Form of Government: Republic
Area: 824 116 sq km
Population: 2 413 643 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 2.93 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 17° - 29° S; long. 12° - 25° E
Capital: Windhoek (capital) 404 280 inhab. (2018);
Currency: Namibian dollar (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.647 (rank: 129)
President: Hage Geingob (SWAPO), elected 28 November 2014, in office since 21 March 2015
Prime Minister: Saara Kuugongelwa-Amadhila (SWAPO), since 21 March 2015
Legislative Assembly: seats based on the elections of 28 November 2014: SWAPO (South West African People’s Organisation), 77; DTA (Democratic Turnhalle Alliance), 5; RDP (Rally for Democracy and Progress), 3; others, 11
Internet: www.nsa.org.na (Namibia Statistics Agency)
Member of AU, Commonwealth, SACU, SADC, UN, WTO

Namibia

Namibia, Republic of Namibia
Useful information

International license plate code NAM
International dialling code 00264
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 220/230
Driving side left
Internet code .na

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) early September-early April

Annual average temperature (°C) Windhoek 19.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Windhoek 23.5/13
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Windhoek 10/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Windhoek 371
Days of rainfall (annual average) Windhoek 41

Geography.
Namibia is bordered to the north by Angola, to the north-east by Zambia, to the east by Botswana and to the south-east and south by South Africa. It lies to the west on the Atlantic Ocean. Walvis Bay, 1124 km², once a South African exclave, has been part of Namibia since 1 March 1994 along with the Penguin Islands, Hollandsbird and Possession. The country comprises a low broad coastal strip (the Namib Desert) that rises inland up to Mount Brandberg, 2579 m, before gradually sloping down again. The climate is arid.

Government


A German protectorate from 1884, colonised in 1904-7, Namibia suffered a period of colonial rule that resulted in the extermination of the indigenous population. In 1920, it was made a mandate of South Africa, which then proceeded to annex it outright. A guerrilla movement led by the South West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO, Marxist orientation) developed from 1965 onwards. Eventually the country won independence, only on 21 March 1990, and Sam Nujoma, the SWAPO leader, became President. Since then, the country’s political life has always been dominated by SWAPO.
According to the 1990 Constitution, the President of the Republic, who is also the head of executive power, is elected by direct suffrage for a term of five years. There is a two-chamber Parliament: the National Assembly made up of 96 members is elected for a term of five years (plus eight appointed by the President with no voting rights), the National Council has 42 members elected on a regional basis for a term of five years.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Army97.8%2015
Military expenditure3.4% of GDP2017
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides17.1per 100 000 pop.2012
TOP

Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Windhoek404 280inhab.2018
Rundu63 431inhab.2011
TOP

Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate28.72017
Death rate7.12017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Ovambo34.4%2000
other27.8%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant73.3%2010
Catholic23.7%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Afrikaans
Bantu
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years36.5%2018
15-29 years29%2018


TOP

Economy


The country’s economy is closely linked to the export of minerals, thus susceptible to variations in market prices. Cattle raising (cows, sheep and goats) provides exports of meat and wool (karakul). The main subsistence crops are maize and millet. Fishing is significant (hakes and mackerels). The country’s abundant mineral resources account for approximately 70% of exports. Namibia is a leading country in the production of top-quality diamonds, mined at Auchas and Elizabeth Bay as well as in coastal sands. Uranium is also important (the Rössing Mine and the Husab Mine, developed with Chinese capital, are among the largest in the world).
Zinc, manganese, lead and silver are mined at Rosh Pinah, and copper at Otjihase. Industrial activity is linked to mining and the food sector. A cement factory is active in Otavi. The construction of the Trans-Kalahari railway line is being planned (connecting the Morupule coalfields, in Botswana, to the port at Shearwater Bay), while the railway line connecting to Oshikango, near the Angolan border, is under construction. The Namibian dollar is pegged to the South African rand at par. Tourism is increasing.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)93.09index2016
Balance of trade-3 281.6M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 000 095units2018
Active population, Females48.2%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate23.1%2018
Unemployment rate, Females51.6%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses66 053M LCU2018
Revenues56 811M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture19.7%2018
industry19.3%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture7.4%2017
industry30.3%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation4.52BN LCU2018
International reserves2 149.9M US$2018
TOP

Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land0.98%2015
forests8.4%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total126.8091000 t2017
maize62.6041000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes17.031000 t2017
roots and tubers, total385.6671000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages6.4711000 t2017
carrots and turnips3.0371000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.1311000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes27.2031000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.1941000 t2017
sunflower seed0.0751000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton01000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total48.771000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits2.0871000 t2017
oranges2.0871000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates0.3591000 t2017
mangoes0.1931000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize30.8011000 ha2017
millet236.4081000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes1.4041000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.1911000 ha2017
carrots and turnips0.1071000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.0861000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape6.9041000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.5421000 ha2017
sunflower seed0.0731000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton01000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.2731000 ha2017
oranges0.2731000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates0.1421000 ha2017
mangoes0.0221000 ha2017
TOP

Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber1 485 7282017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle2 792.3681000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes2 792.3681000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs93.5511000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep2 011.0221000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1 860.8381000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses154.5511000 heads2017
asses and mules161.3131000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels0.091000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds4 3751000 heads2017
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.481000 t2014
cheese0.3751000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs4 186t2017
freshwater fishes2 855t2017
TOP

Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
uranium5 525t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper10.71000 t2015
lead9.31000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fluorspar1.51000 t2016
graphite2.21000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite341000 t2013
granite151000 t2013
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agate150kg2012
amethyst600kg2012
Mineral resources - Other minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arsenic1.91000 t2018
TOP

Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro1 345M kWh2016
renewable electricity generation95.847%2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro3501000 kW2016
- thermal1551000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation1 403.38M kWh2016
total installed capacity535.51000 kW2016
TOP

Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper10.71000 t2015
zinc75.61000 t2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley2501000 t2014
cottonseed oil0.41000 t2014
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement8001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production83.3M US$2015
food, beverages and tobacco production463.2M US$2015
TOP

Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures39.141% of goods exports2017
food products36.274% of goods exports2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20184 875M US$ -
20174 443M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20188 156M US$ -
20176 610M US$ -
TOP

Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures79M US$2017
Number of arrivals1 499 000units2017
TOP

Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown10 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried623.11000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers25.216per 1000 pop.2017
Computers239.4per 1000 pop.2008
TOP

Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling11.8years2008
Graduates9 888units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level10 213units2012
Teachers, secondary level11 343units2017
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.7per 1000 pop.2009
Physicians0.4per 1000 pop.2010
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV12.1% of adults2017
HIV, total12.9%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.34% of GDP2014
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking42.2%2016
Access to electricity52.501%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.2%2015-16
education2.6%2015-16
TOP