cattle-farming is practised, above all, in the north by the Fulas, in a nomadic or semi-nomadic way.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land44.468%2018
forests24.104%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total28 243.3171000 t2019
maize11 0001000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava59 193.7081000 t2019
potatoes1 396.8921000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carrots and turnips234.1021000 t2019
chillies and peppers753.1161000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts4 450.051000 t2019
sesame seed4801000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits10 025.1741000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts229.5781000 t2019
copra15.71000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa350.1461000 t2019
coffee1.1171000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane1 456.0391000 t2019
tobacco5.2071000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton233.1041000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute1.4081000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total11 961.7071000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts1001000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits4 160.5681000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes4 160.5681000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mangoes946.6951000 t2019
papayas855.5811000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize6 857.5281000 ha2019
millet2 778.3951000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava7 215.1621000 ha2019
potatoes329.0611000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carrots and turnips26.5731000 ha2019
chillies and peppers99.7151000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts3 875.2671000 ha2019
sesame seed586.5391000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit3 934.9351000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts30.421000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa1 354.1411000 ha2019
coffee0.8681000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane87.331000 ha2019
tobacco8.7011000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton276.5671000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute1.041000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts1401000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits830.3021000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes830.3021000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mangoes133.0151000 ha2019
papayas101.6341000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber149 691t2019
timber76 562 7022019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle20 664.0691000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes20 664.0691000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs8 001.2171000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep46 893.031000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats81 879.4451000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses1 342.6091000 heads2019
asses and mules1 342.6091000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels289.7941000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds167 8121000 heads2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter12.1431000 t2018
cheese9.7261000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs60 826.97t2019
freshwater fishes662 788.421t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The country’s most important resource is oil, taken from deposits in the Gulf of Guinea and on land (at Kokori, Isoko, Eriemu, Ughelli, Wopeli, Egbomo, Asso, Opukushi, Egbodi Creek, Nun River, Oloibiri, Umuechem, Imo River, Ohuru, Apara, Obigbo, Afam, Ebubu, Korokoro, Bomu, West Boda, Ibibio, Bonny, Krakama, Ekulama, Soku, Elope and Okan). Production is mostly controlled by foreign multi-national companies (such as ENI, Shell, Exxon/Mobil and Chevron) which have partnered with NNPC (Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation). The natural gas deposits are also important; two gas pipelines link the area where the gas is extracted to the Afam power station and to the industrial area of Trans-Amadi (in Port Harcourt). A further gas pipeline links Imo to Aba. A liquefaction plant is active on Bonny Island. Coal (in the area of Enugu), tin, columbite (in the Jos Plateau), lead and zinc (at Abakaliki) are also mined.
Energy and industry.
The (insufficient) production of electricity is generated for the most part in gas-fired thermal power plants and in the large water-power plants of Kainji and Jebba, on the River Niger, and Shiroro, on the River Kaduna. Oil refineries are in operation in Warri, Kaduna, Alesa Eleme near Port Harcourt, and in the Niger Delta, with other new plants under construction, including the largest in Lekki. Nitrogenous fertilizers are produced at Onne. The steel-making industry is centred around Ajaokuta and Aladja; the metal-working industry produces tin (at Jos) and lead and aluminium (at Port Harcourt).
Cement and textile factories are widespread, as well as car-assembly plants, especially in the State of Lagos. Companies active in information technology and communications are concentrated in Lagos. There are also paper (in Oku Iboku, Jebba and Iwopin), cigarette (in Ilorin, Ibadan, Port Harcourt and Zaria), beer (in Kaduna, Abeokuta, Ikeja, Aba and Umuahia), sugar (in Bacita), wood (in Calabar, Sapele and Epe) and oil factories (in Kano, Zaria, Maiduguri, Ikeja, Koko and Port Harcourt).

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal42.81000 t2020
coal, total42.81000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beryllium0.0011000 t2020
columbite0.0631000 t2019
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite0.41000 t2019
feldspar41.31000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
granite7 4891000 t2016
kaolin12$1000 t2019
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold39$kg2018
precious stones - kg11 142kg2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal28 003.54M kWh2018
- hydro6 393.42M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal10 1421000 kW2018
- hydro2 1101000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation34 453.42M kWh2018
total installed capacity12 284.231000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium2$1000 t2013
lead6$1000 t2018
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars1 100no.2009
mopeds6 900no.2005
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watches and clocks34 600no.2005
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners19 200no.2005
fridges25 000no.2005
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen5$1000 t2018
petrol682.71000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia8501000 t2019
nitrogen fertilizers724.31000 t2019
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets8821000 m²2005
cotton fabrics25$M m²2005
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear37 123 000pairs2005
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1 8001000 t2018
coconut oil13.2561000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes1 813.2M units2005
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp14$1000 t2019
chemi-mechanical pulp23$1000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement21 0001000 t2019
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production54 759.799M US$2020
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.

Oil production accounts for a large part of the export value. The country mainly imports machinery, means of transport, foodstuffs, chemicals and manufactured goods.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) 
crude oil 36 057, natural gas 6 169, petroleum products 363, ships and boats 268, cocoa and derived products 256, oil seeds 197, fertilizers 166, electric energy 112


Finance & banking.
The central bank is the Central Bank of Nigeria. There are approximately 100 commercial and business banks in the country. The Stock Exchange is in Lagos.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels87.039% of goods exports2019
manufactures10.748% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
India5 010M US$2020
Spain3 628M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China15 244M US$2020
United States4 803M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202034 545M US$ -
201962 531M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202056 613M US$ -
201955 257M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures16 406M US$2019
Number of arrivals1 889 000units2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown11 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried6 5391000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers0.415per 1000 pop.2019
Computers8.5per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling8.6years2011
Graduates174 602units2004
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level25 591 181units2016
Students, secondary level10 314 796units2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.5per 1000 pop.2004
Physicians0.38per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV1.3% of adults2019
HIV, total3$%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.22% of GDP2007
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking13$%2019
Access to electricity55.4%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear7.7%2007
education2.4%2007
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