Form of Government: Republic
Area: 130 373 sq km
Population: 6 518 481 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 50 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 16° - 10° N; long. 88° - 83° W
Capital: Managua (capital) 1 043 264 inhab. (2020); Managua 1 341 766 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: córdoba oro (100 centavos)
Human development index: 0.66 (rank: 128)
President and head of government: Daniel Ortega Saavedra (FSLN), elected 5 November 2006, last reconfirmed 6 November 2016
Parliament: seats based on the elections of 6 November 2016: FSLN (Sandinista National Liberation Front), 70; PLC (Constitutionalist Liberal Party), 13; PLI (Independent Liberal Party), 2; ALN (Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance), 2; others, 3
Internet: www.inide.gob.ni (Instituto Nacional de Información de Desarrollo)
Member of DR-CAFTA, OAS, UN, WTO

Nicaragua

Nicaragua, República de Nicaragua
Useful information

International license plate code NIC
International dialling code 00505
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 120
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ni

GMT  -6
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Managua 27.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Managua 26.5/27
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Managua 4/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Managua 1147
Days of rainfall (annual average) Managua 120

Politics and current affairs

In 2021, the country is still affected by the economic and social crisis that began with the protests against D. Ortega’s regime (April 2018), exacerbated by the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the damage caused by two hurricanes (November 2020).

Geography.
Bordered by Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south, it faces the Caribbean Sea to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. The fairly fertile narrow western coastal strip continues inland forming a depression, part of which is occupied by the Lakes Managua and Nicaragua. Two mountain ranges stand at the western edge of the eastern swampy plain (the Mosquito Coast). It has a tropical climate.

Government


Having become independent in 1821, in 1912, it was occupied by the USA, which withdrew in 1933 after the success of a nationalist revolution led by General Augusto Sandino. After Sandino’s assassination, a long period of dictatorship began under Anastasio Somoza and his sons (1936-79). Following the civil war, power passed into the hands of the FSLN (Sandinista National Liberation Front). The USA reacted by supporting anti-Sandinista Contra rebels in guerrilla warfare which dragged on until a peace agreement was signed in 1988. At the 1990 elections, an anti-Sandinista coalition led by Violeta Chamorro came to power. The FSLN came back into power in 2006 with Daniel Ortega, who adopted a policy of reinforcing the powers of the head of state by modifying the Constitution and eliminating term limits, which have allowed the president to have consecutive mandates and which have led to an authoritarian turn in his regime. According to the Constitution of 1987, revised several times, the President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for 5 years, as does the National Assembly (90 elected members plus the outgoing President and the unelected presidential candidate with the most votes). The right to vote is acquired at the age of 16.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force10$%2015
Army83.3%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 252.6per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides7.4per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Managua1 043 264inhab.2020
León173 866inhab.2020
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Managua1 341 766inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate20.2152019
Death rate5.0752019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mestizo63$%2000
white14$%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic58.4%2010
Protestant26.5%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Chibcha
Spanish (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years25.4%2020
15-29 years29.9%2020


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Economy


The main commercial crops are sugar cane, coffee, fruit, peanuts and tobacco. Crops grown for domestic consumption include maize, rice, cassava and beans. The forests contain plentiful supplies of prized timber (mahogany and rosewood) and rubber trees. Mineral resources include gold, silver, salt and gypsum. The flourishing textile sector fuels most of the country’s exports, and sugar is also important (refineries at Chichigalpa, León and Granada). There is an oil refinery at Managua and cement plants in Ciudad Sandino, Nagarote and San Rafael del Sur.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)132.38index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)117.55index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population3 028 028units2020
Active population, Females38.6%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5.8%2020
Unemployment rate, Females37.8%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses68 997M LCU2019
Revenues81 078M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture30.7%2019
industry15.9%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture17.093%2019
industry27.8%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation33.504BN LCU2020
International reserves3 211.903M US$2020
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land14.875%2018
forests29.978%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total925.4061000 t2019
maize400.1461000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava220.7861000 t2019
potatoes73.6151000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages71.1861000 t2019
carrots and turnips19.5671000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry197.021000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts224.21000 t2019
sesame seed10$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits86.2171000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts6.4691000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa7$1000 t2019
coffee1741000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane7 371.8111000 t2019
tobacco6.0011000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton4.7071000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal5.6291000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total582.9931000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits130.6471000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes0.5091000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas95.4811000 t2019
pineapples70.2531000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize303.5471000 ha2019
rice73.891000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava26.431000 ha2019
potatoes3.7831000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1.3021000 ha2019
carrots and turnips0.7411000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry229.4651000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts48$1000 ha2019
sesame seed7$1000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit8.2461000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts1.521000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa11.9351000 ha2019
coffee180.4161000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane77.1341000 ha2019
tobacco3.6341000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton2$1000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal6.0391000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits27.11000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes0.1691000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas1.5331000 ha2019
pineapples4.7091000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber6 301 4682019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle5 221.1591000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes5 221.1591000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs524.2231000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep6.811000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats7.8611000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses9.0811000 heads2019
asses and mules57.0971000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds24 2531000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.1521000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.5741000 t2018
cheese48.9571000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs49 012.86t2019
freshwater fishes343.7t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum70$1000 t2019
salt30$1000 t2011
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pozzolan1991000 t2018
pumice - cu m0.011000 m³2013
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold7 703kg2018
silver11 263kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- other renew.2 324M kWh2018
- thermal1 784.12M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal9851000 kW2018
- other renew.5731000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation4 515.12M kWh2018
total installed capacity1 658.061000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen21$1000 t2018
petrol143.41000 t2014
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley87.9761000 t2018
coconut oil0.0651000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigars38$M units2003
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement9101000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production79$M US$2004
food, beverages and tobacco production234M US$2004
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products45.611% of goods exports2019
manufactures43.064% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States606.6M US$2010
Venezuela248.6M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States868.6M US$2010
Venezuela742.9M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20205 191M US$ -
20195 273M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20206 712M US$ -
20196 986M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures312M US$2019
Number of arrivals1 295 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Merchant fleet5$units2021
Merchant fleet, gross tonnage1 730t2021
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers33.247per 1000 pop.2019
Computers40.3per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling10.8years2003
Graduates4 298units2002
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level923 745units2010
Students, secondary level465 201units2010
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.9per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians1$per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.2% of adults2019
HIV, total0.1%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.107% of GDP2015
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking55.4%2019
Access to electricity88.213%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
education5.8%2009
food47.2%2009
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