Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 147 181 sq km
Population: 29 304 998 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 199.11 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 30° - 26° N; long. 80° - 88° E
Capital: Kathmandu=Kāṭhmāṇḍau (capital) 1 329 732 inhab. (2018);
Currency: Nepalese rupee (100 paisa)
Human development index: 0.574 (rank: 149)
President: Bidhya Devi Bhandari (independent), since 29 October 2015
Prime Minister: Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli (Communist Party of Nepal), since 15 February 2018
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 26 November and 7 December 2017: Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist), 121; Nepali Congress, 63; Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre), 53; National People's Party of Nepal, 17; Federal Socialist Forum, 16; others, 5
Internet: www.cbs.gov.np (Central Bureau of Statistics)
Member of SAARC, UN, WTO

Nepal

Nepāl, Sańghīya Loktāntrik Gaṇatantra Nepāl
Useful information

International license plate code NEP
International dialling code 00977
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side left
Internet code .np

GMT  +5.45
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Kathmandu 18.6
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Kathmandu 10/25
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Kathmandu 5/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Kathmandu 1424
Days of rainfall (annual average) Kathmandu 97

Politics and current affairs

The legislative elections on 26 November and 7 December 2017 brought an end to the transitional period that followed the approval of a new constitution. The coalition of the two communist parties obtained the absolute majority of seats, and the two political teams merged on 17 May 2018 to form the Communist Party of Nepal.

Geography.
Nepal is bordered by China to the north, and by India to the east, south and west. It includes the highest part of the Himalayan range (Everest, 8848 m; Kānchenjunga, 8586 m). It has a tropical monsoon climate tempered by its high altitude.

Government


A British protected State since 1816, Nepal’s full sovereignty was formally recognized by Great Britain in 1923. Giving in to popular pressure, in 1990, the king abolished the Panchayat, the councils of notables at local and national level on which the Nepalese “no-party democracy” had been based since 1962. Between 1996 and 2006 the anti-monarchist Maoist insurgents of the Communist Party of Nepal (CPN) conducted guerrilla warfare against government forces. Following assumption of absolute power in 2001 by the discredited King Gyanendra, there was a serious political crisis in 2006. A republic was proclaimed in 2008. Legislative power passed to an assembly tasked with drafting a new constitution. After another political crisis, a new assembly was elected in 2013. The legislative elections held in 2017 brought an end to the transitional period that followed the approval of a new constitution.
The Constitution, which entered into force on 20 September 2015, instituted a federal state with a bicameral parliament formed by a House of Representatives (275 elected members with a 5-year term) and the National Assembly (56 elected members and 3 appointed by the President for 6 years, a third of which can be renewed every 2 years). The President, elected by the Federal Parliament and the State Assemblies for 5 years, appoints the Prime Minister, who must pass a confidence vote in the House of Representatives.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Army100%2017
Military expenditure1.6% of GDP2017
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes15per 100 000 pop.2006
Homicides2.2per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Kathmandu=Kāṭhmāṇḍau1 329 732inhab.2018
Pokharā264 991inhab.2011
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate19.52017
Death rate6.22017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other29.2%2011
Chhetri16.6%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hindu81.3%2011
Buddhist9%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Nepali (official)
Tibetan dialects
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years29.5%2018
15-29 years30.6%2018


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Economy


Agriculture, practised on micro-farms in the mountain valleys, tends to be of a subsistence level. Cereals, vegetables and sugar cane are the main crops. Livestock farming (cattle and goats) is the most important and most widespread economic activity. Forests cover much of the terrain. Industry is concentrated in Kathmandu, Patan and Balaju. The sectors include agro-food products (beer and sugar), textiles (carpets), tobacco and paper-processing. There are cement factories at Lumbinī and Nārāyaṇī regions. A large electrical power-plant is active on the River Kāli Gandaki. The tourism potential is considerable. The country is deeply reliant on the remittances from emigrants. Most of the trade takes place with India.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)140.07index2016
Balance of trade-12 625M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population17 162 968units2018
Active population, Females51.8%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate1.3%2018
Unemployment rate, Females44.3%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses784 800M LCU2017
Revenues656 200M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture70.1%2018
industry13%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture29.4%2017
industry14.6%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation484.73BN LCU2018
International reserves8 335.5M US$2018
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land16.22%2015
forests25.36%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley30.511000 t2017
cereals, total9 758.8931000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes2 691.0371000 t2017
roots and tubers, total2 862.3551000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages10.881000 t2017
cauliflowers21000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry19.3861000 t2017
beans, green0.2961000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soybeans29.0611000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts0.3061000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0.4661000 t2017
ginger279.5041000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane3 234.7111000 t2017
tobacco0.9991000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.1271000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed9.9031000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute14.891000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples19.851000 t2017
apricots1.4661000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.0091000 t2017
walnuts8.1761000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits246.2691000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes5.7241000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas247.6221000 t2017
mangoes324.5191000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley27.371000 ha2017
maize900.2881000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes194.1151000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.4431000 ha2017
cauliflowers0.1051000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry22.511000 ha2017
beans, green0.1081000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soybeans23.5631000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts0.3481000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee2.6461000 ha2017
ginger22.6491000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane71.4661000 ha2017
tobacco1.0741000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.1431000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed15.6421000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute11.351000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples3.7071000 ha2017
apricots0.2421000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.0151000 ha2017
walnuts1.8231000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits27.1221000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes0.6681000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas15.2231000 ha2017
mangoes39.9871000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber13 292 2132017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle7 347.4871000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes12 525.4851000 heads2017
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes5 177.9981000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 328.0361000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep801.9751000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats11 165.0991000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds70 4021000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey2.051000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter26.11000 t2014
eggs67.8951000 t2017
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes76 842.1t2017
total catch77 157.1t2017
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal211000 t2016
coal, total211000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
talc1.71000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone1 852.41000 t2015
marble0.31000 m³2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
precious stones - kg316kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro4 195M kWh2016
renewable electricity generation100%2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro8601000 kW2016
- thermal531000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation4 244M kWh2016
total installed capacity943.11000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude801000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nitrogen fertilizers12.41000 t2011-12
paints2.11000 t2011-12
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets2601000 m²2011-12
cotton fabrics - m9.3M m2011-12
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear3 054 000pairs2012-13
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley601000 t2014
coconut oil0.0011000 t2013
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes14 312M units2012-13
cigars and cigarettes14 312M units2012-13
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper131000 t2017
paper131000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2 2001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production74.4M US$2011
food, beverages and tobacco production487.7M US$2011
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures68.318% of goods exports2017
food products26.125% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
India546M US$2010
United States52.9M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
India2 921M US$2010
China536.4M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018840M US$ -
2017742M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201813 465M US$ -
201710 345M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures889M US$2017
Number of arrivals940 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown9 000 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried779.91000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers7.735per 1000 pop.2016
Computers4.8per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling12.2years2017
Graduates58 802units2014
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level197 797units2017
Teachers, secondary level115 759units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending4.4% of total expenses2007
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.3per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians0.7per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.2% of adults2017
HIV, total0.3%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.3% of GDP2010
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking27.62%2016
Access to electricity95.507%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear6.4%2008
food, non-alcoholic beverages50.5%2008
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