Form of Government: Republic
Area: 824 116 sq km
Population: 2 368 747 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 2.87 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 17° - 29° S; long. 12° - 25° E
Capital: Windhoek (capital) 325 858 inhab. (2011);
Currency: Namibian dollar (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.64 (rank: 125)
President: Hage Geingob (SWAPO), elected 28 November 2014, in office since 21 March 2015
Prime Minister: Saara Kuugongelwa-Amadhila (SWAPO), since 21 March 2015
Legislative Assembly: seats based on the elections of 28 November 2014: SWAPO (South West African People’s Organisation), 77; DTA (Democratic Turnhalle Alliance), 5; RDP (Rally for Democracy and Progress), 3; others, 11
Internet: www.nsa.org.na (Namibia Statistics Agency)
Member of AU, Commonwealth, SACU, SADC, UN, WTO

Namibia

Namibia, Republic of Namibia
Useful information

International license plate code NAM
International dialling code 00264
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 220/230
Driving side left
Internet code .na

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) early September-early April

Annual average temperature (°C) Windhoek 19.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Windhoek 23.5/13
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Windhoek 10/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Windhoek 371
Days of rainfall (annual average) Windhoek 41

Geography.
Namibia is bordered to the north by Angola, to the north-east by Zambia, to the east by Botswana and to the south-east and south by South Africa. It lies to the west on the Atlantic Ocean. Walvis Bay, 1124 km², once a South African exclave, has been part of Namibia since 1 March 1994 along with the Penguin Islands, Hollandsbird and Possession. The country comprises a low broad coastal strip (the Namib Desert) that rises inland up to Mount Brandberg, 2579 m, before gradually sloping down again. The climate is arid.

Government


A German protectorate from 1884, colonised in 1904-7, Namibia suffered a period of colonial rule that resulted in the extermination of the indigenous population. In 1920, it was made a mandate of South Africa, which then proceeded to annex it outright. A guerrilla movement led by the South West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO, Marxist orientation) developed from 1965 onwards. Eventually the country won independence, only on 21 March 1990, and Sam Nujoma, the SWAPO leader, became President. Since then, the country’s political life has always been dominated by SWAPO.
According to the 1990 Constitution, the President of the Republic, who is also the head of executive power, is elected by direct suffrage for a term of five years. There is a two-chamber Parliament: the National Assembly made up of 96 members is elected for a term of five years (plus eight appointed by the President with no voting rights), the National Council has 42 members elected on a regional basis for a term of five years.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Army97.8%2015
Military expenditure4.2% of GDP2016
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides16.9per 100 000 pop.2012
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Windhoek325 858inhab.2011
Rundu63 431inhab.2011
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate29.22016
Death rate7.22016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Ovambo34.4%2000
other27.8%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant73.3%2010
Catholic23.7%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Afrikaans
Bantu
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years37%2017
15-29 years28.9%2017


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Economy


The country’s economy is closely linked to the export of minerals, thus susceptible to variations in market prices. Cattle raising (cows, sheep and goats) provides exports of meat and wool (karakul). The main subsistence crops are maize and millet. Fishing is significant (hakes and mackerels). The country’s abundant mineral resources account for approximately 70% of exports.
Namibia is a leading country in the production of top-quality diamonds, mined at Auchas and Elizabeth Bay as well as in coastal sands. Uranium is also important (the Rössing Mine and the Husab Mine, developed with Chinese capital, are among the largest in the world).
Zinc, manganese, lead and silver are mined at Rosh Pinah, and copper at Otjihase. Industrial activity is linked to mining and the food sector.
The construction of the Trans-Kalahari railway line is being planned (connecting the Morupule coalfields, in Botswana, to the port at Shearwater Bay), while the railway line connecting to Oshikango, near the Angolan border, is under construction.
The Namibian dollar is pegged to the South African rand at par. Tourism is increasing.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)93.09index2016
Balance of trade-2 183M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population989 572units2017
Active population, Females49.5%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate23.3%2017
Unemployment rate, Females52.8%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses67 671M LCU2017
Revenues58 804M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture20.2%2017
industry19.6%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture6.8%2016
industry30.9%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation4.7BN LCU2017
International reserves2 432.2M US$2017
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land0.98%2015
forests8.4%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total128.5021000 t2016
maize63.7131000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes16.1151000 t2016
roots and tubers, total380.0241000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages6.3311000 t2016
carrots and turnips2.8591000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.1281000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes26.8791000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.2111000 t2016
sunflower seed0.0731000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton01000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total48.771000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits2.1311000 t2016
oranges2.1311000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates0.3611000 t2016
mangoes0.0861000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize30.9431000 ha2016
millet228.4331000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes1.3371000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.1911000 ha2016
carrots and turnips0.1011000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.0841000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape6.8091000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.6571000 ha2016
sunflower seed0.0791000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton01000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.2421000 ha2016
oranges0.2421000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates0.1431000 ha2016
mangoes0.011000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber1 342 7542016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle2 757.1641000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes2 757.1641000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs89.381000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep2 289.3671000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1 809.2291000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses157.691000 heads2016
asses and mules164.4671000 heads2016
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels0.0921000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds5 6451000 heads2016
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.481000 t2014
cheese0.3751000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs4 187t2016
freshwater fishes2 847.89t2016
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
uranium4 224t2017
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper3.31000 t2015
lead91000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fluorspar65.51000 t2014
salt8001000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite341000 t2013
granite151000 t2013
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agate150kg2012
amethyst600kg2012
Mineral resources - Other minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arsenic1.91000 t2017
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro1 487M kWh2015
renewable electricity generation97.895%2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro3321000 kW2015
- thermal1551000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation1 518.96M kWh2015
total installed capacity514.21000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper10.71000 t2015
zinc75.61000 t2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley2501000 t2014
cottonseed oil0.41000 t2014
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement7961000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production102M US$2013
food, beverages and tobacco production566.7M US$2013
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures40.494% of goods exports2016
food products33.412% of goods exports2016
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20174 223.678M US$ -
20164 084.061M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20176 406.942M US$ -
20166 843.897M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures83M US$2016
Number of arrivals1 469 000units2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown10 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried623.11000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers25.216per 1000 pop.2017
Computers239.4per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling11.8years2008
Graduates4 738units2014
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level10 213units2012
Teachers, secondary level6 695units2008
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.7per 1000 pop.2009
Physicians0.4per 1000 pop.2010
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV13.8% of adults2016
HIV, total12.9%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.34% of GDP2014
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking42.2%2016
Access to electricity51.782%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5.7%2009-10
education2.9%2009-10
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