Form of Government: Republic
Area: 799 380 sq km
Population: 30 832 244 inhab. (estimate 2021)
Density: 38.57 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 10° - 27° S; long. 30° - 41° E
Capital: Maputo (capital) 1 101 771 inhab. (2018); Maputo 2 112 474 inhab. (2017), urban agglomeration
Currency: new metical, plural meticais (100 centavos)
Human development index: 0.456 (rank: 181)
President: Filipe Nyusi (FRELIMO), elected 15 October 2014, reconfirmed 15 October 2019
Prime Minister: Carlos Agostinho do Rosário (FRELIMO), since 17 January 2015
Assembly of the Republic: seats based on the elections of 15 October 2019: FRELIMO (Mozambique Liberation Front), 184; RENAMO (Mozambique National Resistance, conservative), 60; MDM (Mozambique Democratic Movement), 6
Internet: www.ine.gov.mz (Instituto Nacional de Estatística)
Member of AU, Commonwealth, OIC, SADC, UN, WTO

Mozambique

Moçambique, República de Moçambique
Useful information

International license plate code MOC
International dialling code 00258
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side left
Internet code .mz

GMT  +2
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Maputo 23
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Maputo 26/19.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Maputo 8/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Maputo 861
Days of rainfall (annual average) Maputo 67

Politics and current affairs

Attacks by Islamic integralist militia have intensified since 2020, especially in the Cabo Delgado province, where the city of Pemba was occupied in March and April 2021. The use of foreign mercenaries to oppose them contributed to the violence against civilians.

Geography.
Mozambique is bordered to the north by Tanzania, to the south and south-west by South Africa and Eswatini and to the west by Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi. It lies on the Indian Ocean to the east and on Lake Nyasa to the north-west. The main rivers are the Zambezi, the Limpopo, the Save and the Rovuma. There is a tropical forest in the northern part of the country and elsewhere savannah and steppe-like areas predominate. Temperatures are high throughout the year.

Government


After 500 years of Portuguese domination, Mozambique became independent on 25 June 1975. The country was subject to a FRELIMO (Mozambique Liberation Front) one-party regime until 30 November 1990, when the new Constitution acknowledged the existence of a multi-party system. The 4 October 1992 Rome Agreement put an end to the guerrilla warfare waged by the RENAMO (Mozambique National Resistance), that had lasted for 16 years, although the movement has occasionally taken up arms. In 2004, after almost 20 years as head of state, President J. Chissano decided not to stand for re-election. Since 2017, the north-eastern part of the country has been subject to attacks by an Islamic fundamentalist group, which exploits ethnic conflicts and resentment against the government. The President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for a term of five years, as is the Parliament (250 members). On the basis of the 2004 Constitution, a State Council and 10 provincial assemblies have been set up.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force8.9%2015
Army89.3%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes75.5per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides12.4per 100 000 pop.2012
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Maputo1 101 771inhab.2018
Matola1 032 197inhab.2017
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Maputo2 112 474inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate37.1662019
Death rate8.2082019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
black99$%2017
mestizo0.8%2017


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic27.2%2017
Muslim18.9%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Bantu
Portuguese (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years45.6%2020
15-29 years27.3%2020


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Economy


The country’s economy is still affected by the effects of the crisis that began in 2016 following the discovery of hidden debts, canceled in 2020 by the Constitutional Court, which caused investors to withdraw and international financing to decline. This was exacerbated by the severe damage caused by cyclones in 2019 e in 2021, and the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020-21. The country continues to be influenced by the flow of raw resources, particularly aluminium. The main commercial crops are sugar cane, tobacco, cotton, peanuts and bananas. Valuable woods include mahogany, red ebony and cedar. Among the mining resources, natural gas is particularly important (extracted in the province of Inhambane and exported to South Africa via a 900 km gas pipeline); the large field off the shore of Cabo Delgado is being exploited. Coal (in Moatize, near Tete), gold (in the Manica Province), bentonite (in Boane), graphite, titanium and bauxite (in Moriangane) are also mined. Hydro-electric power is particularly significant thanks to the large Cahora-Bassa plant on the River Zambezi. Industry is concentrated in Maputo (aluminium foundry also using bauxite from Australia, agricultural products, food processing and textiles). Cement, beer and sugar are also produced; in many areas cashew nuts are grown.
Tourism. The main destinations are the beaches and the large national parks, including the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park, shared with both South Africa and Zimbabwe.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)148.87index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)124.77index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population13 309 807units2020
Active population, Females52$%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate3.4%2020
Unemployment rate, Females55.6%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses287 200M LCU2019
Revenues276 400M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture70.3%2019
industry8.4%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture29.316%2019
industry25.745%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation68.702BN LCU2020
International reserves4 091.458M US$2020
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land7.566%2018
forests47.336%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total2 782.0121000 t2019
maize2 0851000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava3 987.4461000 t2019
potatoes297.8121000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
onions, dry233.2981000 t2019
squashes1.0751000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry65.6351000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed85.0891000 t2019
groundnuts80$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts232.7711000 t2019
copra46$1000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0.8271000 t2019
tea34.2051000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane4 106.8731000 t2019
tobacco102.7521000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton52.9931000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute3.7171000 t2014
sisal0.6231000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total1 098.2141000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts107.1471000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits79.6621000 t2019
grapefruits9.2141000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas724.9661000 t2019
mangoes29.6811000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize2 619.6121000 ha2019
millet28.4161000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava695.8021000 ha2019
potatoes18.951000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
onions, dry8.9411000 ha2019
pumpkins and squashes0.6131000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry115.1211000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed224.0071000 ha2019
groundnuts4001000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts100.9851000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0.8631000 ha2019
tea45.1291000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane59.0591000 ha2019
tobacco85.7921000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton105.6881000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute6.9641000 ha2014
sisal2.0171000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts130.0531000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits7.9281000 ha2019
grapefruits3.1641000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas87.7841000 ha2019
mangoes5.2581000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber18 708 0002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle2 086.9411000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes2 086.9411000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 635.0491000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep88.4711000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats3 742.3641000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses49.8311000 heads2019
asses and mules49.8311000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds35 0601000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.6141000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs50$1000 t2019
hides and skins2.3341000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs30 241t2019
freshwater fishes119 888t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal13 893.31000 t2020
coal, total13 893.31000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bauxite4.61000 t2019
beryllium0.0151000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite84$1000 t2019
graphite1201000 t2020
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone728.41000 t2016
marble2301000 m³2013
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold507kg2018
precious stones - kg157 463kg2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro13 781.79M kWh2018
- thermal2 571.84M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro2 2001000 kW2019
- thermal4131000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation16 417.09M kWh2018
total installed capacity2 6421000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium5651000 t2019
lead3$1000 t2018
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soap38.31000 t2015
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear82 530pairs2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley3401000 t2018
coconut oil30.21000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes - t2.251000 t2015
tobacco53.1t2015
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper2$1000 t2019
paper2$1000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2 4001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production34$M US$2004
food, beverages and tobacco production411M US$2004
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels46.56% of goods exports2018
ores and metals31.515% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Netherlands1 182M US$2010
South Africa467.2M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
South Africa1 227M US$2010
Netherlands642.9M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20203 585M US$ -
20194 669M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20206 471M US$ -
20197 428M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures99$M US$2019
Number of arrivals2 019 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown7 400 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried587.41000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers2.304per 1000 pop.2019
Computers13.6per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling9.974years2017
Graduates24 205units2018
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level6 563 376units2018
Students, secondary level1 216 214units2017
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.8per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians0.09per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV12.4% of adults2019
HIV, total5.9%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums16$units2018
Museums, visitors142 246units2018
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.313% of GDP2015
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking4.9%2019
Access to electricity29.616%2019
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