Form of Government: Republic
Area: 1 564 100 sq km
Population: 3 357 542 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 2.15 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 52° - 42° N; long. 88° - 120° E
Capital: Ulan Bator=Ulaanbaatar (capital) 1 491 375 inhab. (2018);
Currency: tugrik (100 möngö)
Human development index: 0.737 (rank: 99)
President: Ukhnaagiin Khürelsükh (MAN), elected 9 June 2021, in office since 25 June 2021
Prime Minister: Luvsannamsrain Oyun-Erdene (MAN), since 27 January 2021
Parliament: seats based on the elections of 24 June 2020: MAN (Mongolian People’s Party), 62; AN (Democratic Party), 11; others, 2; independents, 1
Internet: www.nso.mn (National Statistical Office)
Member of EBRD, OSCE, SCO observer, UN, WTO

Mongolia

Mongol, Mongol Uls
Useful information

International license plate code MGL
International dialling code 00976
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .mn

GMT  +8
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Ulan-Bator -0.7
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Ulan-Bator -21/17
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Ulan-Bator 9/5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Ulan-Bator 214
Days of rainfall (annual average) Ulan-Bator 52

Geography.
Mongolia is bordered by Russia to the north and by China in all other directions.
The terrain consists of a series of steppe plateaux (which, in the north and west, merge with the Tannu-Ola, Khangai and Mongolian Altai mountains), and the endless expanse of the Gobi Desert to the south. The main rivers are the Orhon, the Selenge and the Kerulen. It has extreme ranges of temperature in winter and summer.

Government


Following the end of the long communist regime established in 1924, Mongolia set out towards political pluralism in 1990. Since then the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party (renamed the Mongolian People’s Party in 2010) has dominated the country’s political life, with the exception of a hiatus between 2012 and 2016 with coalition governments led by the Democratic Party.
According to the 1992 Constitution, the President of the Republic (whose role is largely symbolic) and the single-chamber Parliament (76 members) are elected directly for four years and with a mixed system. The Prime Minister must have the approval of Parliament.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force8$%2015
Army89$%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 118.4per 100 000 pop.2018
Homicides5.7per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Ulan Bator=Ulaanbaatar1 491 375inhab.2018
Erdenet99 490inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate23.3612019
Death rate6.3352019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Khalkha Mongol81.9%2010
other4.6%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Buddhist53$%2010
nonreligious/atheist38.6%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Mongolian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years26.9%2020
15-29 years23.5%2020


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Economy


In 2021, the recovery from the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic was driven by exports, especially to China, the main economic partner, and by stimulus measures in support of domestic consumption, which however increased the deficit.
The production of timber is relevant (cedar, larch, birch and fir). Livestock farming is of key importance (especially sheep, goats, dairy cattle and horses), often still practised by farmers who use the traditional semi-nomadic system.
Investments in the mining sector have encouraged the development of infrastructure for the exploitation of the country’s considerable resources. The most important minerals are coal (mined in the provinces of Darhan-Uul, Töv, Dundgovĭ, Ömnögovĭ, Dornogovĭ), copper, molybdenum and silver (at Erdenet), gold and iron (in the valleys of the Orhon and Selenge) and fluorspar (in the province of Hentiy). Thanks to foreign capital, the large gold and copper ore deposit at Oyu Tolgoi is being mined.
Industries, based in Ulan Bator, Sühbaatar and Darhan, produce leather goods, pelts, wool, textile fibres, cement, paper and beer. Mongolia exports copper, iron, cashmere, gold, meat, fluorspar, timber, coal and cement.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)161.4index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)140.28index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 422 492units2020
Active population, Females45.8%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.3%2020
Unemployment rate, Females42.9%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses11 026 077M LCU2019
Revenues10 801 621M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture23.773%2020
industry20.747%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture12.354%2019
industry43.85%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation991.423BN LCU2020
International reserves4 545.277M US$2020
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land0.856%2018
forests9.109%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley2.5121000 t2019
cereals, total433.3061000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes192.241000 t2019
roots and tubers, total192.241000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages21.8851000 t2019
carrots and turnips50.3751000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed25.2561000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total1.7841000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts0.331000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.3021000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1.9461000 ha2019
oats11.7651000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes17.0341000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1.2881000 ha2019
carrots and turnips6.5331000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed8.0341000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts0.3671000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber762 0002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle4 753.1921000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes4 753.1921000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs20.8921000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep32 267.2651000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats29 261.6611000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses0.041000 heads2019
asses and mules0.041000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels472.3791000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds8921000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.2211000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter1.3631000 t2018
cheese6.231000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes30$t2019
total catch30$t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal49 127.31000 t2019
coal, total43 079.31000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper378.21000 t2019
iron ore8 572.21000 t2019
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fluorspar7201000 t2020
salt0.5321000 t2019
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold16 251.3kg2019
silver60 000kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal5 711.44M kWh2018
- other renew.420M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1 3021000 kW2018
- other renew.2451000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation6 168.59M kWh2018
total installed capacity1 5501000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coke, metall.60.21000 t2019
copper11.81000 t2019
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
notebooks19 617 300no.2018
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soap0.031000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets478.31000 m²2019
cashmere yarn774t2019
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear43 400pairs2019
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley91.2461000 t2018
soft drinks, excluding mineral waters1 748.91000 hl2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 0981000 t2019
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production43.802M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production358.565M US$2018
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels45.738% of goods exports2019
ores and metals38.883% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China1 400M US$2007
Canada178M US$2007
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Russia726M US$2007
China658M US$2007
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20207 576M US$ -
20197 620M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20205 294M US$ -
20196 127M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 036M US$2019
Number of arrivals577 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown8 900 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried744.41000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers98.388per 1000 pop.2019
Computers246.1per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.5years2016
Graduates29 164units2018
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level311 063units2018
Students, secondary level306 221units2016
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending21.265% of total expenses2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds7.8per 1000 pop.2019
Physicians3.6per 1000 pop.2019
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2019
Tuberculosis428per 100 000 pop.2019
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums, visitors689 600units2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.102% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking51.6%2019
Access to electricity99.125%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear12.2%2008
food, non-alcoholic beverages, tobacco40.6%2008
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