Form of Government: Republic (currently under a military junta)
Area: 676 553 sq km
Population: 54 409 794 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 80.42 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 28° - 10° N; long. 92° - 101° E
Capital: Naypyidaw 1 160 242 inhab. (2014), urban agglomeration; Yangon=Rangoon 5 211 431 inhab. (2014), urban agglomeration
Currency: kyat (100 pyas)
Human development index: 0.583 (rank: 147)
Interim President: Myint Swe (USDP), since 1 February 2021
Prime Minister: Min Aung Hlaing, since 1 August 2021
House of Representatives (dissolved): seats based on the elections of 8 November 2020: NLD (National League for Democracy), 258; USDP (Union Solidarity and Development Party), 26; others, 31; not assigned, 15; Military appointees, 110
Internet: www.csostat.gov.mm (Central Statistical Organization)
Member of ASEAN, UN, WTO

Myanmar (Burma)

Myanma, Pyidaungzu Thammada Myanma Naingngandaw
Useful information

International license plate code MYA
International dialling code 0095
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .mm

GMT  +6.30
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Yangon=Rangoon 27.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Yangon=Rangoon 25.5/27
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Yangon=Rangoon 4/8
Annual average precipitation (mm) Yangon=Rangoon 2625
Days of rainfall (annual average) Yangon=Rangoon 125

Politics and current affairs

The legislative elections held on 8 November 2020 handed a landslide victory to the National League for Democracy (NLD), penalizing the party controlled by the military (USDP). Led by General Min Aung Hlaing, on 1 February 2021, they declared a state of emergency, dissolving the parliament and taking control of the country. Aung San Suu Kyi and other NLD figures were arrested. A long series of civilian protests took place against the coup d’etat for several months, during which hundreds of people were killed by the army repression. The civilian protests were flanked by the armed actions of the People’s Defence Force, supported by some ethnic militia.

Geography.
Myanmar (Burma) is bordered by China to the north-east, Laos to the east, Thailand to the south-east and Bangladesh and India to the north-west. The Andaman Sea lies off its south-west coast and the Bay of Bengal off its west coast. It is mountainous in the west and flat in the centre. The east of the country is dominated by the massif of the Shan Plateau. The Tenasserim is the narrow coastal region in the south-west, facing the Mergui Archipelago. The main rivers are the Irrawaddy and the Salween.
The climate is tropical with an annual monsoon season.

Government


Formerly a British colony, it became an independent republic (the Union of Burma) on 4 January 1948. On 18 June 1989, it took the name of Myanmar. After the long dictatorship (1962-88) of General Ne Win, a new military junta seized power and called free elections for the new Assembly in 1990. The landslide victory of the National League for Democracy (NLD) resulted in a new military coup, which outlawed all political parties, suspended the Assembly and created a State Council to restore law and order (replaced in 1997 by the State Peace and Development Council), dissolved in 2012, when powers were formally passed to the civil authorities. In the 2015 elections, the NLD obtained a wide majority that allowed it to elect the president; Aung San Suu Kyi, leader of the party and held under house arrest for many years (1989-95 and 2007-2010), became the Minister of Foreign Affairs and State Counsellor.
In 2008, a referendum was held to approve a new Constitution, leading to the dissolution of the Council of State and the institution of a Parliament, consisting of the House of Nationalities (168 members elected by direct suffrage and 56 chosen by the military) and the House of Representatives (330 elected and 110 chosen by the military), both of which serve for five years. Since 1948, guerrilla warfare has been conducted between numerous ethnic minorities (Kachin, Karen, Kokang, Mon, Palaung, Rakhine, Shan) in western and eastern states, reignited after the coup d’etat of 2021; fighting in the states of Kachin and Shan is recurrent (part of the latter is controlled by the United Party of the Wa State). In the western regions on the border with Bangladesh (Rakhine State), there is often violence by Buddhist nationalists against the Rohingya, a Muslim minority; in 2017, after an attack by ethnic Rohingya militiamen, there was a tough suppression by the military that led to many deaths and over 850 000 people fleeing to Bangladesh.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force3.7%2015
Army92.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides2.3per 100 000 pop.2016
Police personnel139.9per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Yangon=Rangoon5 211 431inhab.2014
Mandalay1 225 546inhab.2014
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Yangon=Rangoon5 211 431inhab.2014
Mandalay1 225 546inhab.2014
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate17.3972019
Death rate8.2152019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Burmese55.9%2000
other21.8%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Buddhist89.9%2014
Christian6.3%2014


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Burmese (official)
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years25.9%2020
15-29 years25.4%2020


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)136.97index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)108.23index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population22 951 393units2020
Active population, Females40.5%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate1.8%2020
Unemployment rate, Females53.2%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses8 846 470M LCU2019
Revenues10 782 107M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture48.9%2019
industry16.1%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture23.091%2019
industry36.724%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation18 266.737BN LCU2020
International reserves7 670.071M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The main crop is rice. In the drier regions of the north, and in hilly and mountainous areas other cereals are grown (maize, sorghum, wheat and millet), potatoes, sugar-cane and pulses. Opium poppies are cultivated in the mountains of the south-east (near the border with Laos and Thailand), fueling the drug trade. Livestock raising (especially cattle) is very important, and fishing is common along the coasts and in the channels of the Irrawaddy delta. The forests in the Tenasserim and in the states of Kachin and Shan are a source of prized timber (teak, bamboo and pyinkado). Extensive rubber plantations stretch along the coast of the Tenasserim.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land19.287%2018
forests44.614%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total28 681.7841000 t2019
maize1 985.7651000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava392.4431000 t2019
potatoes485.8231000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
garlic208.9081000 t2019
onions, dry1 032.921000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry5 846.6221000 t2019
chick peas499.4381000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed13.0511000 t2019
groundnuts1 615.7151000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts530.8321000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee8.7691000 t2019
mustard seed39.641000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane11 846.1761000 t2019
tobacco28.0181000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton289.3991000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.0121000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total2 824.0471000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts2.0431000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mangoes28$1000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize515.7141000 ha2019
millet160.5531000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava33.0671000 ha2019
potatoes31.3551000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
garlic28.281000 ha2019
onions, dry71.431000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry3 201.1351000 ha2019
chick peas379.6071000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed15.8811000 ha2019
groundnuts1 108.6641000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts48.9021000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee12.7721000 ha2019
mustard seed44.8551000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane182.1581000 ha2019
tobacco14.5021000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton168.31000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.0111000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts2.2441000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mangoes5$1000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber264 943t2019
timber42 646 0002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle18 583.9321000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes22 666.8461000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes4 082.9141000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs21 603.7181000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep1 309.3071000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats10 940.2571000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses and mules0.9991000 heads2019
equines, total94.7671000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds430 2561000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey5.3541000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter48.4681000 t2018
cheese138.1751000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs87 929.153t2019
freshwater fishes1 907 244.94t2019
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Minerals


Secondary & tertiary sector.
Myanmar has fairly large reserves of crude oil, which is extracted on the islands off the coast and in the central part of the country (at Chauk, Lanywa, Myanaung, Taunggyi, Yenangyaung and Yenangyat). A 400-km pipeline links the oil wells to the refineries in Yangon area. There are important natural gas reserves on the west bank of the River Irrawaddy and in the Gulf of Martaban. A gas and an oil pipeline link the Bay of Bengal with Yunnan (China). Other minerals include lead (Namtu-Bawdwin), nickel (around Mogok), copper (around Monywa), zinc, tin, tungsten (in Mawchi in the state of Kayah and in Tenasserim), precious stones (jade, sapphire, ruby), gold and rare earths. There is a great deal of potential for hydroelectric power: indeed, a number of plants are found in Shan State. The food-processing industry includes rice dehusking plants and sugar refineries. There are textile factories at Thamaing, Myingyan and Yangon. Cement factories (especially in the Mandalay region), fertilizer factories, a lead foundry in Namtu and a steel mill in Yangon. The Central Bank of Myanmar is the country’s main bank

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal3171000 t2017
coal, total1 426.41000 t2019
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony6$1000 t2020
copper1531000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite12.41000 t2019
bentonite0.61000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite0.91000 t2018
limestone4 929.81000 t2018
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold1 600kg2018
jade16 397 000kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal12 807.5M kWh2019
- hydro11 988.9M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro3 3311000 kW2019
- thermal2 1931000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation23 811.93M kWh2018
total installed capacity5 576.191000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper1531000 t2018
gold, metal203.2kg2018
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes54 000no.2010
cars8 346no.2020
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol378.71000 t2015
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia53$1000 t2018
fertilizers1 169.51000 t2014
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics - m1.016M m2018
cotton yarn0.9441000 t2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley49.11000 t2011
coconut oil0.031000 t2013
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes4 554M units2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp1.21000 t2017
other paper3561000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement8241000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production167.207M US$2013
food, beverages and tobacco production618M US$2013
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Trade


Principali esportazioni
(ml $ USA - 2008)
gas naturale 3 122, legname 908, ortaggi 723, abbigliamento e accessori 371, pesce e crostacei 293, semi oleaginosi 97, caucciù 90, riso e mais 80, calzature 61, pietre preziose e semipreziose 53

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures34.365% of goods exports2017
food products32.218% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Thailand3 377M US$2007
India906M US$2007
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China1 981M US$2007
Thailand1 318M US$2007
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202016 795M US$ -
201918 118M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202017 951M US$ -
201918 611M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures214M US$2019
Number of arrivals4 364 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown18 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried3 701.71000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers2.403per 1000 pop.2018
Computers9.2per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling10.67years2018
Graduates154 673units2018
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level5 299 765units2018
Students, secondary level4 186 742units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending4.553% of total expenses2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.2per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians0.3per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.7% of adults2019
Malaria56 640cases2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.031% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking30.3%2019
Access to electricity68.357%2019
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