Form of Government: Republic
Area: 130 373 sq km
Population: 6 393 824 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 49.04 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 16° - 10° N; long. 88° - 83° W
Capital: Managua (capital) 1 036 224 inhab. (2017); Managua 1 331 759 inhab. (2017), urban agglomeration
Currency: córdoba oro (100 centavos)
Human development index: 0.645 (rank: 124)
President and head of government: Daniel Ortega Saavedra (FSLN), elected 5 November 2006, last reconfirmed 6 November 2016
Parliament: seats based on the elections of 6 November 2016: FSLN (Sandinista National Liberation Front), 70; PLC (Constitutionalist Liberal Party), 13; PLI (Independent Liberal Party), 2; ALN (Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance), 2; others, 3
Internet: www.inide.gob.ni (Instituto Nacional de Información de Desarrollo)
Member of DR-CAFTA, OAS, UN, WTO

Nicaragua

Nicaragua, República de Nicaragua
Useful information

International license plate code NIC
International dialling code 00505
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 120
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ni

GMT  -6
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Managua 27.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Managua 26.5/27
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Managua 4/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Managua 1147
Days of rainfall (annual average) Managua 120

Geography.
Bordered by Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south, it faces the Caribbean Sea to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. The fairly fertile narrow western coastal strip continues inland forming a depression, part of which is occupied by the Lakes Managua and Nicaragua. Two mountain ranges stand at the western edge of the eastern swampy plain (the Mosquito Coast). It has a tropical climate.

Government


Having become independent in 1821, in 1912, it was occupied by the USA, which withdrew in 1933 after the success of a nationalist revolution led by General Augusto Sandino. After Sandino’s assassination, a long period of dictatorship began under Anastasio Somoza and his sons (1936-79). Following the civil war, power passed into the hands of the FSLN (Sandinista National Liberation Front). The USA reacted by supporting anti-Sandinista Contra rebels in guerrilla warfare which dragged on until a peace agreement was signed in 1988. At the 1990 elections, an anti-Sandinista coalition led by Violeta Chamorro came to power. The FSLN had lost all elections until 2006, when it came back into power with Daniel Ortega. His party adopted a policy of reinforcing the powers of the head of state by modifying the Constitution and eliminating term limits, which have allowed the president to have consecutive mandates and which have led to a conservative turn in his regime. According to the Constitution of 1987, revised several times, the President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for 5 years, as does the National Assembly (90 elected members plus the outgoing President and the unelected presidential candidate with the most votes).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force10%2015
Army83.3%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 534.3per 100 000 pop.2016
Homicides11.5per 100 000 pop.2012
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Managua1 036 224inhab.2017
León170 327inhab.2017
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Managua1 331 759inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate21.82016
Death rate3.72016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mestizo63%2000
white14%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic58.4%2010
Protestant26.5%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Chibcha
Spanish (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years27.2%2017
15-29 years31%2017


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Economy


The main commercial crops are sugar cane, coffee, fruit, peanuts and tobacco. Crops grown for domestic consumption include maize, rice, cassava and beans. The forests contain plentiful supplies of prized timber (e.g. mahogany and rosewood) and rubber trees. Mineral resources include gold, silver, marine salt and gypsum. The flourishing textile sector fuels most of the country’s exports, and sugar is also important (refineries at Chichigalpa, León and Granada). There is an oil refinery at Managua.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)132.38index2016
Balance of trade-1 960M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 940 029units2017
Active population, Females38.9%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.4%2017
Unemployment rate, Females45.6%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses55 370.9M LCU2015
Revenues58 164.7M LCU2015
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture29.4%2017
industry17.7%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture17.3%2016
industry26.8%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation23.4BN LCU2017
International reserves2 757.8M US$2017
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land14.87%2015
forests25.88%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total849.9631000 t2016
maize410.631000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava187.7811000 t2016
potatoes39.9211000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages53.1351000 t2016
carrots and turnips17.9761000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry184.7271000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts186.3751000 t2016
sesame seed2.2731000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits50.51000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts6.4121000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa5.1851000 t2016
coffee114.3071000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane6 815.1471000 t2016
tobacco5.1031000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton2.9181000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal5.2741000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total289.8851000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits111.6341000 t2016
citrus fruits, nes0.5191000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas106.4371000 t2016
pineapples62.4271000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize350.71000 ha2016
rice66.711000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava23.241000 ha2016
potatoes2.381000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.911000 ha2016
carrots and turnips0.71000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry249.21000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts42.281000 ha2016
sesame seed4.621000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit61000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts1.4291000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa9.311000 ha2016
coffee120.051000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane74.131000 ha2016
tobacco3.151000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton1.5581000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal5.8131000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits24.0741000 ha2016
citrus fruits, nes0.1711000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas1.681000 ha2016
pineapples4.111000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber6 290 8072016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle5 059.31000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes5 059.31000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs614.2571000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep6.7111000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats7.6971000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses9.071000 heads2016
asses and mules57.2171000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds22 9281000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.561000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.4211000 t2014
cheese50.4381000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs43 219t2016
freshwater fishes566t2016
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum471000 t2016
salt301000 t2011
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pozzolan1601000 t2014
pumice - cu m0.011000 m³2013
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold8 646kg2014
silver18 000kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 149.78M kWh2015
- other renew.1 999M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal8671000 kW2015
- other renew.480.71000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation4 440.78M kWh2015
total installed capacity1 470.71000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen81000 t2015
petrol143.41000 t2014
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley76.81000 t2014
coconut oil0.061000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigars38M units2003
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement7001000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production79M US$2004
food, beverages and tobacco production234M US$2004
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures50.365% of goods exports2016
food products47.855% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States606.6M US$2010
Venezuela248.6M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States868.6M US$2010
Venezuela742.9M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20175 169.61M US$ -
20164 781.83M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20177 130M US$ -
20167 062.2M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures460M US$2016
Number of arrivals1 504 000units2016
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Communications


Transport.
In 2013, the government granted a Chinese company the right to build a navigable canal between the Atlantic and Pacific as an alternative to the Panama Canal, but the project has not moved forward.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Merchant fleet5units2018
Merchant fleet, gross tonnage1 730t2018
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers33.795per 1000 pop.2017
Computers40.3per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling10.8years2003
Graduates4 298units2002
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level30 571units2010
Teachers, secondary level15 089units2010
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.9per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians0.9per 1000 pop.2014
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.2% of adults2016
HIV, total0.1%2001
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking52.3%2016
Access to electricity81.796%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
education5.8%2009
food47.2%2009
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