Form of Government: Republic
Area: 130 373 sq km
Population: 6 460 411 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 49.55 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 16° - 10° N; long. 88° - 83° W
Capital: Managua (capital) 1 038 785 inhab. (2018); Managua 1 341 766 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: córdoba oro (100 centavos)
Human development index: 0.658 (rank: 124)
President and head of government: Daniel Ortega Saavedra (FSLN), elected 5 November 2006, last reconfirmed 6 November 2016
Parliament: seats based on the elections of 6 November 2016: FSLN (Sandinista National Liberation Front), 70; PLC (Constitutionalist Liberal Party), 13; PLI (Independent Liberal Party), 2; ALN (Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance), 2; others, 3
Internet: www.inide.gob.ni (Instituto Nacional de Información de Desarrollo)
Member of DR-CAFTA, OAS, UN, WTO

Nicaragua

Nicaragua, República de Nicaragua
Useful information

International license plate code NIC
International dialling code 00505
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 120
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ni

GMT  -6
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Managua 27.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Managua 26.5/27
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Managua 4/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Managua 1147
Days of rainfall (annual average) Managua 120

Politics and current affairs

The protests against D. Ortega’s regime, begun in April 2018 in opposition to social welfare reform, continued throughout the following months. The dissent was brutally repressed, killing many. Meetings between the government and the opposition did not lead to peace within the country.

Geography.
Bordered by Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south, it faces the Caribbean Sea to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. The fairly fertile narrow western coastal strip continues inland forming a depression, part of which is occupied by the Lakes Managua and Nicaragua. Two mountain ranges stand at the western edge of the eastern swampy plain (the Mosquito Coast). It has a tropical climate.

Government


Having become independent in 1821, in 1912, it was occupied by the USA, which withdrew in 1933 after the success of a nationalist revolution led by General Augusto Sandino. After Sandino’s assassination, a long period of dictatorship began under Anastasio Somoza and his sons (1936-79). Following the civil war, power passed into the hands of the FSLN (Sandinista National Liberation Front). The USA reacted by supporting anti-Sandinista Contra rebels in guerrilla warfare which dragged on until a peace agreement was signed in 1988. At the 1990 elections, an anti-Sandinista coalition led by Violeta Chamorro came to power. The FSLN had lost all elections until 2006, when it came back into power with Daniel Ortega. His party adopted a policy of reinforcing the powers of the head of state by modifying the Constitution and eliminating term limits, which have allowed the president to have consecutive mandates and which have led to a conservative turn in his regime. According to the Constitution of 1987, revised several times, the President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for 5 years, as does the National Assembly (90 elected members plus the outgoing President and the unelected presidential candidate with the most votes).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force10%2015
Army83.3%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 252.6per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides7.4per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Managua1 038 785inhab.2018
León171 255inhab.2018
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Managua1 341 766inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate21.42017
Death rate3.72017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mestizo63%2000
white14%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic58.4%2010
Protestant26.5%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Chibcha
Spanish (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years26.6%2018
15-29 years30.7%2018


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Economy


The main commercial crops are sugar cane, coffee, fruit, peanuts and tobacco. Crops grown for domestic consumption include maize, rice, cassava and beans. The forests contain plentiful supplies of prized timber (mahogany and rosewood) and rubber trees. Mineral resources include gold, silver, salt and gypsum. The flourishing textile sector fuels most of the country’s exports, and sugar is also important (refineries at Chichigalpa, León and Granada). There is an oil refinery at Managua and cement plants in Ciudad Sandino, Nagarote and San Rafael del Sur.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)132.38index2016
Balance of trade-1 776.1M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 991 617units2018
Active population, Females39.2%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.5%2018
Unemployment rate, Females46.5%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses69 240.2M LCU2018
Revenues69 676.5M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture31%2018
industry16.7%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture17.2%2017
industry26.2%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation22.4BN LCU2018
International reserves2 261.1M US$2018
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land14.87%2015
forests25.88%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total909.0451000 t2017
maize408.4151000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava201.2511000 t2017
potatoes59.6991000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages67.9191000 t2017
carrots and turnips13.9961000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry193.3161000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts203.0851000 t2017
sesame seed4.31000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits74.31000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts6.4261000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa6.61000 t2017
coffee128.1111000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane7 096.3731000 t2017
tobacco5.8971000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton3.7461000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal5.3111000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total289.8851000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits113.0841000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes0.4521000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas112.911000 t2017
pineapples63.5851000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize319.21000 ha2017
rice67.8991000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava26.1951000 ha2017
potatoes3.4041000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1.2631000 ha2017
carrots and turnips0.5651000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry224.7511000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts46.261000 ha2017
sesame seed6.6611000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit7.431000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts1.4371000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa9.9071000 ha2017
coffee146.5451000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane73.9031000 ha2017
tobacco3.7621000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton21000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal5.8291000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits24.2691000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes0.151000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas1.7161000 ha2017
pineapples4.1741000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber6 287 9152017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle4 848.3411000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes4 848.3411000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs516.2131000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep6.7291000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats7.7331000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses9.0811000 heads2017
asses and mules57.1541000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds23 1451000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.561000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.4211000 t2014
cheese50.4381000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs44 224t2017
freshwater fishes483t2017
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum44.21000 t2018
salt301000 t2011
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pozzolan1601000 t2014
pumice - cu m0.011000 m³2013
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold8 391kg2016
silver21 382kg2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 063.3M kWh2016
- other renew.1 969M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal8671000 kW2016
- other renew.540.71000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation4 454.3M kWh2016
total installed capacity1 550.71000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen191000 t2016
petrol143.41000 t2014
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley76.81000 t2014
coconut oil0.061000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigars38M units2003
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement7001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production79M US$2004
food, beverages and tobacco production234M US$2004
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products52.346% of goods exports2017
manufactures45.792% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States606.6M US$2010
Venezuela248.6M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States868.6M US$2010
Venezuela742.9M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20185 014M US$ -
20175 170M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20186 790M US$ -
20177 305M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures364M US$2017
Number of arrivals1 787 000units2017
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Communications


Transport.
In 2013, the government granted a Chinese company the right to build a navigable canal between the Atlantic and Pacific as an alternative to the Panama Canal, but the project has not moved forward.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Merchant fleet5units2018
Merchant fleet, gross tonnage1 730t2018
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers33.795per 1000 pop.2017
Computers40.3per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling10.8years2003
Graduates4 298units2002
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level30 571units2010
Teachers, secondary level15 089units2010
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.9per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians1per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.2% of adults2017
HIV, total0.1%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.1% of GDP2015
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking52.3%2016
Access to electricity86.767%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
education5.8%2009
food47.2%2009
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