Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 147 181 sq km
Population: 28 087 871 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 190.84 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 30° - 26° N; long. 80° - 88° E
Capital: Kathmandu=Kāṭhmāṇḍau (capital) 1 329 732 inhab. (2018);
Currency: Nepalese rupee (100 paisa)
Human development index: 0.579 (rank: 147)
President: Bidhya Devi Bhandari (independent), since 29 October 2015
Prime Minister: Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli (Communist Party of Nepal), since 15 February 2018
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 26 November and 7 December 2017: Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist), 121; Nepali Congress, 63; Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre), 53; National People's Party of Nepal, 17; Federal Socialist Forum, 16; others, 5
Internet: www.cbs.gov.np (Central Bureau of Statistics)
Member of SAARC, UN, WTO

Nepal

Nepāl, Sańghīya Loktāntrik Gaṇatantra Nepāl
Useful information

International license plate code NEP
International dialling code 00977
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side left
Internet code .np

GMT  +5.45
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Kathmandu 18.6
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Kathmandu 10/25
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Kathmandu 5/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Kathmandu 1424
Days of rainfall (annual average) Kathmandu 97

Geography.
Nepal is bordered by China to the north, and by India to the east, south and west. It includes the highest part of the Himalayan range (Everest, 8848 m; Kānchenjunga, 8586 m). It has a tropical monsoon climate tempered by its high altitude.

Government


A British protected State since 1816, Nepal’s full sovereignty was formally recognized by Great Britain in 1923. Giving in to popular pressure, in 1990, the king abolished the Panchayat, the councils of notables at local and national level on which the Nepalese “no-party democracy” had been based since 1962. Between 1996 and 2006 the anti-monarchist Maoist insurgents of the Communist Party of Nepal (CPN) conducted guerrilla warfare against government forces. Following assumption of absolute power in 2001 by the discredited King Gyanendra, there was a serious political crisis in 2006. A republic was proclaimed in 2008. Legislative power passed to an assembly tasked with drafting a new constitution. After another political crisis, a new assembly was elected in 2013. The legislative elections held in 2017 brought an end to the transitional period that followed the approval of a new constitution.
The Constitution, which entered into force on 20 September 2015, instituted a federal state with a bicameral parliament formed by a House of Representatives (275 elected members with a 5-year term) and the National Assembly (56 elected members and 3 appointed by the President for 6 years, a third of which can be renewed every 2 years). The President, elected by the Federal Parliament and the State Assemblies for 5 years, appoints the Prime Minister, who must pass a confidence vote in the House of Representatives.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Army100%2017
Military expenditure1.4% of GDP2018
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes15per 100 000 pop.2006
Homicides2.2per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Kathmandu=Kāṭhmāṇḍau1 329 732inhab.2018
Pokharā264 991inhab.2011
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate19.92018
Death rate6.42018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other29.2%2011
Chhetri16.6%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hindu81.3%2011
Buddhist9%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Nepali (official)
Tibetan dialects
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years29.5%2018
15-29 years30.6%2018


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Economy


Agriculture, practised on micro-farms in the mountain valleys, tends to be of a subsistence level. Cereals, vegetables and sugar cane are the main crops. Livestock farming (cattle and goats) is the most important and most widespread economic activity. Forests cover much of the terrain. Industry is concentrated in Kathmandu, Patan and Balaju. The sectors include agro-food products (beer and sugar), textiles (carpets), tobacco and paper-processing. There are cement factories at Lumbinī and Nārāyaṇī regions. The hydroelectric potential is considerable: a large electrical power-plant is active on the River Kāli Gandaki; others are under construction. Tourism is relevant. The country is deeply reliant on the remittances from emigrants. Most of the trade takes place with India.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)140.07index2016
Balance of trade-11 240M US$2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population16 885 875units2019
Active population, Females55.7%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate1.4%2019
Unemployment rate, Females47.9%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses1 067 669.2M LCU2018-19
Revenues880 154.2M LCU2018-19
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture65%2019
industry15.1%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture28.1%2018
industry14.9%2018
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation511.931BN LCU2019
International reserves8 713.2M US$2019
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land16.22%2015
forests25.36%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley30.511000 t2018
cereals, total9 930.1781000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes3 0881000 t2018
roots and tubers, total3 266.3281000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages8.1131000 t2018
cauliflowers1.9441000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry19.0311000 t2018
beans, green0.1851000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soybeans27.6811000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts0.4541000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0.5131000 t2018
ginger2841000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane3 558.1821000 t2018
tobacco1.5231000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.1231000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed14.8161000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute11.1591000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples28.8951000 t2018
apricots1.821000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.0091000 t2018
walnuts8.2131000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits245.1751000 t2018
citrus fruits, nes5.7521000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas254.4031000 t2018
mangoes328.2711000 t2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley24.6481000 ha2018
maize954.1581000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes195.2681000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.2831000 ha2018
cauliflowers0.1011000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry21.9531000 ha2018
beans, green0.0671000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soybeans21.8971000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts0.3221000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee2.651000 ha2018
ginger231000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane78.6091000 ha2018
tobacco1.3261000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.1281000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed151000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute7.6071000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples4.1331000 ha2018
apricots0.2861000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.0181000 ha2018
walnuts1.9851000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits25.9641000 ha2018
citrus fruits, nes0.6711000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas15.7651000 ha2018
mangoes36.5451000 ha2018
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber13 175 4372018
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle7 376.3061000 heads2018
cattle and buffaloes12 654.1251000 heads2018
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes5 277.8191000 heads2018
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 435.3691000 heads2018
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep800.7491000 heads2018
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats11 647.3191000 heads2018
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds72 6491000 heads2018
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey3.981000 t2018
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter26.11000 t2014
eggs75.8961000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes80 770t2018
total catch81 070t2018
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal211000 t2017
coal, total211000 t2017
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
iron ore0.7721000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
talc4.91000 t2017
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone4 893.61000 t2016
marble0.31000 m³2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
precious stones - kg521kg2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro4 586M kWh2017
renewable electricity generation100%2017
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro1 0601000 kW2018
- other renew.53.11000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation4 668M kWh2017
total installed capacity1 046.11000 kW2017
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude801000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nitrogen fertilizers12.41000 t2011-12
paints2.11000 t2011-12
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets2601000 m²2011-12
cotton fabrics - m9.3M m2011-12
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear3 054 000pairs2012-13
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley601000 t2014
coconut oil0.0011000 t2013
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes14 312M units2012-13
cigars and cigarettes14 312M units2012-13
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper131000 t2018
paper131000 t2018
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement4 9001000 t2017
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production74.4M US$2011
food, beverages and tobacco production487.7M US$2011
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures68.318% of goods exports2017
food products26.125% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
India546M US$2010
United States52.9M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
India2 921M US$2010
China536.4M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2019900M US$ -
2018786M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201912 140M US$ -
201812 712M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures918M US$2018
Number of arrivals1 173 000units2018
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown9 000 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried3 2971000 units2018
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers28.188per 1000 pop.2018
Computers4.8per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling12.8years2017
Graduates81 576units2018
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level201 075units2019
Teachers, secondary level122 582units2019
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending4.4% of total expenses2007
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.3per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians0.75per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2018
HIV, total0.3%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.3% of GDP2010
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking27.62%2016
Access to electricity93.92%2018
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear6.4%2008
food, non-alcoholic beverages50.5%2008
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