Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 147 181 sq km
Population: 28 982 771 inhab. (estimate 2016)
Density: 196.92 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 30° - 26° N; long. 80° - 88° E
Capital: Kathmandu=Kāṭhmāṇḍau (capital) 1 003 285 inhab. (2011);
Currency: Nepalese rupee (100 paisa)
Human development index: 0.558 (rank: 144)
President: Bidhya Devi Bhandari (independent), since 29 October 2015
Prime Minister: Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli (Communist Party of Nepal), since 15 February 2018
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 26 November and 7 December 2017: Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist), 121; Nepali Congress, 63; Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre), 53; National People's Party of Nepal, 17; Federal Socialist Forum, 16; others, 5
Internet: www.cbs.gov.np (Central Bureau of Statistics)
Member of SAARC, UN, WTO

Nepal

Nepāl, Sańghīya Loktāntrik Gaṇatantra Nepāl
Useful information

International license plate code NEP
International dialling code 00977
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side left
Internet code .np

GMT  +5.45
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Kathmandu 18.6
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Kathmandu 10/25
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Kathmandu 5/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Kathmandu 1424
Days of rainfall (annual average) Kathmandu 97

Politics and current affairs

The legislative elections on 26 November and 7 December 2017 brought an end to the transitional period that followed the approval of a new constitution. The coalition of the two communist parties obtained the absolute majority of seats, and the two political teams merged on 17 May 2018 to form the Communist Party of Nepal.

Geography.
Nepal is bordered by China to the north, and by India to the east, south and west. It includes the highest part of the Himalayan range (Everest, 8848 m; Kānchenjunga, 8586 m). It has a tropical monsoon climate tempered by its high altitude.

Government


A British protectorate since 1816, the country became independent in 1923. Giving in to popular pressure, in 1990, the king abolished the Panchayat, the councils of notables at local and national level on which the Nepalese “no-party democracy” had been based since 1962. Between 1996 and 2006 the anti-monarchist Maoist insurgents of the Communist Party of Nepal (CPN) conducted guerrilla warfare against government forces. Following assumption of absolute power in 2001 by the discredited King Gyanendra, there was a serious political crisis in 2006. A republic was proclaimed in 2008. Legislative power passed to an assembly tasked with drafting a new Constitution. After another political crisis, a new assembly was elected in 2013.
The Constitution, which entered into force on 20 September 2015, instituted a federal state with a bicameral parliament formed by a House of Representatives (275 elected members with a 5-year term) and the National Assembly (56 elected members and 3 appointed by the President for 6 years, a third of which can be renewed every 2 years). The President, elected by the Federal Parliament and the State Assemblies for 5 years, appoints the Prime Minister, who must pass a confidence vote in the House of Representatives.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Army100%2015
Military expenditure1.5% of GDP2016
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes15per 100 000 pop.2006
Homicides2.3per 100 000 pop.2014
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Kathmandu=Kāṭhmāṇḍau1 003 285inhab.2011
Pokharā264 991inhab.2011
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate19.72016
Death rate6.32016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other29.2%2011
Chhetri16.6%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hindu81.3%2011
Buddhist9%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Nepali (official)
Tibetan dialects
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years30.2%2017
15-29 years30.5%2017


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Economy


Agriculture, practised on micro-farms in the mountain valleys, tends to be of a subsistence level. Cereals, vegetables and sugar cane are the main crops. Livestock farming (cattle and goats) is the most important and most widespread economic activity. Forests cover much of the terrain. Industry is concentrated in Kathmandu, Patan and Balaju. The sectors include agro-food products (beer and sugar), textiles (carpets), tobacco and paper-processing. There are cement factories at Lumbinī and Nārāyaṇī regions. A large electrical power-plant is active on the River Kāli Gandaki. The country’s considerable tourism potential is being damaged by political instability. The country is deeply reliant on the remittances from emigrants.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)140.07index2016
Balance of trade-9 750M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population17 052 557units2017
Active population, Females51.8%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate2.7%2017
Unemployment rate, Females43%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses627 700M LCU2016
Revenues527 500M LCU2016
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture71.7%2017
industry8.1%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture31.6%2016
industry14.2%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation444.5BN LCU2017
International reserves8 734.5M US$2017
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land16.22%2015
forests25.36%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley32.8011000 t2016
cereals, total8 614.2831000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes2 805.5821000 t2016
roots and tubers, total2 973.4391000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages10.2581000 t2016
cauliflowers1.6651000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry19.6591000 t2016
beans, green0.2731000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soybeans28.9171000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts0.661000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0.5321000 t2016
ginger271.8631000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane4 346.7541000 t2016
tobacco0.6181000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.1291000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed7.6721000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute14.891000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples41.0111000 t2016
apricots2.7671000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.0091000 t2016
walnuts7.9521000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits218.4471000 t2016
citrus fruits, nes6.2421000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas236.1951000 t2016
mangoes288.9981000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley28.3611000 ha2016
maize891.5831000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes199.9711000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.411000 ha2016
cauliflowers0.0861000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry22.5891000 ha2016
beans, green0.0961000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soybeans23.4461000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts0.3341000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee2.6181000 ha2016
ginger21.8691000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane80.9311000 ha2016
tobacco0.6391000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.1251000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed14.3591000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute11.351000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples5.6251000 ha2016
apricots0.2981000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.0141000 ha2016
walnuts1.8881000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits24.8851000 ha2016
citrus fruits, nes0.7411000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas14.3111000 ha2016
mangoes41.0951000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber13 411 8472016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle7 302.8081000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes12 471.6171000 heads2016
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes5 168.8091000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 291.3081000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep800.6581000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats10 986.1141000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds69 0231000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey2.051000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter26.11000 t2014
eggs65.6781000 t2016
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes70 243t2016
total catch70 543t2016
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal15.71000 t2015
coal, total15.71000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
talc1.61000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone1 713.41000 t2014
marble2.11000 m³2014
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
precious stones - kg5 900kg2014
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro3 461M kWh2015
renewable electricity generation100%2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro7531000 kW2015
- thermal531000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation3 493M kWh2015
total installed capacity838.11000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude801000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nitrogen fertilizers12.41000 t2011-12
paints2.11000 t2011-12
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets2601000 m²2011-12
cotton fabrics - m9.3M m2011-12
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear3 054 000pairs2012-13
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley601000 t2014
coconut oil0.0011000 t2013
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes14 312M units2012-13
cigars and cigarettes14 312M units2012-13
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper131000 t2016
paper131000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2 0001000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production74.4M US$2011
food, beverages and tobacco production487.7M US$2011
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures70.729% of goods exports2016
food products24.364% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
India546M US$2010
United States52.9M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
India2 921M US$2010
China536.4M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2017750M US$ -
2016695.949M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201710 500M US$ -
20168 934.821M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures634M US$2016
Number of arrivals753 000units2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown9 000 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried779.91000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers7.735per 1000 pop.2016
Computers4.8per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling12.2years2016
Graduates58 802units2014
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level197 797units2017
Teachers, secondary level115 759units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending4.4% of total expenses2007
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.3per 1000 pop.2013-14
Physicians0.6per 1000 pop.2014
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.2% of adults2016
HIV, total0.3%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.3% of GDP2010
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking27.62%2016
Access to electricity90.7%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear6.4%2008
food, non-alcoholic beverages50.5%2008
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