Form of Government: Republic
Area: 1 030 700 sq km
Population: 3 782 701 inhab. (estimate 2016)
Density: 3.67 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 28° - 15° N; long. 17° - 5° W
Capital: Nouakchott (capital) 1 077 169 inhab. (2016);
Currency: ouguiya (5 khoums)
Human development index: 0.513 (rank: 157)
President: Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz, elected on 18 July 2009, re-elected 21 June 2014
Prime Minister: Yahya Ould Hademine, since 20 August 2014
Internet: www.ons.mr (Office National de la Statistique)
Member of Arab League, AU, OIC, UN, WTO

Mauritania

Mūrītāniyā, Al-Jumhūrīyah al-Islāmīyah al-Mūrītānīyah
Useful information

International license plate code RIM
International dialling code 00222
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .mr

GMT  0
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Nouakchott 26
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Nouakchott 21.5/27.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Nouakchott 9.5/8
Annual average precipitation (mm) Nouakchott 115
Days of rainfall (annual average) Nouakchott 12

Geography.
Mauritania is bordered to the north-east by Algeria, to the east by Mali, to the south by Mali and Senegal, and to the north-west by the Western Sahara.
The country lies on the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Mauritania comprises a wide coastal plain which rises in the east to form a plateau, where to the south the River Senegal divides Mauritania from Senegal. The desert steppe-like climate is more humid in the southern regions.

Government


Formerly a French colony, Mauritania became independent on 28 November 1960. In 1976, the country took part with Morocco, in the partition of the Western Sahara resulting in a war with the Polisario Front. The war ended in 1979 with the country having to leave the occupied territory. Following the long regime of Maaouiya Ould Taya (1984-2005) short periods of formal democracy alternated with military regimes. General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz, who came to power in 2008 at the head of a military junta, was elected President in the 2009 elections.
Militias affiliated with Islamic fundamentalism are active in the country.
According to the 1991 Constitution, amended several times, the President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for a term of five years, and he or she can be re-elected only once. Legislative power lies in the hand of the National Assembly (currently made up of 146 members elected by direct suffrage for five years); the Senate was abolished by a referendum in 2017.
The legal system is based on Islamic law (sharia).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force1.6%2015
Army94.6%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides10.2per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Nouakchott1 077 169inhab.2016
Nouâdhibou118 167inhab.2013
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The population mainly belongs to Arabic and Berber groups, with a sizeable minority of black Sudanese; clashes occur intermittently between the different ethnic groups.
Despite the formal abolition of slavery (1980) there are still slaves in rural areas.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate34.22016
Death rate7.92016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Moor81.5%1995
Wolof6.8%1995


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Sunni)99%2010
other1%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
French
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years38.6%2017
15-29 years27.9%2017


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Economy


Economic growth is closely linked to the variation in market prices of mining exports.
The main crops (rice, sorghum, pulses, dates and maize) are not enough to satisfy domestic needs. Nomadic farming and ocean fishing are relatively important.
There are iron ore deposits (at Fdérick, Zouérat, M’Haoudat and Guelb el Rheïn, connected to the port of Nouâdhibou by railway), copper and gold reserves (at Akjoujt), salt deposits (at Trarza and Idjil). Relatively small amounts of oil are extracted off the coast. There is an oil refinery and factories for the processing of fish at Nouâdhibou. Cement plants are active at Nouakchott and Nouâdhibou.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)120.19index2016
Balance of trade- 647M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 312 462units2017
Active population, Females31.3%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate10.2%2017
Unemployment rate, Females36%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses491 860M LCU2017
Revenues489 340M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture75.9%2017
industry7.2%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture23.4%2016
industry36.1%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation530.4BN LCU2015
International reserves848.5M US$2016
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land0.45%2015
forests0.22%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1.4331000 t2016
cereals, total320.6441000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes2.3331000 t2016
roots and tubers, total7.4891000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watermelons0.3271000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry13.1291000 t2016
peas, dry9.5431000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.8181000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total25.7861000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates22.3831000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley0.4881000 ha2016
maize23.7221000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes0.3911000 ha2016
sweet potatoes2.3471000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watermelons0.7991000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry10.9741000 ha2016
peas, dry31.4491000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1.0171000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates9.1891000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber2 092 5682016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 836.6851000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes1 836.6851000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep9 600.9821000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats6 207.4761000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses326.4071000 heads2016
asses and mules326.4071000 heads2016
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels1 483.211000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds4 6081000 heads2016
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.8961000 t2014
cheese6.9611000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs40 472t2016
freshwater fishes15 000t2016
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil, crude199.51000 t2017
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper451000 t2015
iron ore11 6101000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum701000 t2015
salt0.71000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold8 618kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal980M kWh2015
- hydro180M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2631000 kW2015
- hydro971000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation1 282M kWh2015
total installed capacity4121000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude21000 t2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fish, frozen23.41000 t2003
fish, preserved0.11000 t2003
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper1.11000 t2016
paper1.11000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement788.21000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production285.5M US$2016
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ores and metals49.344% of goods exports2016
food products45.060% of goods exports2016
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20171 608.810M US$ -
20161 400.679M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20172 256.141M US$ -
20161 900.060M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures74M US$2016
Receipts33M US$2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown900 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried418.81000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers2.858per 1000 pop.2017
Computers45.4per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling8.3years2016
Graduates3 035units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level16 536units2016
Teachers, secondary level7 582units2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.4per 1000 pop.2006
Physicians0.07per 1000 pop.2013
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.5% of adults2016
Malaria159 225cases2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking46.56%2016
Access to electricity41.652%2016
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