Form of Government: Republic
Area: 824 116 sq km
Population: 2 504 498 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 3.04 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 17° - 29° S; long. 12° - 25° E
Capital: Windhoek (capital) 404 280 inhab. (2018);
Currency: Namibian dollar (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.646 (rank: 130)
President: Hage Geingob (SWAPO), elected 28 November 2014, in office since 21 March 2015, reconfirmed 27 November 2019
Prime Minister: Saara Kuugongelwa-Amadhila (SWAPO), since 21 March 2015
Legislative Assembly: seats based on the elections of 27 November 2019: SWAPO (South West African People’s Organisation), 63; PDM (Popular Democratic Movement), 16; others, 17
Internet: www.nsa.org.na (Namibia Statistics Agency)
Member of AU, Commonwealth, SACU, SADC, UN, WTO

Namibia

Namibia, Republic of Namibia
Useful information

International license plate code NAM
International dialling code 00264
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 220/230
Driving side left
Internet code .na

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) early September-early April

Annual average temperature (°C) Windhoek 19.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Windhoek 23.5/13
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Windhoek 10/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Windhoek 371
Days of rainfall (annual average) Windhoek 41

Geography.
Namibia is bordered to the north by Angola, to the north-east by Zambia, to the east by Botswana and to the south-east and south by South Africa. It lies to the west on the Atlantic Ocean. Walvis Bay, 1124 km², once a South African exclave, has been part of Namibia since 1 March 1994 along with the Penguin Islands, Hollandsbird and Possession. The country comprises a low broad coastal strip (the Namib Desert) that rises inland up to Mount Brandberg, 2579 m, before gradually sloping down again. The climate is arid.

Government


A German protectorate from 1884, colonised in 1904-7, Namibia suffered a period of colonial rule that resulted in the extermination of the indigenous population. In 1920, it was made a mandate of South Africa, which then proceeded to annex it outright. A guerrilla movement led by the South West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO, Marxist orientation) developed from 1965 onwards. Eventually the country won independence, only on 21 March 1990, and Sam Nujoma, the SWAPO leader, became President. Since then, the country’s political life has always been dominated by SWAPO. According to the 1990 Constitution, the President of the Republic, who is also the head of executive power, is elected by direct suffrage for a term of five years. There is a two-chamber Parliament: the National Assembly made up of 96 members is elected for a term of five years (plus eight appointed by the President with no voting rights), the National Council has 42 members elected on a regional basis for a term of five years.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Army97.8%2015
Military expenditure3.028% of GDP2019
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides17.1per 100 000 pop.2012
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Windhoek404 280inhab.2018
Rundu63 431inhab.2011
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate28.1522019
Death rate7.8942019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Ovambo34.4%2000
other27.8%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant73.3%2010
Catholic23.7%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Afrikaans
Bantu
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years35.7%2020
15-29 years29$%2020


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Economy


The country’s economy is closely linked to the export of minerals, thus susceptible to variations in market prices. Cattle raising (cows, sheep and goats) provides exports of meat and wool (karakul). The main subsistence crops are maize and millet. Fishing is significant (hakes and mackerels). The country’s abundant mineral resources account for approximately 70% of exports. Namibia is a leading country in the production of top-quality diamonds, mined at Auchas and Elizabeth Bay as well as in coastal sands. Uranium is also important (the Rössing Mine and the Husab Mine, developed with Chinese capital, are among the largest in the world). Zinc, manganese, lead and silver are mined at Rosh Pinah, and copper at Otjihase. Industrial activity is linked to mining and the food sector. Electricity is mainly produced by dams on the Cunene River. A cement factory is active in Otavi. The construction of the Trans-Kalahari railway line is being planned (connecting the Morupule coalfields, in Botswana, to the port at Shearwater Bay), while the railway line connecting to Oshikango, near the Angolan border, is under construction. The Namibian dollar is pegged to the South African rand at par.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)93.09index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)100.43index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population942 938units2020
Active population, Females49.5%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate20.4%2020
Unemployment rate, Females48$%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses67 942M LCU2019-20
Revenues58 239M LCU2019-20
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture22.1%2019
industry16.3%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture7.148%2019
industry28.743%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation4.711BN LCU2020
International reserves2 171.155M US$2020
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land0.984%2018
forests8.236%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total70.81000 t2019
maize45$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes18.6551000 t2019
roots and tubers, total388.9551000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages6.5351000 t2019
carrots and turnips3.511000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.1391000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes29.8411000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.3751000 t2019
sunflower seed0.0641000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pepper0.4831000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0$1000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total61.4821000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits2.0611000 t2019
oranges2.0611000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates0.3541000 t2019
mangoes0.0081000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize35$1000 ha2019
millet78.8441000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes1.5331000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.1931000 ha2019
carrots and turnips0.1071000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.091000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape7.3091000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.9831000 ha2019
sunflower seed0.0591000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0$1000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.2851000 ha2019
oranges0.2851000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates0.1391000 ha2019
mangoes0.0011000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber1 841 6962019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle2 929.4351000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes2 929.4351000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs97.0991000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep1 705.6641000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1 887.4991000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses154.0071000 heads2019
asses and mules160.7861000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels0.0931000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds4 3521000 heads2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.4681000 t2018
cheese0.3571000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs5 095.58t2019
freshwater fishes2 838.381t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
uranium5 476t2019
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper15.21000 t2018
lead8.21000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fluorspar1.51000 t2016
graphite3.51000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite34$1000 t2013
granite15$1000 t2013
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agate150kg2012
amethyst600kg2012
Mineral resources - Other minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arsenic0.71000 t2019
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro1 132.56M kWh2018
renewable electricity generation98.332%2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro3501000 kW2019
- thermal1431000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation1 183.3M kWh2018
total installed capacity5861000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper49$1000 t2018
zinc65$1000 t2019
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sulfuric acid1921000 t2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley2701000 t2018
cottonseed oil0.41000 t2014
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement7801000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production95.107M US$2015
food, beverages and tobacco production528.745M US$2015
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ores and metals31.584% of goods exports2019
food products29.141% of goods exports2019
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20203 500M US$ -
20195 000M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20206 576M US$ -
20197 767M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures89$M US$2019
Number of arrivals1 596 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown10 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried212.61000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers25.381per 1000 pop.2019
Computers239.4per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling11.8years2008
Graduates9 786units2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level490 719units2018
Students, secondary level215 000units2017
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.7per 1000 pop.2009
Physicians0.42per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV11.5% of adults2019
HIV, total12.9%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.352% of GDP2014
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking46.3%2019
Access to electricity55.195%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.2%2015-16
education2.6%2015-16
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