Form of Government: Republic
Area: 1 564 100 sq km
Population: 3 238 479 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 2.07 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 52° - 42° N; long. 88° - 120° E
Capital: Ulan Bator=Ulaanbaatar (capital) 1 491 375 inhab. (2018);
Currency: tugrik (100 möngö)
Human development index: 0.741 (rank: 92)
President: Haltmaagiyn Battulga (AN), elected 9 July 2017
Prime Minister: Ukhnaa Khürelsük (MAN), since 4 October 2017
Parliament: seats based on the elections of 29 June 2016: MAN (Mongolian People’s Party), 65; AN (Democratic Party), 9; MAHN (Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party), 1; independents, 1
Internet: www.nso.mn (National Statistical Office)
Member of EBRD, OSCE, SCO observer, UN, WTO

Mongolia

Mongol, Mongol Uls
Useful information

International license plate code MGL
International dialling code 00976
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .mn

GMT  +8
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Ulan-Bator -0.7
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Ulan-Bator -21/17
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Ulan-Bator 9/5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Ulan-Bator 214
Days of rainfall (annual average) Ulan-Bator 52

Politics and current affairs

In the second round of presidential elections (9 July 2017), the Democratic Party candidate, Haltmaagiyn Battulga, was elected.

Geography.
Mongolia is bordered by Russia to the north and by China in all other directions.
The terrain consists of a series of steppe plateaux (which, in the north and west, merge with the Tannu-Ola, Khangai and Mongolian Altai mountains), and the endless expanse of the Gobi Desert to the south. The main rivers are the Orhon, the Selenge and the Kerulen. It has extreme ranges of temperature in winter and summer.

Government


Following the end of the long communist regime established in 1924, Mongolia set out towards political pluralism in 1990. Since then the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party (renamed the Mongolian People’s Party in 2010) has dominated the country’s political life, with the exception of a hiatus between 2012 and 2016 with coalition governments led by the Democratic Party.
According to the 1992 Constitution, the President of the Republic (whose role is largely symbolic) and the single-chamber Parliament (76 members) are elected directly for four years and with a mixed system. The Prime Minister must have the approval of Parliament.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force8%2015
Army89%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 118.4per 100 000 pop.2018
Homicides5.7per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Ulan Bator=Ulaanbaatar1 491 375inhab.2018
Erdenet99 490inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate24.52018
Death rate5.62018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Khalkha Mongol81.9%2010
other4.6%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Buddhist53%2010
nonreligious/atheist38.6%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Mongolian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years27%2018
15-29 years25.5%2018


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Economy


In 2017-19, an uptick in coal exports, foreign investments and domestic consumption supported growth, which had been in decline between 2014 and 2016 due to a drop in exports to China, the country’s main economic partner, and foreign investments in the mining sector. Livestock farming is of key importance (especially sheep, goats, dairy cattle and horses), often still practised by farmers who use the traditional semi-nomadic system. Investments in the mining sector have encouraged the development of infrastructure for the exploitation of the country’s considerable resources. The most important minerals are coal (mined in the provinces of Darhan-Uul, Töv, Dundgovĭ, Ömnögovĭ, Dornogovĭ), copper, molybdenum and silver (at Erdenet), gold and iron (in the valleys of the Orhon and Selenge) and fluorspar (in the province of Hentiy).
Thanks to foreign capital, the large gold and copper ore deposit at Oyu Tolgoi is being mined. Industries, mainly concentrated in Ulan Bator, Sühbaatar and Darhan, produce leather goods, pelts, wool, textile fibres, cement, paper and beer. Mongolia exports copper, iron, cashmere, gold, meat, fluorspar, timber, coal and cement.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)161.4index2016
Balance of trade1 136.8M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 309 977units2018
Active population, Females45.4%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate6.3%2018
Unemployment rate, Females42.2%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses8 981 000M LCU2017
Revenues7 239 100M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture28.7%2018
industry19.1%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture11.9%2017
industry40%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation968.57BN LCU2018
International reserves3 549.7M US$2018
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land0.37%2015
forests8.08%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1.6941000 t2017
cereals, total238.1021000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes121.8081000 t2017
roots and tubers, total121.8081000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages15.2141000 t2017
carrots and turnips38.2631000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed10.9471000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total1.1771000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts0.3151000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.31000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley3.3411000 ha2017
oats6.7861000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes15.1481000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1.0991000 ha2017
carrots and turnips4.5171000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed3.8441000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts0.3611000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber762 0002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle4 388.4551000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes4 388.4551000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs31.871000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep30 109.8881000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats27 346.7071000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses0.0441000 heads2017
asses and mules0.0441000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels434.0961000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds6951000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.0991000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter11000 t2014
cheese5.0851000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes22t2017
total catch22t2017
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal28 8511000 t2016
coal, total54 572.31000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper311.71000 t2015
iron ore6 225.41000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fluorspar2201000 t2018
salt0.9971000 t2018
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold20 655.2kg2018
silver71 800kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal5 120.18M kWh2016
- other renew.161M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1 0501000 kW2016
- other renew.561000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation5 339.18M kWh2016
total installed capacity1 1341000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coke, metall.281000 t2016
copper14.21000 t2018
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
notebooks19 617 300no.2018
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soap0.031000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets528.21000 m²2018
cashmere yarn1 160.3t2018
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear44 800pairs2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley801000 t2014
soft drinks, excluding mineral waters1 661.81000 hl2018
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement933.81000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production23.2M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production202.7M US$2016
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels47.374% of goods exports2017
ores and metals42.686% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China1 400M US$2007
Canada178M US$2007
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Russia726M US$2007
China658M US$2007
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20187 012M US$ -
20176 201M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20185 875M US$ -
20174 337M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures618M US$2017
Number of arrivals469 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown8 900 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried602.81000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers92.693per 1000 pop.2017
Computers246.1per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.5years2016
Graduates34 681units2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level9 564units2017
Teachers, secondary level21 709units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending0.02% of total expenses2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds7.5per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians3.3per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2017
Tuberculosis428per 100 000 pop.2017
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums, visitors559 300units2016
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.1% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking42.8%2016
Access to electricity85.869%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear12.2%2008
food, non-alcoholic beverages, tobacco40.6%2008
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