Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 923 769 sq km
Population: 200 963 603 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 217.55 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 14° - 4° N; long. 3° - 15° E
Capital: Abuja 3 564 126 inhab. (2016), urban agglomeration
Currency: naira (100 kobo)
Human development index: 0.539 (rank: 161)
Head of State and government: Muhammadu Buhari (APC), elected 29 March 2015, in office since 29 May 2015, reconfirmed 23 February 2019
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 23 February 2019: APC (All Progressives Congress), 217; PDP (People's Democratic Party), 115; others, 28
Internet: www.nigerianstat.gov.ng (National Bureau of Statistics)
Member of AU, Commonwealth, ECOWAS, OAS observer, OIC, OPEC, UN, WTO
International license plate code WAN
International dialling code 00234
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 240
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ng
DST not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Abuja 22.5; Lagos 27
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Abuja 21/21; Lagos 27/25.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Abuja 5/9; Lagos 5/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Abuja 1405; Lagos 1812
Days of rainfall (annual average) Abuja 94; Lagos 96
Politics and current affairs
The socio-economic crisis has been exacerbated by the continued climate of insecurity. In addition to attacks by integralist militia and ethnic clashes, students are often abducted for blackmail purposes.
Nigeria is bordered to the north by Niger, to the north-east by Chad, to the east by Cameroon and to the west by Benin. To the south it lies on the Gulf of Guinea.
The country has a low and lagoon-like coast, particularly in the area of the River Niger delta. The highest landmass is the Mambilla Plateau (Chappal Waddi 2419 m), sloping down towards the Niger basin and its tributary, the River Benue, and towards Chad from the easternmost ridges. There are plains to the north of the country. The climate is hot and humid on the coast; rainfall is much lower towards inland areas.
Formerly a British colony, Nigeria became independent on 1 October 1960; since 1 October 1963, it has been part of the Commonwealth. From 1967 to 1970, the country was the stage of a bloody civil war due to the secession of the eastern region of Biafra, later reunited with the country. In power from 1966 to 1979, the military kept control of the country through a series of coups d’état. In 1993, General Sani Abacha concentrated power in the Provisional Ruling Council (PRC), setting up a dictatorship which only came to an end on his death in 1998. He was succeeded by General Olusegun Obasanjo, leader of the People’s Democratic Party (PDP), who won all the elections from 1999 until he withdrew from office in 2007. The PDP remained in control until 2015. The 2009 amnesty led to a decrease in attacks against oil companies in the Niger Delta, carried out especially by MEND (Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta), who demand the local communities be given greater autonomy and a share of the revenue coming from oil extractions; in May 2016, the attacks began again by a group who calls themselves the Niger Delta Avengers. Tensions between Muslim and Christian communities in the north of the country result in bloody clashes at times; the conflict between semi-nomadic pastoralists and farmers over the use of land has been particularly violent, and since 2009 attacks by the radical Islamic group Boko Haram have been particularly fierce, mostly operating in the country’s northeast, even over the border in neighbouring countries. In 2016, the group split, resulting in the emergence of a faction known as the Islamic State’s West Africa Province, linked to international Sunni fundamentalism.
On the basis of the Constitution of 29 May 1999, the President of the Republic, who is also head of the government, is elected by direct suffrage with a single ballot for a term of four years, as is the National Assembly, which holds legislative power, and is made up of a Chamber of Representatives (360 members) and a Senate (109 members).
The armed forces carry out a central role in the country’s political life, even following the establishment of formal democracy in 1999.
The legal system is founded on British Common Law, on Islamic Law and on tribal customs. Islamic Law has been adopted by the majority of states in the north.
|Homicides||9.8||per 100 000 pop.||2015|
|Police personnel||208.3||per 100 000 pop.||2013|
|Lagos||13 340 000||inhab.||2015|
|Kano||4 030 000||inhab.||2015|
|Lagos||13 340 000||inhab.||2015|
|Kano||4 030 000||inhab.||2015|
|Population by age and gender (% - 2020)|
In the north of the country most of the population is made up of Hausas and the Fulas (Fulani) and is predominantly Muslim, whilst in the south the population is mostly made up of Yorubas and Ibos and is predominantly Christian.
|Sudanese dialects (Hausa, Ibo, Yoruba)|
Despite having rolled out diversification policies, the country’s economy is still mostly based on oil exports and is thus very sensitive to changes in prices on the international market. Although in 2021 the growth rate returned to positive after the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, it remains low and fails to keep pace with a high population increase and the resulting need for new jobs. which failed to keep pace with a high population increase and the resulting need for new jobs. The country’s most dynamic sectors include IT and communications, along with construction: this latter industry is supported by public expenditure, which in turn is financed partly by bond issues, but debt interests weigh heavily on the budget. Inflation is a entrenched problem and not helped by the depreciation of the naira, which has undermined foreign exchange reserves. Difficult domestic conditions (rampant corruption, violence and lack of infrastructure) are also hampering development. Wealth distribution remains profoundly unequal.
|Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)||118.86||index||2016|
|Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)||106.65||index||2019|
|Active population||62 242 745||units||2020|
|Active population, Females||44.8||%||2020|
|Unemployment rate, Females||49.4||%||2019|
|Expenses||9 714 843||M LCU||2019|
|Revenues||10 262 300||M LCU||2019|
|Currency in circulation||2 908.462||BN LCU||2020|
|International reserves||36 729.566||M US$||2020|
Exported crops include cocoa, peanuts, cashew nuts, palm oil, sesame and cotton. Crops grown for the domestic market include cassava, yam, maize and sorghum. However, agricultural production only covers two thirds of domestic requirements. Forests contain valuable woods (obeche, mahogany and abura). There are large rubber tree plantations (India rubber) in the area of Benin City. Cattle-farming is practised, above all, in the north by the Fulas, in a nomadic or semi-nomadic way.
|cereals, total||28 243.317||1000 t||2019|
|maize||11 000||1000 t||2019|
|cassava||59 193.708||1000 t||2019|
|potatoes||1 396.892||1000 t||2019|
|carrots and turnips||234.102||1000 t||2019|
|chillies and peppers||753.116||1000 t||2019|
|groundnuts||4 450.05||1000 t||2019|
|sesame seed||480||1000 t||2019|
|oil palm fruits||10 025.174||1000 t||2019|
|sugar cane||1 456.039||1000 t||2019|
|seed cotton||233.104||1000 t||2019|
|fruits, total||11 961.707||1000 t||2019|
|cashew nuts||100||1000 t||2019|
|citrus fruits||4 160.568||1000 t||2019|
|citrus fruits, nes||4 160.568||1000 t||2019|
|maize||6 857.528||1000 ha||2019|
|millet||2 778.395||1000 ha||2019|
|cassava||7 215.162||1000 ha||2019|
|carrots and turnips||26.573||1000 ha||2019|
|chillies and peppers||99.715||1000 ha||2019|
|groundnuts||3 875.267||1000 ha||2019|
|sesame seed||586.539||1000 ha||2019|
|oil palm fruit||3 934.935||1000 ha||2019|
|cocoa||1 354.141||1000 ha||2019|
|sugar cane||87.33||1000 ha||2019|
|seed cotton||276.567||1000 ha||2019|
|cashew nuts||140||1000 ha||2019|
|citrus fruits||830.302||1000 ha||2019|
|citrus fruits, nes||830.302||1000 ha||2019|
|natural rubber||149 691||t||2019|
|timber||76 562 702||m³||2019|
|cattle||20 664.069||1000 heads||2019|
|cattle and buffaloes||20 664.069||1000 heads||2019|
|pigs||8 001.217||1000 heads||2019|
|sheep||46 893.03||1000 heads||2019|
|goats||81 879.445||1000 heads||2019|
|asses||1 342.609||1000 heads||2019|
|asses and mules||1 342.609||1000 heads||2019|
|birds||167 812||1000 heads||2019|
|crustaceans and molluscs||60 826.97||t||2019|
|freshwater fishes||662 788.421||t||2019|
The country’s most important resource is oil, taken from deposits in the Gulf of Guinea and on land (at Kokori, Isoko, Eriemu, Ughelli, Wopeli, Egbomo, Asso, Opukushi, Egbodi Creek, Nun River, Oloibiri, Umuechem, Imo River, Ohuru, Apara, Obigbo, Afam, Ebubu, Korokoro, Bomu, West Boda, Ibibio, Bonny, Krakama, Ekulama, Soku, Elope and Okan). Production is mostly controlled by foreign multi-national companies (such as ENI, Shell, Exxon/Mobil and Chevron) which have partnered with NNPC (Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation). The natural gas deposits are also important; two gas pipelines link the area where the gas is extracted to the Afam power station and to the industrial area of Trans-Amadi (in Port Harcourt). A further gas pipeline links Imo to Aba. A liquefaction plant is active on Bonny Island. Coal (in the area of Enugu), tin, columbite (in the Jos Plateau), lead and zinc (at Abakaliki) are also mined.
Energy and industry.
The (insufficient) production of electricity is generated for the most part in gas-fired thermal power plants and in the large water-power plants of Kainji and Jebba, on the River Niger, and Shiroro, on the River Kaduna. Oil refineries are in operation in Warri, Kaduna, Alesa Eleme near Port Harcourt, and in the Niger Delta, with other new plants under construction, including the largest in Lekki. Nitrogenous fertilizers are produced at Onne. The steel-making industry is centred around Ajaokuta and Aladja; the metal-working industry produces tin (at Jos) and lead and aluminium (at Port Harcourt).
Cement and textile factories are widespread, as well as car-assembly plants, especially in the State of Lagos. Companies active in information technology and communications are concentrated in Lagos. There are also paper (in Oku Iboku, Jebba and Iwopin), cigarette (in Ilorin, Ibadan, Port Harcourt and Zaria), beer (in Kaduna, Abeokuta, Ikeja, Aba and Umuahia), sugar (in Bacita), wood (in Calabar, Sapele and Epe) and oil factories (in Kano, Zaria, Maiduguri, Ikeja, Koko and Port Harcourt).
|coal, total||42.8||1000 t||2020|
|granite||7 489||1000 t||2016|
|precious stones - kg||11 142||kg||2016|
|- thermal||28 003.54||M kWh||2018|
|- hydro||6 393.42||M kWh||2018|
|- thermal||10 142||1000 kW||2018|
|- hydro||2 110||1000 kW||2019|
|total net generation||34 453.42||M kWh||2018|
|total installed capacity||12 284.23||1000 kW||2018|
|watches and clocks||34 600||no.||2005|
|air conditioners||19 200||no.||2005|
|nitrogen fertilizers||724.3||1000 t||2019|
|cotton fabrics||25$||M m²||2005|
|footwear||37 123 000||pairs||2005|
|beer of barley||1 800||1000 t||2018|
|coconut oil||13.256||1000 t||2018|
|cigarettes||1 813.2||M units||2005|
|chemical pulp||14$||1000 t||2019|
|chemi-mechanical pulp||23$||1000 t||2019|
|cement||21 000||1000 t||2019|
|manufacturing production||54 759.799||M US$||2020|
Oil production accounts for a large part of the export value. The country mainly imports machinery, means of transport, foodstuffs, chemicals and manufactured goods.
Main exports (M US$ - 2017) crude oil 36 057, natural gas 6 169, petroleum products 363, ships and boats 268, cocoa and derived products 256, oil seeds 197, fertilizers 166, electric energy 112
Finance & banking.
The central bank is the Central Bank of Nigeria. There are approximately 100 commercial and business banks in the country. The Stock Exchange is in Lagos.
|fuels||87.039||% of goods exports||2019|
|manufactures||10.748||% of goods exports||2019|
|India||5 010||M US$||2020|
|Spain||3 628||M US$||2020|
|China||15 244||M US$||2020|
|United States||4 803||M US$||2020|
|Expenditures||16 406||M US$||2019|
|Number of arrivals||1 889 000||units||2016|
Social and welfare
|Expected years of schooling||8.6||years||2011|
|Students, primary level||25 591 181||units||2016|
|Students, secondary level||10 314 796||units||2016|
|Hospital beds||0.5||per 1000 pop.||2004|
|Physicians||0.38||per 1000 pop.||2018|
|HIV||1.3||% of adults||2019|
|Research and development spending||0.22||% of GDP||2007|
|Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking||13$||%||2019|
|Access to electricity||55.4||%||2019|