Form of Government: Republic
Area: 799 380 sq km
Population: 28 861 863 inhab. (census 2017)
Density: 36.11 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 10° - 27° S; long. 30° - 41° E
Capital: Maputo (capital) 1 101 170 inhab. (2017); Maputo 2 118 800 inhab. (2014), urban agglomeration
Currency: new metical, plural meticais (100 centavos)
Human development index: 0.418 (rank: 181)
President: Filipe Nyusi (FRELIMO), elected 15 October 2014
Prime Minister: Carlos Agostinho do Rosário (FRELIMO), since 17 January 2015
Assembly of the Republic: seats based on the elections of 15 October 2014: FRELIMO (Mozambique Liberation Front), 144; RENAMO (Mozambique National Resistance, conservative), 89; MDM (Mozambique Democratic Movement), 17
Internet: www.ine.gov.mz (Instituto Nacional de Estatística)
Member of AU, Commonwealth, OIC, SADC, UN, WTO

Mozambique

Moçambique, República de Moçambique
Useful information

International license plate code MOC
International dialling code 00258
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side left
Internet code .mz

GMT  +2
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Maputo 23
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Maputo 26/19.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Maputo 8/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Maputo 861
Days of rainfall (annual average) Maputo 67

Politics and current affairs

The death of Afonso Dhlakama (3 May 2018), leader of RENAMO, led to uncertainty about the continuation of negotiations with the government that were begun in December.

Geography.
Mozambique is bordered to the north by Tanzania, to the south and south-west by South Africa and Swaziland and to the west by Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi. It lies on the Indian Ocean to the east and on Lake Nyasa to the north-west. The main rivers are the Zambezi, the Limpopo, the Save and the Rovuma. There is a tropical forest in the northern part of the country and elsewhere savannah and steppe-like areas predominate. Temperatures are high throughout the year.

Government


After 500 years of Portuguese domination, Mozambique became independent on 25 June 1975. The country was subject to a FRELIMO (Mozambique Liberation Front) one-party regime until 30 November 1990, when the new Constitution acknowledged the existence of a multi-party system.
The 4 October 1992 Rome Agreement put an end to the guerrilla warfare waged by the RENAMO (Mozambique National Resistance), that had lasted for 16 years, although the movement has occasionally taken up arms. In 2004, after almost 20 years as head of state, President J. Chissano decided not to stand for re-election. Since 2016, the north-eastern part of the country has been subject to attacks by an Islamic fundamentalist group. The President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for a term of five years, as is the Parliament (250 members). On the basis of the 2004 Constitution, a State Council and 10 provincial assemblies have been set up.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force8.9%2015
Army89.3%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes70per 100 000 pop.2016
Homicides12.4per 100 000 pop.2012
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Maputo1 101 170inhab.2017
Matola962 075inhab.2016
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Maputo2 118 800inhab.2014
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate38.72016
Death rate12.22016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
black99%2007
mestizo0.4%2007


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic28.4%2007
nonreligious/atheist18.7%2007


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Bantu
Portuguese (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years44.7%2017
15-29 years29.4%2017


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Economy


The country’s economy, which maintained one of the highest growth rates in Africa until 2015, has felt the effects of the crisis that began in 2016 following the discovery of hidden debts, which caused investors to withdraw and international financing to decline; this has been accompanied by high inflation, which dropped in 2018 due to a restrictive monetary policy. The country continues to be influenced by the flow of raw resources, particularly aluminium.
The main commercial crops are sugar cane, tobacco, cotton, peanuts and bananas. Valuable woods include mahogany, red ebony and cedar. Among the mining resources, natural gas is particularly important (extracted in the province of Inhambane and exported to South Africa via a 900 km gas pipeline); in 2017, a deal was signed with ENI for the use of a large deposit off the shore of Cabo Delgado. Coal (in Moatize, near Tete), gold (in the Manica Province), bentonite (in Boane), titanium and bauxite (in Moriangane) are also mined. Hydro-electric power is particularly significant thanks to the large Cahora-Bassa plant on the River Zambezi. Industry is concentrated in Maputo (aluminium foundry also using bauxite from Australia, agricultural products, food processing and textiles). Cement, beer and sugar are also produced; in many areas cashew nuts are grown.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)148.87index2016
Balance of trade- 983M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population12 898 595units2017
Active population, Females54.8%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate25%2017
Unemployment rate, Females58.8%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses227 061M LCU2017
Revenues225 965M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture73.3%2017
industry4.3%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture24.1%2016
industry21.1%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation49.4BN LCU2017
International reserves3 361.1M US$2017
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land6.77%2015
forests43.17%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total1 712.1211000 t2016
maize1 451.9031000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava9 1001000 t2016
potatoes246.51000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
onions, dry1621000 t2016
squashes1.0271000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry73.0431000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed77.4241000 t2016
groundnuts113.181000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts248.3941000 t2016
copra461000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0.8011000 t2016
tea33.3891000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane2 761.5051000 t2016
tobacco92.9951000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton43.6611000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute3.7171000 t2014
sisal0.6551000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total912.291000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts104.1791000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits78.8181000 t2016
grapefruits9.7941000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas517.51000 t2016
mangoes28.8581000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize1 589.3031000 ha2016
millet27.6961000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava1 002.3051000 ha2016
potatoes14.51000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
onions, dry8.11000 ha2016
pumpkins and squashes0.5741000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry144.5411000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed203.7231000 ha2016
groundnuts396.6441000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts89.9661000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0.8561000 ha2016
tea31.8031000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane42.3111000 ha2016
tobacco80.4511000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton1011000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute6.9641000 ha2014
sisal2.1151000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts123.4571000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits8.1651000 ha2016
grapefruits2.7121000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas67.4111000 ha2016
mangoes4.9241000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber18 708 0002016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 656.5631000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes1 656.5631000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 620.7941000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep134.2341000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats3 215.0231000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses49.8311000 heads2016
asses and mules49.8311000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds27 9811000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.61000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs501000 t2016
hides and skins8.2771000 t2013
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs22 644t2016
freshwater fishes97 322t2016
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal6 5991000 t2015
coal, total6 5991000 t2015
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bauxite51000 t2016
beryllium0.0021000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite281000 t2015
graphite231000 t2017
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone1 2001000 t2015
marble2301000 m³2013
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold250kg2015
precious stones - kg1 000 340kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro17 035M kWh2015
- thermal2 543.64M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro2 1871000 kW2015
- thermal3591000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation19 578.64M kWh2015
total installed capacity2 5561000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium5711000 t2016
lead2.31000 t2015
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soap38.31000 t2015
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear82 530pairs2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1351000 t2014
coconut oil18.61000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes - t2.21000 t2015
tobacco53.1t2015
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper21000 t2016
paper21000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 5851000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production34M US$2004
food, beverages and tobacco production411M US$2004
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ores and metals32.550% of goods exports2016
fuels27.889% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Netherlands1 182M US$2010
South Africa467.2M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
South Africa1 227M US$2010
Netherlands642.9M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20174 718.518M US$ -
20163 328.236M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20175 701.705M US$ -
20165 206.186M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The main destinations are the beaches and the large national parks, including the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park, shared with both South Africa and Zimbabwe.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures305M US$2016
Number of arrivals1 639 000units2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown7 400 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried569.81000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers1.403per 1000 pop.2017
Computers13.6per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling9.7years2016
Graduates18 244units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level107 976units2015
Teachers, secondary level27 040units2015
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.8per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians0.08per 1000 pop.2014
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV12.3% of adults2016
HIV, total5.9%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums14units2014
Museums, visitors139 952units2014
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.34% of GDP2015
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking3.69%2016
Access to electricity24.198%2016
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