Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 147 181 sq km
Population: 29 136 808 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 197.97 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 30° - 26° N; long. 80° - 88° E
Capital: Kathmandu=Kāṭhmāṇḍau (capital) 1 329 732 inhab. (2018);
Currency: Nepalese rupee (100 paisa)
Human development index: 0.602 (rank: 142)
President: Bidhya Devi Bhandari (independent), since 29 October 2015
Prime Minister: Sher Bahadur Deuba (Nepali Congress), since 13 July 2021
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 26 November and 7 December 2017: Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist), 121; Nepali Congress, 63; Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre), 53; National People's Party of Nepal, 17; Federal Socialist Forum, 16; others, 5
Internet: www.cbs.gov.np (Central Bureau of Statistics)
Member of SAARC, UN, WTO

Nepal

Nepāl, Sańghīya Loktāntrik Gaṇatantra Nepāl
Useful information

International license plate code NEP
International dialling code 00977
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side left
Internet code .np

GMT  +5.45
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Kathmandu 18.6
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Kathmandu 10/25
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Kathmandu 5/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Kathmandu 1424
Days of rainfall (annual average) Kathmandu 97

Politics and current affairs

A dispute within the government party caused Prime Mini­ster Oli to request the dissolution of the parliament (20 December 2020) and call new elections. The decision was annulled by the Supreme Court (23 February 2021), which overturned a similar one on 12 July, requiring the installation of a new prime minister as requested by the opposition.

Geography.
Nepal is bordered by China to the north, and by India to the east, south and west. It includes the highest part of the Himalayan range (Everest, 8848 m; Kānchenjunga, 8586 m). It has a tropical monsoon climate tempered by its high altitude.

Government


A British protected State since 1816, Nepal’s full sovereignty was formally recognized by Great Britain in 1923. Giving in to popular pressure, in 1990, the king abolished the Panchayat, the councils of notables at local and national level on which the Nepalese “no-party democracy” had been based since 1962. Between 1996 and 2006 the anti-monarchist Maoist insurgents of the Communist Party of Nepal (CPN) conducted guerrilla warfare against government forces. Following assumption of absolute power in 2001 by the discredited King Gyanendra, there was a serious political crisis in 2006. A republic was proclaimed in 2008. Legislative power passed to an assembly tasked with drafting a new constitution. After another political crisis, a new assembly was elected in 2013. The legislative elections held in 2017 brought an end to the transitional period that followed the approval of a new constitution.
The Constitution, which entered into force on 20 September 2015, instituted a federal state with a bicameral parliament formed by a House of Representatives (275 elected members with a 5-year term) and the National Assembly (56 elected members and 3 appointed by the President for 6 years, a third of which can be renewed every 2 years). The President, elected by the Federal Parliament and the State Assemblies for 5 years, appoints the Prime Minister, who must pass a confidence vote in the House of Representatives.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Army100%2017
Military expenditure1.563% of GDP2019
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes15$per 100 000 pop.2006
Homicides2.2per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Kathmandu=Kāṭhmāṇḍau1 329 732inhab.2018
Pokharā264 991inhab.2011
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate19.5782019
Death rate6.3222019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other29.2%2011
Chhetri16.6%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hindu81.3%2011
Buddhist9$%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Nepali (official)
Tibetan dialects
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years28$%2020
15-29 years30.5%2020


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Economy


Agriculture, practised on micro-farms in the mountain valleys, tends to be of a subsistence level. Cereals, vegetables and sugar cane are the main crops. Livestock farming (cattle and goats) is the most important and most widespread economic activity. Forests cover much of the terrain. Industry is concentrated in Kathmandu, Patan and Balaju. The sectors include agro-food products (beer and sugar), textiles (carpets), tobacco and paper-processing. There are cement factories at Lumbinī and Nārāyaṇī regions. The hydroelectric potential is considerable: a large electrical power-plant is active on the River Kāli Gandaki; others are under construction. Tourism is relevant. The country is deeply reliant on the remittances from emigrants. Most of the trade takes place with India.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)140.07index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)112.59index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population16 016 973units2020
Active population, Females55.7%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.4%2020
Unemployment rate, Females47.9%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses1 067 669.2M LCU2018-19
Revenues880 154.2M LCU2018-19
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture65$%2019
industry15.1%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture27.512%2019
industry15.08%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation621.884BN LCU2020
International reserves11 467.799M US$2020
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land16.224%2018
forests41.591%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley30.551000 t2019
cereals, total10 625.1581000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes3 112.9471000 t2019
roots and tubers, total3 288.6311000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages12.1221000 t2019
cauliflowers2.1021000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry19.0951000 t2019
beans, green0.3441000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soybeans31.5671000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts0.4681000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0.6391000 t2019
ginger297.5121000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane3 557.9341000 t2019
tobacco1.0621000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.1311000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed12.4771000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute10.5781000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples31.3861000 t2019
apricots1.9231000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.0091000 t2019
walnuts8.9341000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits272.621000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes5.8111000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas278.891000 t2019
mangoes393.6861000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley24.4091000 ha2019
maize940.8861000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes193.9971000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.4161000 ha2019
cauliflowers0.1081000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry22.0581000 ha2019
beans, green0.1231000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soybeans25.1791000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts0.3271000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee2.8761000 ha2019
ginger22.1321000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane71.6251000 ha2019
tobacco0.9351000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.1321000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed12.1661000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute7.1041000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples4.3491000 ha2019
apricots0.3051000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.0231000 ha2019
walnuts2.1671000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits28.4111000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes0.7491000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas16.6151000 ha2019
mangoes45.5311000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber13 061 4502019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle7 385.0351000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes12 693.6991000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes5 308.6641000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 488.3381000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep798.8891000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats12 283.7521000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds76 1251000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey3.981000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter14.2231000 t2018
eggs77.771000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes91 832t2019
total catch92 252t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal16$1000 t2019
coal, total16$1000 t2019
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
iron ore0.7721000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
talc4.91000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone4 893.61000 t2016
marble0.31000 m³2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
precious stones - kg521kg2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro4 849.02M kWh2018
renewable electricity generation100%2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro1 0601000 kW2019
- other renew.54.441000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation4 940.63M kWh2018
total installed capacity1 167.441000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude80$1000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nitrogen fertilizers12.41000 t2011-12
paints2.11000 t2011-12
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets2601000 m²2011-12
cotton fabrics - m9.3M m2011-12
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear3 054 000pairs2012-13
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley151.51000 t2018
coconut oil0.0011000 t2013
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes14 312M units2012-13
cigars and cigarettes14 312M units2012-13
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper13$1000 t2019
paper13$1000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement9 0001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production74.4M US$2011
food, beverages and tobacco production487.7M US$2011
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures68.323% of goods exports2017
food products26.125% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
India546M US$2010
United States52.9M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
India2 921M US$2010
China536.4M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020818M US$ -
2019968M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202010 679M US$ -
201912 340M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures714M US$2019
Number of arrivals1 197 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown9 000 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried1 659.71000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers28.188per 1000 pop.2018
Computers4.8per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling13.151years2019
Graduates81 576units2018
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level3 970 016units2019
Students, secondary level3 463 763units2019
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending4.417% of total expenses2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.3per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians0.75per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2019
HIV, total0.3%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.3% of GDP2010
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking31$%2019
Access to electricity89.9%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear6.4%2008
food, non-alcoholic beverages50.5%2008
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