Form of Government: Republic
Area: 1 030 700 sq km
Population: 4 077 338 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 3.96 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 28° - 15° N; long. 17° - 5° W
Capital: Nouakchott (capital) 1 195 633 inhab. (2019);
Currency: ouguiya (5 khoums)
Human development index: 0.546 (rank: 157)
President: Mohamed Ould Ghazouani (Union for the Republic), elected 22 June 2019, in office since 1 August 2019
Prime Minister: Mohamed Ould Bilal, since 6 August 2020
Internet: www.ons.mr (Office National de la Statistique)
Member of Arab League, AU, OIC, UN, WTO

Mauritania

Mūrītāniyā, Al-Jumhūrīyah al-Islāmīyah al-Mūrītānīyah
Useful information

International license plate code RIM
International dialling code 00222
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .mr

GMT  0
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Nouakchott 26
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Nouakchott 21.5/27.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Nouakchott 9.5/8
Annual average precipitation (mm) Nouakchott 115
Days of rainfall (annual average) Nouakchott 12

Geography.
Mauritania is bordered to the north-east by Algeria, to the east by Mali, to the south by Mali and Senegal, and to the north-west by the Western Sahara.
The country lies on the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Mauritania comprises a wide coastal plain which rises in the east to form a plateau, where to the south the River Senegal divides Mauritania from Senegal.
The desert steppe-like climate is more humid in the southern regions.

Government


Formerly a French colony, Mauritania became independent on 28 November 1960. In 1976, the country took part with Morocco, in the partition of the Western Sahara resulting in a war with the Polisario Front. The war ended in 1979 with the country having to leave the occupied territory. Following the long regime of Maaouiya Ould Taya (1984-2005) short periods of formal democracy alternated with military regimes. Militias affiliated with Islamic fundamentalism are active in the country.
According to the 1991 Constitution, amended several times, the President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for a term of five years, and he or she can be re-elected only once. Legislative power lies in the hand of the National Assembly (currently made up of 157 members elected by direct suffrage for five years); the Senate was abolished by a referendum in 2017.
The legal system is based on Islamic law (sharia).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force1.6%2015
Army94.6%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides9.9per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Nouakchott1 195 633inhab.2019
Nouâdhibou118 167inhab.2013
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The population mainly belongs to Arabic and Berber groups, with a sizeable minority of black Sudanese; clashes occur intermittently between the different ethnic groups. Despite the formal abolition of slavery (1980) there are still slaves in rural areas.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate33.2622019
Death rate7.1182019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Moor81.5%1995
Wolof6.8%1995


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Sunni)99$%2010
other1$%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
French
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years37.2%2020
15-29 years27.8%2020


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Economy


Economic growth is closely linked to the variation in market prices of mining exports.
The main crops (rice, sorghum, pulses, dates and maize) are not enough to satisfy domestic needs. Nomadic farming and ocean fishing are relatively important.
There are iron ore deposits (at Fdérick, Zouérat, M’Haoudat and Guelb el Rheïn, connected to the port of Nouâdhibou by railway), copper and gold reserves (at Akjoujt), salt deposits (at Trarza and Idjil). Relatively small amounts of oil are extracted off the coast. There is an oil refinery and factories for the processing of fish at Nouâdhibou. Cement plants are active at Nouakchott and Nouâdhibou.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)120.19index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)108.78index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 249 908units2020
Active population, Females31.6%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate10.7%2020
Unemployment rate, Females40$%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses565 134.9M LCU2019
Revenues564 171.2M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture51.3%2019
industry12.9%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture20.831%2019
industry28.261%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation20.964BN LCU2019
International reserves1 493.185M US$2020
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land0.399%2018
forests0.314%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1.5741000 t2019
cereals, total480.4331000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes2.2651000 t2019
roots and tubers, total10.2951000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watermelons3.7591000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry14.2731000 t2019
peas, dry8.411000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.8461000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total28.7581000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates21.9261000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley0.5161000 ha2019
maize23.3721000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes0.3691000 ha2019
sweet potatoes2.8261000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watermelons4.5171000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry11.311000 ha2019
peas, dry28.2221000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1.0571000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates9.1921000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber2 241 4792019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 932.7041000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes1 932.7041000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep11 153.5231000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats7 539.3831000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses330.5781000 heads2019
asses and mules330.5781000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels1 500.9731000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds4 6801000 heads2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter1.1911000 t2018
cheese6.5261000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs58 285.589t2019
freshwater fishes15 000t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil, crude199.51000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper29.51000 t2019
iron ore12 2001000 t2019
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum2501000 t2019
salt1$1000 t2018
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold12 249.8kg2019
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal510M kWh2018
- other renew.248.3M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal4211000 kW2018
- other renew.1221000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation948.3M kWh2018
total installed capacity5921000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude5$1000 t2019
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fish, frozen23.41000 t2003
fish, preserved0.11000 t2003
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper1.11000 t2019
paper1.11000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement6701000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production550.83M US$2018
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products50.351% of goods exports2019
ores and metals48.494% of goods exports2019
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20202 396M US$ -
20192 325M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20203 037M US$ -
20193 520M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures56$M US$2019
Receipts13.7M US$2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown900 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried386.61000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers2.39per 1000 pop.2019
Computers45.4per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling9.376years2019
Graduates2 813units2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level677 458units2019
Students, secondary level259 873units2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.4per 1000 pop.2006
Physicians0.23per 1000 pop.2019
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.2% of adults2019
Malaria135 120cases2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.011% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking43.4%2019
Access to electricity45.812%2019
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