Form of Government: Republic
Area: 799 380 sq km
Population: 27 909 798 inhab. (census 2017)
Density: 34.91 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 10° - 27° S; long. 30° - 41° E
Capital: Maputo (capital) 1 080 277 inhab. (2017); Maputo 2 112 474 inhab. (2017), urban agglomeration
Currency: new metical, plural meticais (100 centavos)
Human development index: 0.437 (rank: 180)
President: Filipe Nyusi (FRELIMO), elected 15 October 2014
Prime Minister: Carlos Agostinho do Rosário (FRELIMO), since 17 January 2015
Assembly of the Republic: seats based on the elections of 15 October 2014: FRELIMO (Mozambique Liberation Front), 144; RENAMO (Mozambique National Resistance, conservative), 89; MDM (Mozambique Democratic Movement), 17
Internet: www.ine.gov.mz (Instituto Nacional de Estatística)
Member of AU, Commonwealth, OIC, SADC, UN, WTO

Mozambique

Moçambique, República de Moçambique
Useful information

International license plate code MOC
International dialling code 00258
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side left
Internet code .mz

GMT  +2
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Maputo 23
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Maputo 26/19.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Maputo 8/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Maputo 861
Days of rainfall (annual average) Maputo 67

Politics and current affairs

On 14 and 15 March 2019, a cyclone struck the city of Beira, killing 600 and causing immense damage.

Geography.
Mozambique is bordered to the north by Tanzania, to the south and south-west by South Africa and Eswatini and to the west by Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi. It lies on the Indian Ocean to the east and on Lake Nyasa to the north-west. The main rivers are the Zambezi, the Limpopo, the Save and the Rovuma.
There is a tropical forest in the northern part of the country and elsewhere savannah and steppe-like areas predominate. Temperatures are high throughout the year.

Government


After 500 years of Portuguese domination, Mozambique became independent on 25 June 1975. The country was subject to a FRELIMO (Mozambique Liberation Front) one-party regime until 30 November 1990, when the new Constitution acknowledged the existence of a multi-party system. The 4 October 1992 Rome Agreement put an end to the guerrilla warfare waged by the RENAMO (Mozambique National Resistance), that had lasted for 16 years, although the movement has occasionally taken up arms. In 2004, after almost 20 years as head of state, President J. Chissano decided not to stand for re-election. Since 2016, the north-eastern part of the country has been subject to attacks by an Islamic fundamentalist group. The President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for a term of five years, as is the Parliament (250 members). On the basis of the 2004 Constitution, a State Council and 10 provincial assemblies have been set up.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force8.9%2015
Army89.3%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes75.5per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides12.4per 100 000 pop.2012
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Maputo1 080 277inhab.2017
Matola1 032 197inhab.2017
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Maputo2 112 474inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate37.92017
Death rate11.82017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
black99%2017
mestizo0.8%2017


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic27.2%2017
Muslim18.9%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Bantu
Portuguese (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years44.5%2018
15-29 years29.6%2018


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Economy


The country’s economy, which maintained one of the highest growth rates in Africa until 2015, has felt the effects of the crisis that began in 2016 following the discovery of hidden debts, which caused investors to withdraw and international financing to decline; in 2018, inflation was brought under control, but the country’s debt remains serious. The country continues to be influenced by the flow of raw resources, particularly aluminium.
The main commercial crops are sugar cane, tobacco, cotton, peanuts and bananas. Valuable woods include mahogany, red ebony and cedar. Among the mining resources, natural gas is particularly important (extracted in the province of Inhambane and exported to South Africa via a 900 km gas pipeline); the large field off the shore of Cabo Delgado is being exploited. Coal (in Moatize, near Tete), gold (in the Manica Province), bentonite (in Boane), graphite, titanium and bauxite (in Moriangane) are also mined. Hydro-electric power is particularly significant thanks to the large Cahora-Bassa plant on the River Zambezi. Industry is concentrated in Maputo (aluminium foundry also using bauxite from Australia, agricultural products, food processing and textiles). Cement, beer and sugar are also produced; in many areas cashew nuts are grown.
Tourism. The main destinations are the beaches and the large national parks, including the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park, shared with both South Africa and Zimbabwe.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)148.87index2016
Balance of trade-1 590M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population13 298 994units2018
Active population, Females51.6%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate25%2017
Unemployment rate, Females53.4%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses270 300M LCU2018
Revenues204 600M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture71.7%2018
industry7.9%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture22.7%2017
industry26.5%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation53.48BN LCU2018
International reserves3 257.7M US$2018
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land6.77%2015
forests43.17%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total1 945.1431000 t2017
maize1 703.921000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava8 773.7121000 t2017
potatoes255.1391000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
onions, dry199.1661000 t2017
squashes1.0371000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry551000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed79.9441000 t2017
groundnuts901000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts242.4061000 t2017
copra461000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0.7931000 t2017
tea321000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane2 9001000 t2017
tobacco91.1281000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton521000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute3.7171000 t2014
sisal0.6561000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total912.291000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts1391000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits81.4471000 t2017
grapefruits9.5141000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas579.9711000 t2017
mangoes29.3191000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize1 830.3681000 ha2017
millet35.4071000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava1 070.3771000 ha2017
potatoes14.9511000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
onions, dry9.1521000 ha2017
pumpkins and squashes0.5911000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1001000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed206.7341000 ha2017
groundnuts4001000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts92.1271000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0.8421000 ha2017
tea31.191000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane43.3821000 ha2017
tobacco78.0241000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton104.7811000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute6.9641000 ha2014
sisal2.1031000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts166.721000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits7.8621000 ha2017
grapefruits2.7451000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas74.7011000 ha2017
mangoes4.9661000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber18 708 0002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 754.1441000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes1 754.1441000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 686.1661000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep1351000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats3 944.6651000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses49.1811000 heads2017
asses and mules49.1811000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds35 0301000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.61000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs531000 t2017
hides and skins8.2771000 t2013
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs25 741t2017
freshwater fishes98 856t2017
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal6 1861000 t2016
coal, total6 1861000 t2016
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bauxite3.21000 t2017
beryllium0.051000 t2017
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite711000 t2016
graphite201000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone1 2001000 t2015
marble2301000 m³2013
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold250kg2016
precious stones - kg1 000 340kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro15 453M kWh2016
- thermal2 935.62M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro2 1871000 kW2016
- thermal4121000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation18 388.62M kWh2016
total installed capacity2 6261000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium5771000 t2017
lead2.31000 t2015
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soap38.31000 t2015
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear82 530pairs2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1351000 t2014
coconut oil18.61000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes - t2.251000 t2015
tobacco53.1t2015
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper21000 t2017
paper21000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 9001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production34M US$2004
food, beverages and tobacco production411M US$2004
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels47.020% of goods exports2018
ores and metals31.821% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Netherlands1 182M US$2010
South Africa467.2M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
South Africa1 227M US$2010
Netherlands642.9M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20185 196M US$ -
20174 725M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20186 786M US$ -
20175 745M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures237M US$2017
Number of arrivals1 447 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown7 400 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried569.81000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers1.403per 1000 pop.2017
Computers13.6per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling9.7years2017
Graduates19 197units2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level117 065units2017
Teachers, secondary level33 281units2017
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.8per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians0.08per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV12.5% of adults2017
HIV, total5.9%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums16units2017
Museums, visitors135 783units2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.34% of GDP2015
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking3.69%2016
Access to electricity27.425%2017
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