Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 923 769 sq km
Population: 193 500 543 inhab. (estimate 2016)
Density: 209.47 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 14° - 4° N; long. 3° - 15° E
Capital: Abuja 3 564 126 inhab. (2016), urban agglomeration
Currency: naira (100 kobo)
Human development index: 0.527 (rank: 152)
Head of State and government: Muhammadu Buhari (APC), elected 29 March 2015, in office since 29 May 2015
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 28 and 29 March 2015: APC (All Progressives Congress), 225; PDP (People's Democratic Party), 125; others, 10
Internet: www.nigerianstat.gov.ng (National Bureau of Statistics)
Member of AU, Commonwealth, ECOWAS, OAS observer, OIC, OPEC, UN, WTO

Nigeria

Nigeria, Federal Republic of Nigeria
Useful information

International license plate code WAN
International dialling code 00234
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 240
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ng

GMT  +1
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Abuja 22.5; Lagos 27
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Abuja 21/21; Lagos 27/25.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Abuja 5/9; Lagos 5/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Abuja 1405; Lagos 1812
Days of rainfall (annual average) Abuja 94; Lagos 96

Politics and current affairs

In addition to attacks by the jihadist group Boko Haram, stability in the country is further threatened by the intensification of the conflict over land use between semi-nomadic breeders and farmers, which causes several thousand deaths every year.

Geography.
Nigeria is bordered to the north by Niger, to the north-east by Chad, to the east by Cameroon and to the west by Benin. To the south it lies on the Gulf of Guinea.
The country has a low and lagoon-like coast, particularly in the area of the River Niger delta. The highest landmass is the Mambilla Plateau (Chappal Waddi 2419 m), sloping down towards the Niger basin and its tributary, the River Benue, and towards Chad from the easternmost ridges. There are plains to the north of the country.
The climate is hot and humid on the coast; rainfall is much lower towards inland areas.

Government


Formerly a British colony, Nigeria became independent on 1 October 1960; since 1 October 1963, it has been part of the Commonwealth. From 1967 to 1970, the country was the stage of a bloody civil war due to the secession of the eastern region of Biafra, later reunited with the country.
In power from 1966 to 1979, the military kept control of the country through a series of coups d’état. In 1993, General Sani Abacha concentrated power in the Provisional Ruling Council (PRC), setting up a dictatorship which only came to an end on his death in 1998. He was succeeded by General Olusegun Obasanjo, leader of the People’s Democratic Party (PDP), who won all the elections from 1999 until he withdrew from office in 2007. The PDP remained in control until 2015. The 2009 amnesty led to a decrease in attacks against oil companies in the Niger Delta, carried out especially by MEND (Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta), who demand the local communities be given greater autonomy and a share of the revenue coming from oil extractions; in May 2016, the attacks began again by a group who calls themselves the Niger Delta Avengers.
Tensions between Muslim and Christian communities in the north of the country remain one of the main causes of instability, and result in bloody clashes at times; since 2009 attacks by the radical Islamic group Boko Haram have been particularly fierce, mostly operating in the country’s northeast, resulting in thousands of deaths, even over the border in neighbouring countries.
On the basis of the Constitution of 29 May 1999, the President of the Republic, who is also head of the government, is elected by direct suffrage with a single ballot for a term of four years, as is the National Assembly, which holds legislative power, and is made up of a Chamber of Representatives (360 members) and a Senate (109 members).


Defence.
The armed forces carry out a central role in the country’s political life, even following the establishment of formal democracy in 1999.


Justice.
The legal system is founded on British Common Law, on Islamic Law and on tribal customs. Islamic Law has been adopted by the majority of states in the north.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force12.5%2015
Army77.5%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides9.8per 100 000 pop.2015
Police personnel208.3per 100 000 pop.2013
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lagos13 340 000inhab.2015
Kano4 030 000inhab.2015
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lagos13 340 000inhab.2015
Kano4 030 000inhab.2015
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

In the north of the country most of the population is made up of Hausas and the Fulas (Fulani) and is predominantly Muslim, whilst in the south the population is mostly made up of Yorubas and Ibos and is predominantly Christian.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate38.92016
Death rate12.52016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other25%2000
Yoruba17.5%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim48.8%2010
Protestant37.8%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Sudanese dialects (Hausa, Ibo, Yoruba)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years42.5%2017
15-29 years27.3%2017


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Economy


Economic situation.
Despite having rolled out diversification policies, the country’s economy is still mostly based on oil exports and is thus very sensitive to changes in prices on the international market; following the drop in value brought about by the recession in 2016, in 2017-18, growth was once again positive thanks to the increase in prices and the stabilization of oil production. Public spending is financed in part by bond issues, but debt interests weigh heavily on the budget. The depreciation of the naira and the rise in coal and electricity prices have increased inflation. Difficult domestic conditions (rampant corruption, violence and lack of infrastructure) are also hampering development. Wealth distribution is incredibly unequal and a high rate of natural increase requires new jobs to continuously be created.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)118.86index2016
Balance of trade1 900M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population58 959 311units2017
Active population, Females45.4%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate7%2017
Unemployment rate, Females40.8%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses9 727 054M LCU2016
Revenues5 694 000M LCU2016
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture36.5%2017
industry11.6%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture21.2%2016
industry18.5%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation2 157.2BN LCU2017
International reserves42 629.6M US$2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Exported crops include cocoa, peanuts, cashew nuts, palm oil, sesame and cotton. Crops grown for the domestic market include cassava, yam, maize and sorghum. However, agricultural production only covers two thirds of domestic requirements. Forests contain valuable woods (obeche, mahogany and abura). There are large rubber tree plantations (India rubber) in the area of Benin City. Cattle-farming is practised, above all, in the north by the Fulas, in a nomadic or semi-nomadic way.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land44.46%2015
forests7.68%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total25 035.5781000 t2016
maize10 414.0121000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava57 134.4781000 t2016
potatoes1 246.381000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carrots and turnips225.861000 t2016
chillies and peppers746.1571000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts3 028.5711000 t2016
sesame seed460.9881000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits7 817.2071000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts283.7441000 t2016
copra15.71000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa236.5211000 t2016
coffee1.8841000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane1 337.5721000 t2016
tobacco4.0821000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton303.0571000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute1.4081000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total11 739.71000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts958.861000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits4 062.9831000 t2016
citrus fruits, nes4 062.9831000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mangoes917.6171000 t2016
papayas836.7021000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize6 544.2481000 ha2016
millet1 736.0481000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava6 261.0471000 ha2016
potatoes333.11000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carrots and turnips25.6261000 ha2016
chillies and peppers96.9651000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts2 6801000 ha2016
sesame seed436.1731000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit3 053.9741000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts38.991000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa838.0461000 ha2016
coffee1.441000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane82.5861000 ha2016
tobacco6.9171000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton383.2731000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute1.041000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts400.8221000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits837.6551000 ha2016
citrus fruits, nes837.6551000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mangoes133.5721000 ha2016
papayas97.8381000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber156 341t2016
timber75 605 4322016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle20 560.9331000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes20 560.9331000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs7 488.6311000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep42 091.0421000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats73 879.5611000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses1 295.5931000 heads2016
asses and mules1 295.5931000 heads2016
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels279.8021000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds148 4041000 heads2016
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter13.2311000 t2014
cheese10.5931000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs39 648t2016
freshwater fishes684 359t2016
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The country’s most important resource is oil, taken from deposits in the Gulf of Guinea and on land (at Kokori, Isoko, Eriemu, Ughelli, Wopeli, Egbomo, Asso, Opukushi, Egbodi Creek, Nun River, Oloibiri, Umuechem, Imo River, Ohuru, Apara, Obigbo, Afam, Ebubu, Korokoro, Bomu, West Boda, Ibibio, Bonny, Krakama, Ekulama, Soku, Elope and Okan). Production is mostly controlled by foreign multi-national companies (such as ENI, Shell, Exxon/Mobil and Chevron) which have partnered with NNPC (Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation). The natural gas deposits are also important; two gas pipelines link the area where the gas is extracted to the Afam power station and to the industrial area of Trans-Amadi (in Port Harcourt). A further gas pipeline links Imo to Aba. Coal (in the area of Enugu), tin, columbite (in the Jos Plateau), lead and zinc (at Abakaliki) are also mined.
Energy and industry.
The (insufficient) production of electricity is mostly water-powered due to the large power plant near the Kainji Dam, on the River Niger.
There are oil refineries at Warri, Kaduna and at Alesa Eleme near Port Harcourt, with a new plant under construction near Lagos. Nitrogenous fertilizers are produced at Onne. The steel-making industry is centred around Ajaokuta and Aladja; the metal-working industry produces tin (at Jos) and lead and aluminium (at Port Harcourt). Cement and textile factories are widespread. There are large car-assembly plants at Lagos, Kaduna and Enugu. There are also tyre (in Lagos), paper (in Oku Iboku, Jebba and Iwopin), cigarette (in Ilorin, Ibadan, Port Harcourt and Zaria), beer (in Kaduna, Abeokuta, Ikeja, Aba and Umuahia), sugar (in Bacita), wood (in Calabar, Sapele and Epe) and oil factories (in Kano, Zaria, Maiduguri, Ikeja, Koko and Port Harcourt).

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal1221000 t2015
coal, total1221000 t2015
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beryllium0.0061000 t2016
columbite0.0521000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite221000 t2015
feldspar561000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
granite15 0001000 t2015
kaolin381000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold7 900kg2015
precious stones - kg1 760kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal24 165.52M kWh2015
- hydro5 661M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal8 4181000 kW2015
- hydro2 0401000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation29 829.52M kWh2015
total installed capacity10 4781000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium21000 t2013
lead141000 t2015
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars1 100no.2009
mopeds6 900no.2005
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watches and clocks34 600no.2005
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners19 200no.2005
fridges25 000no.2005
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen31000 t2014
petrol682.71000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia3401000 t2016
nitrogen fertilizers1151000 t2014
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets8821000 m²2005
cotton fabrics25M m²2005
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear37 123 000pairs2005
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley2 7001000 t2014
coconut oil121000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes1 813.2M units2005
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp231000 t2016
chemi-mechanical pulp231000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement20 5001000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production32 847.7M US$2017
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.

Oil production accounts for over 80% of the value of exports. The country mainly imports machinery, means of transport, chemicals, foodstuffs and manufactured goods.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) crude oil 36 057, natural gas 6 169, petroleum products 363, ships and boats 268, cocoa and derived products 256, oil seeds 197, fertilizers 166, electric energy 112, cigars and cigarettes 111, plastics 85, coconuts 81, hides and skins 74, natural rubber 60, cement 58


Finance and banking.
The central bank is the Central Bank of Nigeria. There are approximately 100 commercial and business banks in the country. The Stock Exchange is in Lagos.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels96.301% of goods exports2016
food products1.965% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
India7 938M US$2017
United States5 672M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China5 848M US$2017
Belgium4 023M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201746 900M US$ -
201635 000M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201745 000M US$ -
201639 000M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures4 511M US$2016
Number of arrivals1 889 000units2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown11 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried3 446.71000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers0.387per 1000 pop.2017
Computers8.5per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling8.6years2011
Graduates174 602units2004
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level574 078units2010
Teachers, secondary level273 781units2010
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.5per 1000 pop.2004
Physicians0.2per 1000 pop.2011
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV2.9% of adults2016
HIV, total3%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.22% of GDP2007
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking4.91%2016
Access to electricity59.3%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear7.7%2007
education2.4%2007
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