Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 923 769 sq km
Population: 190 886 311 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 206.64 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 14° - 4° N; long. 3° - 15° E
Capital: Abuja 3 564 126 inhab. (2016), urban agglomeration
Currency: naira (100 kobo)
Human development index: 0.532 (rank: 157)
Head of State and government: Muhammadu Buhari (APC), elected 29 March 2015, in office since 29 May 2015, reconfirmed 23 February 2019
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 23 February 2019: APC (All Progressives Congress), 217; PDP (People's Democratic Party), 115; others, 28
Internet: www.nigerianstat.gov.ng (National Bureau of Statistics)
Member of AU, Commonwealth, ECOWAS, OAS observer, OIC, OPEC, UN, WTO

Nigeria

Nigeria, Federal Republic of Nigeria
Useful information

International license plate code WAN
International dialling code 00234
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 240
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ng

GMT  +1
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Abuja 22.5; Lagos 27
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Abuja 21/21; Lagos 27/25.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Abuja 5/9; Lagos 5/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Abuja 1405; Lagos 1812
Days of rainfall (annual average) Abuja 94; Lagos 96

Politics and current affairs

Despite bad economic results and the continued attacks by Boko Haram, President M. Buhari won a second term in the elections on 23 February 2019, while his party (All Progressives Congress) upheld its absolute majority of seats in the National Assembly.

Geography.
Nigeria is bordered to the north by Niger, to the north-east by Chad, to the east by Cameroon and to the west by Benin. To the south it lies on the Gulf of Guinea.
The country has a low and lagoon-like coast, particularly in the area of the River Niger delta. The highest landmass is the Mambilla Plateau (Chappal Waddi 2419 m), sloping down towards the Niger basin and its tributary, the River Benue, and towards Chad from the easternmost ridges. There are plains to the north of the country.
The climate is hot and humid on the coast; rainfall is much lower towards inland areas.

Government


Formerly a British colony, Nigeria became independent on 1 October 1960; since 1 October 1963, it has been part of the Commonwealth. From 1967 to 1970, the country was the stage of a bloody civil war due to the secession of the eastern region of Biafra, later reunited with the country.
In power from 1966 to 1979, the military kept control of the country through a series of coups d’état. In 1993, General Sani Abacha concentrated power in the Provisional Ruling Council (PRC), setting up a dictatorship which only came to an end on his death in 1998. He was succeeded by General Olusegun Obasanjo, leader of the People’s Democratic Party (PDP), who won all the elections from 1999 until he withdrew from office in 2007. The PDP remained in control until 2015. The 2009 amnesty led to a decrease in attacks against oil companies in the Niger Delta, carried out especially by MEND (Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta), who demand the local communities be given greater autonomy and a share of the revenue coming from oil extractions; in May 2016, the attacks began again by a group who calls themselves the Niger Delta Avengers.
Tensions between Muslim and Christian communities in the north of the country remain one of the main causes of instability, and result in bloody clashes at times; the conflict between semi-nomadic pastoralists and farmers over the use of land has been particularly violent, and since 2009 attacks by the radical Islamic group Boko Haram have been particularly fierce, mostly operating in the country’s northeast, resulting in thousands of deaths, even over the border in neighbouring countries.
On the basis of the Constitution of 29 May 1999, the President of the Republic, who is also head of the government, is elected by direct suffrage with a single ballot for a term of four years, as is the National Assembly, which holds legislative power, and is made up of a Chamber of Representatives (360 members) and a Senate (109 members).


Defence.
The armed forces carry out a central role in the country’s political life, even following the establishment of formal democracy in 1999.


Justice.
The legal system is founded on British Common Law, on Islamic Law and on tribal customs. Islamic Law has been adopted by the majority of states in the north.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force12.5%2015
Army77.5%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides9.8per 100 000 pop.2015
Police personnel208.3per 100 000 pop.2013
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lagos13 340 000inhab.2015
Kano4 030 000inhab.2015
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lagos13 340 000inhab.2015
Kano4 030 000inhab.2015
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

In the north of the country most of the population is made up of Hausas and the Fulas (Fulani) and is predominantly Muslim, whilst in the south the population is mostly made up of Yorubas and Ibos and is predominantly Christian.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate38.42017
Death rate12.22017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other32.2%2013
Hausa27.4%2013


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim48.8%2010
Protestant37.8%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Sudanese dialects (Hausa, Ibo, Yoruba)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years42.5%2018
15-29 years27%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
Despite having rolled out diversification policies, the country’s economy is still mostly based on oil exports and is thus very sensitive to changes in prices on the international market; following the recession in 2016 brought about by the drop in values, since 2017, growth was once again positive thanks to an increase in prices and the stabilization of oil production. In 2018-19, growth was driven primarily by IT and communications. Public spending is financed in part by bond issues, but debt interests weigh heavily on the budget. The depreciation of the naira and the rise in coal and electricity prices have increased inflation. Difficult domestic conditions (rampant corruption, violence and lack of infrastructure) are also hampering development. Wealth distribution is incredibly unequal and a high rate of natural increase requires new jobs to continuously be created.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)118.86index2016
Balance of trade18 781.5M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population60 724 398units2018
Active population, Females45.5%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate6%2018
Unemployment rate, Females48%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses13 550 246M LCU2017
Revenues7 560 000M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture36.6%2018
industry11.6%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture21.1%2017
industry22.6%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation2 329.7BN LCU2018
International reserves42 838.9M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Exported crops include cocoa, peanuts, cashew nuts, palm oil, sesame and cotton. Crops grown for the domestic market include cassava, yam, maize and sorghum. However, agricultural production only covers two thirds of domestic requirements. Forests contain valuable woods (obeche, mahogany and abura). There are large rubber tree plantations (India rubber) in the area of Benin City. Cattle-farming is practised, above all, in the north by the Fulas, in a nomadic or semi-nomadic way.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land44.46%2015
forests7.68%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total28 873.2251000 t2017
maize10 4201000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava59 485.9471000 t2017
potatoes1 284.3681000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carrots and turnips220.8551000 t2017
chillies and peppers748.5591000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts2 4201000 t2017
sesame seed5501000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits7 759.4261000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts288.6151000 t2017
copra15.71000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa328.2631000 t2017
coffee1.5561000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane1 497.7571000 t2017
tobacco61000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton291.2071000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute1.4081000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total11 908.11000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts98.2531000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits4 088.9941000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes4 088.9941000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mangoes935.9541000 t2017
papayas837.7381000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize6 5401000 ha2017
millet2 212.4391000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava6 792.3491000 ha2017
potatoes345.2461000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carrots and turnips24.9711000 ha2017
chillies and peppers97.771000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts2 8201000 ha2017
sesame seed5001000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit3 037.2911000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts39.1241000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa1 191.8121000 ha2017
coffee1.1981000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane89.0171000 ha2017
tobacco9.81000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton321.3151000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute1.041000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts117.0181000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits839.6281000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes839.6281000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mangoes134.4681000 ha2017
papayas97.0231000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber159 264t2017
timber75 912 8622017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle20 773.3581000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes20 773.3581000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs7 506.0151000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep42 5001000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats78 037.0771000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses1 313.0181000 heads2017
asses and mules1 313.0181000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels2821000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds140 6881000 heads2017
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter13.2311000 t2014
cheese10.5931000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs65 965.3t2017
freshwater fishes716 149t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The country’s most important resource is oil, taken from deposits in the Gulf of Guinea and on land (at Kokori, Isoko, Eriemu, Ughelli, Wopeli, Egbomo, Asso, Opukushi, Egbodi Creek, Nun River, Oloibiri, Umuechem, Imo River, Ohuru, Apara, Obigbo, Afam, Ebubu, Korokoro, Bomu, West Boda, Ibibio, Bonny, Krakama, Ekulama, Soku, Elope and Okan). Production is mostly controlled by foreign multi-national companies (such as ENI, Shell, Exxon/Mobil and Chevron) which have partnered with NNPC (Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation). The natural gas deposits are also important; two gas pipelines link the area where the gas is extracted to the Afam power station and to the industrial area of Trans-Amadi (in Port Harcourt). A further gas pipeline links Imo to Aba. A liquefaction plant is active on Bonny Island. Coal (in the area of Enugu), tin, columbite (in the Jos Plateau), lead and zinc (at Abakaliki) are also mined.
Energy and industry.
The (insufficient) production of electricity is mostly water-powered due to the large power plant near the Kainji Dam, on the River Niger.
There are oil refineries at Warri, Kaduna, Alesa Eleme near Port Harcourt, in the Niger Delta, with two more new plants under construction near Lagos and in the Niger Delta. Nitrogenous fertilizers are produced at Onne. The steel-making industry is centred around Ajaokuta and Aladja; the metal-working industry produces tin (at Jos) and lead and aluminium (at Port Harcourt). Cement and textile factories are widespread. There are large car-assembly plants at Lagos, Kaduna and Enugu. Companies active in information technology and communications are concentrated in Lagos. There are also tyre (in Lagos), paper (in Oku Iboku, Jebba and Iwopin), cigarette (in Ilorin, Ibadan, Port Harcourt and Zaria), beer (in Kaduna, Abeokuta, Ikeja, Aba and Umuahia), sugar (in Bacita), wood (in Calabar, Sapele and Epe) and oil factories (in Kano, Zaria, Maiduguri, Ikeja, Koko and Port Harcourt).

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal461000 t2016
coal, total461000 t2016
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beryllium0.0041000 t2018
columbite0.0521000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite171000 t2016
feldspar34.11000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
granite15 0001000 t2015
kaolin24.11000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold7 900kg2016
precious stones - kg1 760kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal23 792.34M kWh2016
- hydro5 530M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal8 4581000 kW2016
- hydro2 0401000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation29 351.34M kWh2016
total installed capacity10 5191000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium21000 t2013
lead141000 t2015
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars1 100no.2009
mopeds6 900no.2005
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watches and clocks34 600no.2005
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners19 200no.2005
fridges25 000no.2005
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen71000 t2016
petrol682.71000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia3401000 t2016
nitrogen fertilizers116.91000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets8821000 m²2005
cotton fabrics25M m²2005
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear37 123 000pairs2005
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley2 7001000 t2014
coconut oil121000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes1 813.2M units2005
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp231000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp231000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement22 0001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production30 906.1M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.

Oil production accounts for over 80% of the value of exports. The country mainly imports machinery, means of transport, chemicals, foodstuffs and manufactured goods.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) crude oil 36 057, natural gas 6 169, petroleum products 363, ships and boats 268, cocoa and derived products 256, oil seeds 197, fertilizers 166, electric energy 112, cigars and cigarettes 111, plastics 85, coconuts 81, hides and skins 74, natural rubber 60, cement 58


Finance and banking.
The central bank is the Central Bank of Nigeria. There are approximately 100 commercial and business banks in the country. The Stock Exchange is in Lagos.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels95.842% of goods exports2017
manufactures2.159% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
India9 907M US$2018
Netherlands6 702M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China8 349M US$2018
Netherlands4 906M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201860 665M US$ -
201744 468M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201841 883M US$ -
201731 273M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures8 181M US$2017
Number of arrivals1 889 000units2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown11 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried3 446.71000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers0.387per 1000 pop.2017
Computers8.5per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling8.6years2011
Graduates174 602units2004
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level574 078units2010
Teachers, secondary level273 781units2010
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.5per 1000 pop.2004
Physicians0.2per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV2.8% of adults2017
HIV, total3%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.22% of GDP2007
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking4.91%2016
Access to electricity54.4%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear7.7%2007
education2.4%2007
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