Form of Government: Republic
Area: 799 380 sq km
Population: 29 318 301 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 36.68 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 10° - 27° S; long. 30° - 41° E
Capital: Maputo (capital) 1 080 277 inhab. (2017); Maputo 2 112 474 inhab. (2017), urban agglomeration
Currency: new metical, plural meticais (100 centavos)
Human development index: 0.446 (rank: 180)
President: Filipe Nyusi (FRELIMO), elected 15 October 2014, reconfirmed 15 October 2019
Prime Minister: Carlos Agostinho do Rosário (FRELIMO), since 17 January 2015
Assembly of the Republic: seats based on the elections of 15 October 2019: FRELIMO (Mozambique Liberation Front), 184; RENAMO (Mozambique National Resistance, conservative), 60; MDM (Mozambique Democratic Movement), 6
Internet: www.ine.gov.mz (Instituto Nacional de Estatística)
Member of AU, Commonwealth, OIC, SADC, UN, WTO

Mozambique

Moçambique, República de Moçambique
Useful information

International license plate code MOC
International dialling code 00258
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side left
Internet code .mz

GMT  +2
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Maputo 23
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Maputo 26/19.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Maputo 8/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Maputo 861
Days of rainfall (annual average) Maputo 67

Politics and current affairs

Elections on 15 October 2019 confirmed Filipe Nyusi as president with 73.5% of the vote. In 2020, the fundamentalist militias active in the north-east of the country have expanded their area of action.

Geography.
Mozambique is bordered to the north by Tanzania, to the south and south-west by South Africa and Eswatini and to the west by Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi. It lies on the Indian Ocean to the east and on Lake Nyasa to the north-west. The main rivers are the Zambezi, the Limpopo, the Save and the Rovuma. There is a tropical forest in the northern part of the country and elsewhere savannah and steppe-like areas predominate. Temperatures are high throughout the year.

Government


After 500 years of Portuguese domination, Mozambique became independent on 25 June 1975. The country was subject to a FRELIMO (Mozambique Liberation Front) one-party regime until 30 November 1990, when the new Constitution acknowledged the existence of a multi-party system. The 4 October 1992 Rome Agreement put an end to the guerrilla warfare waged by the RENAMO (Mozambique National Resistance), that had lasted for 16 years, although the movement has occasionally taken up arms. In 2004, after almost 20 years as head of state, President J. Chissano decided not to stand for re-election. Since 2017, the north-eastern part of the country has been subject to attacks by an Islamic fundamentalist group. The President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for a term of five years, as is the Parliament (250 members). On the basis of the 2004 Constitution, a State Council and 10 provincial assemblies have been set up.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force8.9%2015
Army89.3%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes75.5per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides12.4per 100 000 pop.2012
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Maputo1 080 277inhab.2017
Matola1 032 197inhab.2017
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Maputo2 112 474inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate37.52018
Death rate8.52018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
black99%2017
mestizo0.8%2017


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic27.2%2017
Muslim18.9%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Bantu
Portuguese (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years44.5%2018
15-29 years29.6%2018


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Economy


The country’s economy, which maintained one of the highest growth rates in Africa until 2015, has felt the effects of the crisis that began in 2016 following the discovery of hidden debts, canceled in 2020 by the Constitutional Court, which caused investors to withdraw and international financing to decline. This was exacerbated by the severe damage caused by cyclones in 2019 and the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. The country continues to be influenced by the flow of raw resources, particularly aluminium. The main commercial crops are sugar cane, tobacco, cotton, peanuts and bananas. Valuable woods include mahogany, red ebony and cedar. Among the mining resources, natural gas is particularly important (extracted in the province of Inhambane and exported to South Africa via a 900 km gas pipeline); the large field off the shore of Cabo Delgado is being exploited. Coal (in Moatize, near Tete), gold (in the Manica Province), bentonite (in Boane), graphite, titanium and bauxite (in Moriangane) are also mined. Hydro-electric power is particularly significant thanks to the large Cahora-Bassa plant on the River Zambezi. Industry is concentrated in Maputo (aluminium foundry also using bauxite from Australia, agricultural products, food processing and textiles). Cement, beer and sugar are also produced; in many areas cashew nuts are grown.
Tourism. The main destinations are the beaches and the large national parks, including the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park, shared with both South Africa and Zimbabwe.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)148.87index2016
Balance of trade-3 104M US$2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population13 193 108units2019
Active population, Females52.1%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate3.2%2019
Unemployment rate, Females55.6%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses287 200M LCU2019
Revenues276 400M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture70.3%2019
industry8.4%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture27.4%2018
industry27.2%2018
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation59.563BN LCU2019
International reserves3 887.9M US$2019
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land6.77%2015
forests43.17%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total1 917.1751000 t2018
maize1 654.1431000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava8 525.4511000 t2018
potatoes273.3351000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
onions, dry138.8891000 t2018
squashes1.091000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry50.9081000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed85.4361000 t2018
groundnuts107.4921000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts227.2231000 t2018
copra461000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0.8461000 t2018
tea32.9211000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane3 072.8511000 t2018
tobacco93.6591000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton48.2781000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute3.7171000 t2014
sisal0.6711000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total906.1311000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts108.141000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits34.9271000 t2018
grapefruits9.4541000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas578.4371000 t2018
mangoes29.9161000 t2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize1 826.6641000 ha2018
millet37.6651000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava1 058.0231000 ha2018
potatoes18.0221000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
onions, dry30.1091000 ha2018
pumpkins and squashes0.6361000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry141.7851000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed225.3321000 ha2018
groundnuts417.8251000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts96.9521000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0.8851000 ha2018
tea19.2021000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane41.4721000 ha2018
tobacco79.0911000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton93.41000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute6.9641000 ha2014
sisal2.1751000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts129.91000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits8.5531000 ha2018
grapefruits2.981000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas77.3951000 ha2018
mangoes5.3551000 ha2018
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber18 708 0002018
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle2 020.1891000 heads2018
cattle and buffaloes2 020.1891000 heads2018
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 680.2131000 heads2018
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep169.311000 heads2018
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats3 759.5971000 heads2018
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses49.4281000 heads2018
asses and mules49.4281000 heads2018
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds35 5031000 heads2018
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.6131000 t2018
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs501000 t2018
hides and skins6.8851000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs25 740t2018
freshwater fishes97 147t2018
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal11 6051000 t2018
coal, total11 6051000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bauxite9.91000 t2018
beryllium0.0151000 t2019
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite84.31000 t2018
graphite1001000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone1 2001000 t2015
marble2301000 m³2013
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold2 394kg2017
precious stones - kg1 000 340kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro13 920M kWh2017
- thermal2 754M kWh2017
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro2 2001000 kW2018
- thermal4121000 kW2017
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation16 737M kWh2017
total installed capacity2 6411000 kW2017
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium5711000 t2018
lead2.51000 t2016
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soap38.31000 t2015
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear82 530pairs2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1351000 t2014
coconut oil18.61000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes - t2.251000 t2015
tobacco53.1t2015
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper21000 t2018
paper21000 t2018
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2 3501000 t2017
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production34M US$2004
food, beverages and tobacco production411M US$2004
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels47.020% of goods exports2018
ores and metals31.821% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Netherlands1 182M US$2010
South Africa467.2M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
South Africa1 227M US$2010
Netherlands642.9M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20194 550M US$ -
20185 012M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20197 653M US$ -
20186 944M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures135M US$2018
Number of arrivals2 743 000units2018
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown7 400 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried540.11000 units2018
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers2.378per 1000 pop.2018
Computers13.6per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling10years2017
Graduates24 205units2018
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level118 743units2018
Teachers, secondary level33 281units2017
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.8per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians0.09per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV12.6% of adults2018
HIV, total5.9%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums16units2018
Museums, visitors142 246units2018
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.34% of GDP2015
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking3.69%2016
Access to electricity31.1%2018
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