Form of Government: Republic
Area: 676 553 sq km
Population: 54 101 253 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 79.97 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 28° - 10° N; long. 92° - 101° E
Capital: Naypyidaw 1 160 242 inhab. (2014), urban agglomeration; Yangon=Rangoon 5 211 431 inhab. (2014), urban agglomeration
Currency: kyat (100 pyas)
Human development index: 0.578 (rank: 148)
President and head of government: Win Myint (NLD), since 28 March 2018
State Counsellor: Aung San Suu Kyi (NLD), since 6 April 2016
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 8 November 2015: NLD (National League for Democracy), 255; USDP (Union Solidarity and Development Party), 30; others, 38; not assigned, 7; Military appointees, 110
Internet: www.csostat.gov.mm (Central Statistical Organization)
Member of ASEAN, UN, WTO

Myanmar (Burma)

Myanma, Pyidaungzu Thammada Myanma Naingngandaw
Useful information

International license plate code MYA
International dialling code 0095
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .mm

GMT  +6.30
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Yangon=Rangoon 27.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Yangon=Rangoon 25.5/27
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Yangon=Rangoon 4/8
Annual average precipitation (mm) Yangon=Rangoon 2625
Days of rainfall (annual average) Yangon=Rangoon 125

Politics and current affairs

After an attack against police forces on 25 August 2017 by ethnic Rohingya militiamen, there was a tough suppression by the military that led to many deaths and around 650 000 people fleeing to Bangladesh. On 23 September 2017, Myanmar and Bangladesh signed an agreement allowing for refugees to return home, but the hostility on the part of the government and the citizens towards the Rohingya has made the agreement difficult to enact.

Geography.
Myanmar (Burma) is bordered by China to the north-east, Laos to the east, Thailand to the south-east and Bangladesh and India to the north-west. The Andaman Sea lies off its south-west coast and the Bay of Bengal off its west coast. It is mountainous in the west and flat in the centre. The east of the country is dominated by the massif of the Shan Plateau. The Tenasserim is the narrow coastal region in the south-west, facing the Mergui Archipelago. The main rivers are the Irrawaddy and the Salween.
The climate is tropical with an annual monsoon season.

Government


Formerly a British colony, it became an independent republic (the Union of Burma) on 4 January 1948. On 18 June 1989, it took the name of Myanmar. After the long dictatorship (1962-88) of General Ne Win, a new military junta seized power and called free elections for the new Assembly in 1990. The landslide victory of the National League for Democracy (NLD) resulted in a new military coup, which outlawed all political parties, suspended the Assembly and created a State Council to restore law and order (replaced in 1997 by the State Peace and Development Council), dissolved in 2012, when powers were formally passed to the civil authorities. In the 2015 elections, the NLD obtained a wide majority that allowed it to elect the president; Aung San Suu Kyi, leader of the party and held under house arrest for many years (1989-95 and 2007-2010), became the Minister of Foreign Affairs and State Counsellor.
In 2008, a referendum was held to approve a new Constitution, leading to the dissolution of the Council of State and the institution of a Parliament, consisting of the House of Nationalities (168 members elected by direct suffrage and 56 chosen by the military) and the House of Representatives (330 elected and 110 chosen by the military), both of which serve for five years. Since 1948, guerrilla warfare has been conducted between numerous ethnic minorities (Kachin, Karen, Kokang, Mon, Palaung, Rakhine, Shan) in western and eastern states; fighting in the states of Kachin and Shan is recurrent. In the western regions on the border with Bangladesh (Rakhine State), there is often violence by Buddhist nationalists against the Rohingya, a Muslim minority; in 2017, after an attack against police forces by ethnic Rohingya militiamen, there was a tough suppression by the military that led to many deaths and over 700 000 people fleeing to Bangladesh.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force3.7%2015
Army92.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides2.3per 100 000 pop.2016
Police personnel139.9per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Yangon=Rangoon5 211 431inhab.2014
Mandalay1 225 546inhab.2014
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Yangon=Rangoon5 211 431inhab.2014
Mandalay1 225 546inhab.2014
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate17.62017
Death rate8.22017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Burmese55.9%2000
other21.8%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Buddhist89.9%2014
Christian6.3%2014


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Burmese (official)
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years26.6%2018
15-29 years25.8%2018


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)136.97index2016
Balance of trade-2 715M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population24 628 441units2018
Active population, Females39.8%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate1.6%2018
Unemployment rate, Females52.5%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses20 206 500M LCU2017
Revenues15 003 500M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture50.1%2018
industry16%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture23.7%2017
industry36.2%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation12 669.1BN LCU2017
International reserves5 646.4M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The main crop is rice. In the drier regions of the north, and in hilly and mountainous areas other cereals are grown (maize, sorghum, wheat and millet), potatoes, sugar-cane and pulses. Opium poppies are cultivated in the mountains of the south-east (near the border with Laos and Thailand), fueling the drug trade. Livestock raising (especially cattle) is very important, and fishing is common along the coasts and in the channels of the Irrawaddy delta. The forests in the Tenasserim and in the states of Kachin and Shan are a source of prized timber (teak, bamboo and pyinkado). Extensive rubber plantations stretch along the coast of the Tenasserim.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land19.03%2015
forests44.47%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total28 119.2811000 t2017
maize1 909.3341000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava398.7451000 t2017
potatoes499.9331000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
garlic203.6741000 t2017
onions, dry1 007.0141000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry5 466.1661000 t2017
chick peas526.7721000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed12.5751000 t2017
groundnuts1 582.6931000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts545.621000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee8.5461000 t2017
mustard seed42.761000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane10 370.0421000 t2017
tobacco28.1391000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton369.4761000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute17.6621000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total1 538.3881000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts1.7851000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mangoes1.3981000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize500.6051000 ha2017
millet2371000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava34.7031000 ha2017
potatoes32.7031000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
garlic27.6741000 ha2017
onions, dry69.7781000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry3 182.1441000 ha2017
chick peas375.621000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed15.1271000 ha2017
groundnuts1 033.9421000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts48.6071000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee12.3941000 ha2017
mustard seed48.2071000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane163.2481000 ha2017
tobacco14.5511000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton183.9011000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute15.221000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts2.0141000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mangoes0.3021000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber236 748t2017
timber44 286 0002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle17 147.4671000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes20 894.3371000 heads2017
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes3 746.871000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs17 999.2571000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep1 653.9941000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats8 132.9281000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses and mules1.0141000 heads2017
equines, total100.8681000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds341 0431000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey3.5731000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter47.6321000 t2014
cheese135.7511000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs93 491.74t2017
freshwater fishes1 872 364.2t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector.
Myanmar has fairly large reserves of crude oil, which is extracted on the islands off the coast and in the central part of the country (at Chauk, Lanywa, Myanaung, Taunggyi, Yenangyaung and Yenangyat).
A 400-km pipeline links the oil wells to the refineries in Yangon area. There are important natural gas reserves on the west bank of the River Irrawaddy and in the Gulf of Martaban. A gas and an oil pipeline link the Bay of Bengal with Yunnan (China). Other minerals include lead (Namtu-Bawdwin), nickel (around Mogok), copper (around Monywa), zinc, tin, tungsten (in Mawchi in the state of Kayah and in Tenasserim), precious stones (jade, sapphire, ruby), gold and rare earths. There is a great deal of potential for hydroelectric power: indeed, a number of plants are found in Shan State. The food-processing industry includes rice dehusking plants and sugar refineries. There are textile factories at Thamaing, Myingyan and Yangon. Cement factories (especially in the Mandalay region), fertilizer factories, a lead foundry in Namtu and a steel mill in Yangon.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal3171000 t2016
coal, total5501000 t2016
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony11000 t2018
copper46.91000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite2.21000 t2017
bentonite0.61000 t2017
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite2.21000 t2017
limestone7 984.61000 t2017
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold1 700kg2016
jade31 678 000kg2017
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro9 647M kWh2016
- thermal7 635.62M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro3 1001000 kW2016
- thermal2 0801000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation17 319.62M kWh2016
total installed capacity5 2051000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper46.91000 t2015
gold, metal1 619.8kg2017
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes54 000no.2010
tractors95no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol378.71000 t2015
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia301000 t2013
fertilizers1 169.51000 t2014
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics - m1.095M m2017
cotton yarn1.81000 t2017
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley49.11000 t2011
coconut oil0.031000 t2013
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes8 903M units2017
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp1.21000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp1.21000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 9821000 t2017
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production173.2M US$2013
food, beverages and tobacco production640.2M US$2013
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Trade


Tertiary sector.
The Central Bank of Myanmar is the country’s main bank. Starting in 2012, the EU and USA suspended most of the sanctions against the country, which later approved laws that favoured foreign investments, reduced restrictions for international banks and opened some markets (insurance, retail and wholesale) to foreign companies.


Principali esportazioni
(ml $ USA - 2008)
gas naturale 3 122, legname 908, ortaggi 723, abbigliamento e accessori 371, pesce e crostacei 293, semi oleaginosi 97, caucciù 90, riso e mais 80, calzature 61, pietre preziose e semipreziose 53

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures43.119% of goods exports2018
food products27.773% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Thailand3 377M US$2007
India906M US$2007
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China1 981M US$2007
Thailand1 318M US$2007
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201816 795M US$ -
201713 879M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201819 510M US$ -
201719 253M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures136M US$2017
Number of arrivals2 279 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown18 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried2 853.91000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers7.587per 1000 pop.2017
Computers9.2per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling10.3years2017
Graduates295 941units2012
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level233 815units2017
Teachers, secondary level150 309units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending3.7% of total expenses2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.04per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians0.3per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.7% of adults2017
Malaria85 019cases2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.2% of GDP2002
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking18.4%2016
Access to electricity69.814%2017
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