Form of Government: Republic
Area: 1 030 700 sq km
Population: 4 420 184 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 4.29 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 28° - 15° N; long. 17° - 5° W
Capital: Nouakchott (capital) 1 077 169 inhab. (2016);
Currency: ouguiya (5 khoums)
Human development index: 0.52 (rank: 159)
President: Mohamed Ould Ghazouani (Union for the Republic), elected 22 June 2019, in office since 1 August 2019
Prime Minister: Ismail Ould Bedde Ould Cheikh Sidiya (Union for the Republic), since 3 August 2019
Internet: www.ons.mr (Office National de la Statistique)
Member of Arab League, AU, OIC, UN, WTO

Mauritania

Mūrītāniyā, Al-Jumhūrīyah al-Islāmīyah al-Mūrītānīyah
Useful information

International license plate code RIM
International dialling code 00222
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .mr

GMT  0
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Nouakchott 26
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Nouakchott 21.5/27.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Nouakchott 9.5/8
Annual average precipitation (mm) Nouakchott 115
Days of rainfall (annual average) Nouakchott 12

Geography.
Mauritania is bordered to the north-east by Algeria, to the east by Mali, to the south by Mali and Senegal, and to the north-west by the Western Sahara.
The country lies on the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Mauritania comprises a wide coastal plain which rises in the east to form a plateau, where to the south the River Senegal divides Mauritania from Senegal. The desert steppe-like climate is more humid in the southern regions.

Government


Formerly a French colony, Mauritania became independent on 28 November 1960. In 1976, the country took part with Morocco, in the partition of the Western Sahara resulting in a war with the Polisario Front. The war ended in 1979 with the country having to leave the occupied territory. Following the long regime of Maaouiya Ould Taya (1984-2005) short periods of formal democracy alternated with military regimes. Militias affiliated with Islamic fundamentalism are active in the country.
According to the 1991 Constitution, amended several times, the President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for a term of five years, and he or she can be re-elected only once. Legislative power lies in the hand of the National Assembly (currently made up of 146 members elected by direct suffrage for five years); the Senate was abolished by a referendum in 2017.
The legal system is based on Islamic law (sharia).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force1.6%2015
Army94.6%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides9.9per 100 000 pop.2015
TOP

Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Nouakchott1 077 169inhab.2016
Nouâdhibou118 167inhab.2013
TOP

Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The population mainly belongs to Arabic and Berber groups, with a sizeable minority of black Sudanese; clashes occur intermittently between the different ethnic groups. Despite the formal abolition of slavery (1980) there are still slaves in rural areas.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate33.72017
Death rate7.82017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Moor81.5%1995
Wolof6.8%1995


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Sunni)99%2010
other1%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
French
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years38.2%2018
15-29 years27.9%2018


TOP

Economy


Economic growth is closely linked to the variation in market prices of mining exports.
The main crops (rice, sorghum, pulses, dates and maize) are not enough to satisfy domestic needs. Nomadic farming and ocean fishing are relatively important.
There are iron ore deposits (at Fdérick, Zouérat, M’Haoudat and Guelb el Rheïn, connected to the port of Nouâdhibou by railway), copper and gold reserves (at Akjoujt), salt deposits (at Trarza and Idjil). Relatively small amounts of oil are extracted off the coast. There is an oil refinery and factories for the processing of fish at Nouâdhibou. Cement plants are active at Nouakchott and Nouâdhibou.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)120.19index2016
Balance of trade- 646.8M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 266 081units2018
Active population, Females31.4%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate10.3%2018
Unemployment rate, Females39.4%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses498 479M LCU2017
Revenues481 208M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture55.4%2018
industry11.1%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture24.7%2017
industry33.2%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation16.85BN LCU2017
International reserves934.3M US$2018
TOP

Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land0.45%2015
forests0.22%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1.4561000 t2017
cereals, total357.31000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes2.3271000 t2017
roots and tubers, total10.011000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watermelons2.6311000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry12.9641000 t2017
peas, dry9.4821000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.8461000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total25.7861000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates22.0291000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley0.4871000 ha2017
maize211000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes0.3861000 ha2017
sweet potatoes2.811000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watermelons4.41000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry10.9661000 ha2017
peas, dry31.291000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1.0581000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates9.2961000 ha2017
TOP

Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber2 160 7472017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 945.6581000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes1 945.6581000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep10 968.5731000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats7 442.6441000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses322.6191000 heads2017
asses and mules322.6191000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels1 479.6481000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds4 6271000 heads2017
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.8961000 t2014
cheese6.9611000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs52 844t2017
freshwater fishes15 000t2017
TOP

Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil, crude199.51000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper32.81000 t2016
iron ore13 2681000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum701000 t2016
salt11000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold7 127kg2016
TOP

Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal820M kWh2016
- hydro180M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal3921000 kW2016
- hydro971000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation1 139M kWh2016
total installed capacity5581000 kW2016
TOP

Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude51000 t2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fish, frozen23.41000 t2003
fish, preserved0.11000 t2003
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper1.11000 t2017
paper1.11000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement8801000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production285.5M US$2016
TOP

Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products50.718% of goods exports2017
ores and metals48.674% of goods exports2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20181 932M US$ -
20171 722M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20182 578M US$ -
20172 094M US$ -
TOP

Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures61M US$2017
Receipts24M US$2017
TOP

Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown900 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried418.81000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers2.858per 1000 pop.2017
Computers45.4per 1000 pop.2008
TOP

Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling8.5years2017
Graduates2 813units2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level16 536units2016
Teachers, secondary level8 612units2017
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.4per 1000 pop.2006
Physicians0.17per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.3% of adults2017
Malaria182 677cases2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking46.56%2016
Access to electricity42.912%2017
TOP