Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy
Area: 442 311 sq km
Population: 35 032 440 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 79.2 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 36° - 27° N; long. 13° - 1° W
Capital: Rabat (capital) 577 827 inhab. (2014); Rabat 2 120 192 inhab. (2014), urban agglomeration
Currency: Moroccan dirham (100 santimat)
Human development index: 0.686 (rank: 121)
Sovereign: Sidi Mohammed (Mohammed VI), since 24 July 1999
Prime Minister: Saadeddine Othmani (PJD), since 17 March 2017
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 7 October 2016: PJD (Justice and Development Party, Islamic), 125; PAM (Authenticity and Modernity Party, conservative), 102; Istiqlal (Independence Party, social democrat), 46; RNI (National Rally of Independents, right-wing), 37; MP (Popular Movement, liberal), 27; USFP (Socialist Union of Popular Forces), 20; UC (Constitutional Union), 19; PPS (Party of Progress and Socialism), 12; others, 7
Internet: www.hcp.ma (Haut-Commissariat au Plan)
Member of Arab League, AU, EBRD, OAS observer, OIC, UN, WTO

Morocco

Al-Maghrib, Al-Mamlakah al-Maghribīyah
Useful information

International license plate code MA
International dialling code 00212
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 127/220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ma

GMT  0
DST  +1
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Rabat 17.8; Marrakech 19.7
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Rabat 13/22.5; Marrakech 12.5/28
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Rabat 10/5; Marrakech 11/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Rabat 424; Marrakech 244
Days of rainfall (annual average) Rabat 53; Marrakech 52

Politics and current affairs

A series of clashes between the army and Saharawi militants opened on 13 November 2020 has interrupted the long ceasefire in Western Sahara.

Geography.
Morocco is bordered by Algeria to the east and south-east, by Ceuta and Melilla to the north and Western Sahara to the south-west. The Mediterranean Sea lies off its north-east coast and the Atlantic Ocean lies off its north-west and west coast. The very varied terrain comprises a coastal strip and several mountains ranges: the Rif, the Middle Atlas, the High Atlas and the Anti-Atlas, which culminate in Mount Toubkal (4167 m). In the south-east of the country lie the spurs of the Sahara. The most important river is the River Oum er-Rbia. It has a mediterranean oceanic climate along the coast and a mountain desert climate inland. Morocco lays claim to the Spanish possessions along the Mediterranean coast: Ceuta, Melilla, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, the Chafarinas Islands and the island of Peñón de Alhucemas.

Government


Having been a French protectorate from 1912 (except for some territories occupied by Spain), Morocco has been independent since 28 March 1956. In 1975, it occupied Western Sahara (formerly Spanish Sahara), where the national liberation movement of the Sahrawi people (the Polisario Front) developed, with whom fruitless negotiations have been conducted over the years. Poverty and income inequality are the basis of social tensions that often lead to protests. According to the amendments made to the Constitution approved by a referendum held on 1 July 2011, the king appoints a prime minister from the majority party, but actually keeps tight control over the government, sparking a conflict of competencies that slows down political activities. A vote of no confidence in the government can be expressed by both the House of Representatives (395 members elected directly for five years) and the Chamber of Councillors (120 members elected for six years by local bodies and professional organizations).


Defence and justice.
The legal system is based on French Law and Islamic Law (sharia). In 2004, Moroccan women gained new rights with regard to marriage and property with the Family Code.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force6.6%2015
Army89.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes970.2per 100 000 pop.2006
Homicides1.2per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Casablanca=Dar-el-Beida3 359 818inhab.2014
Fès1 112 072inhab.2014
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Casablanca4 270 750inhab.2014
Rabat2 120 192inhab.2014
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate18.52019
Death rate5.0572019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Berber45$%2000
Arab44$%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Sunni)99$%2017
other1$%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
Berber dialects
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years27$%2020
15-29 years24.3%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
In the last few months of 2020, the country emerged from the recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to emergency measures (low interest rates, liquidity injection), an ambitious economic reform plan got underway, which includes transforming state companies, expanding the social security system and investments in SME. The contingent situation led to an increase in the deficit and public debt, which was on the wave in previous years due to austerity. Youth unemployment, financial inequality and poverty continue to fuel social conflict.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)121.63index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)110.56index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population11 523 316units2020
Active population, Females24.1%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate10.2%2020
Unemployment rate, Females27.9%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses223 491M LCU2019
Revenues276 286M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture34.7%2019
industry21.7%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture13.754%2019
industry28.66%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation319.282BN LCU2020
International reserves35 997.64M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
More than half of the arable land is used for cultivating cereals, especially wheat and barley, which are mainly grown around Kénitra. The production of sugar beet, fruit and vegetables (which have a large market in the EU), flowers and olive oil is very important. Olives are grown especially around Fès, Meknès, Marrakech and Casablanca.
The forests of Morocco are important for their cork and prized timber: oak, thuja and cedar.
Livestock and fishing.
The most important livestock are sheep and goats. Fishing is profitable (sardines, mackerel, tuna fish, shellfish, seafood) and is favoured by the cold currents flowing from the Canary Islands. The main fishing ports are Safi, Mohammedia, Casablanca, Agadir and Al Hoceïma.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land20.32%2018
forests12.82%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 161.1831000 t2019
cereals, total5 312.9761000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes1 956.7111000 t2019
roots and tubers, total1 966.2241000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes44.7741000 t2019
asparagus0.311000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry14.9031000 t2009
beans, green210.5971000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes459.51000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives1 912.2381000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.1681000 t2019
groundnuts39.671000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pyrethrum0.181000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet3 692.8841000 t2019
sugar cane518.9561000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.3481000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal1.6751000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples809.7621000 t2019
apricots109.7951000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds102.1851000 t2019
pistachios0.0471000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits2 621.5191000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes17.2281000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados54.5761000 t2019
bananas349.9241000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms2.1561000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 050.1531000 ha2019
maize63.2921000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes62.4631000 ha2019
sweet potatoes0.4571000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes2.9661000 ha2019
cabbages1.2551000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry16.7261000 ha2009
beans, green9.1221000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape42.3691000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive1 073.4931000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.2761000 ha2019
groundnuts15.2881000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet57.1711000 ha2019
sugar cane11.3061000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.1611000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal5.7121000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples49.7311000 ha2019
apricots11.0731000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds190.6121000 ha2019
walnuts7.6251000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits128.7081000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes1.9481000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados5.0691000 ha2019
bananas8.5291000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber6 900 8422019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle3 3281000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes3 3281000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs8.0441000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep21 5911000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats5 9931000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses9271000 heads2019
asses and mules1 3121000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels60.8081000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds222 9731000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey7.961000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter37.9981000 t2018
cheese32.9021000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals1.736t2019
crustaceans and molluscs99 257.011t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
At present, reserves of fuel are scarce: the coal from Jerada and the crude oil at Sidi Kacem and Sidi Rhalem manage to cover only a tiny part of the national requirement. Modest quantities of natural gas are extracted from the Essaouira basin. Morocco is one of the world’s top producers of phosphates and this role was strengthened with the occupation of Western Sahara. The most important mines are at Khouribga, Youssoufia, Benguerir, Sidi Chennane and Meskala. Other minerals include iron ores (at Nador and Guemassa), copper (at Bleida, Guemassa and Tiznit), manganese (at Imini), cobalt (at Bou Azzer, in the Anti-Atlas), gold (near Tiznit), lead (at Mfis and Tizi n’Ressas), zinc (at Guemassa), tin and silver (at Imiter and Igoudrane), antimony (near Ceuta and at Oued Zem) and molybdenum (at Azegour).
Energy and industry.
The major thermal power plants are coal-fired and are located near El-Jadida, Safi and Nador; wind and photovoltaic production are under development.
The main metal-working centres are at Oued-el-Heimer (lead), Casablanca and Nador (refined lead, cast iron and steel). In Sidi Kacem and at Mohammedia there are oil refineries, whereas chemical plants are located at Safi, Aïn Sebaa, Tétouan, Kénitra, Berrechid and Jorf Lasfar. Cement works are located near the major cities. In the engineering segment, the automotive industry (models of Renault, Peugeot and Citroën are made here) is based in Casablanca, Tangier and Kénitra; the aeronautic industry is also significant (in Casablanca, Nouacer and Tangier). The textile industry (at Mohammedia and Safi) produces cotton yarns and fabrics. The clothing and leather-working sectors are also important.
The food-processing sector is highly developed and attracts large amounts of foreign investment. There are oil mills, sugar refineries (at Casablanca, Ben Slimane and Mechrá Belqsiri) and food-preserving facilities (at Safi, Essaouira and Agadir). There are also tobacco-processing plants (at Aïn Harrouda) and paper mills (at Casablanca and Kénitra). Moroccan carpets are highly prized (workshops at Rabat and Ouazzane) and Moroccan craft products are famous. A tax-free zone has been established in the Tangier-Med port.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas105.6M m³2019
oil, crude2.51000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cobalt1.91000 t2020
copper30$1000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite8001000 t2020
bentonite1701000 t2019
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold200kg2018
silver348 000kg2018
Mineral resources - Other minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arsenic5.51000 t2020
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal30 469.16M kWh2019
- other renew.4 804.26M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal6 3371000 kW2018
- other renew.1 961.351000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation32 462.44M kWh2018
total installed capacity10 068.351000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cobalt2.41000 t2019
lead18$1000 t2018
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars221 299no.2020
commercial vehicles27 131no.2020
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen2471000 t2015
petrol1 367.51000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fertilizers6 9601000 t2016
nitrogen fertilizers1 135.11000 t2019
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets225.81000 m²2007
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley90$1000 t2018
cottonseed oil0.9791000 t2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper1561000 t2019
paper1561000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement15 0001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production3 645.646M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production4 911.981M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
The structural deficit in the balance of trade is partially compensated by tourism, which is on the rise, and remittances from Moroccans working abroad.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017) 
electrical and electronic equipment 4 228, cars 3 198, apparel and accessories 3 178, fertilizers 2 584, fruit and vegetables 2 040, fresh and preserved fish 2 008, chemicals 1 161


Finance and banking.
On the whole, the banking system is organized according to the French model. The Bank Al-Maghrib acts as the central bank. Several commercial banks also operate in the country.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures70.843% of goods exports2019
food products21.161% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Spain6 612M US$2020
France6 056M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Spain6 783M US$2020
China5 429M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202027 159M US$ -
201929 132M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202043 831M US$ -
201950 734M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The largest tourist complexes are in Casablanca, Marrakech, Agadir, Tangier and Restinga (near Tétouan). Most of Morocco’s visitors come from the EU.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures3 172M US$2019
Number of arrivals12 932 000units2019
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Communications


Transport.
The motorway network is in great development. Part of the rail network is used for conveying phosphates from the mines to the ports of Casablanca and Safi. A high-speed train line between Casablanca and Tangier has been operating since 2018.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown70 500 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried9 3811000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers48.019per 1000 pop.2019
Computers57$per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education.
Education is compulsory between the ages of 7 and 13. The pupils are taught in Arabic for the first two years, after which French, English and the Berber language are also used as a teaching medium. Secondary education lasts for six years, and is divided into two phases.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling13.958years2019
Graduates171 738units2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level4 432 229units2019
Students, secondary level2 920 791units2019
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending9.3% of total expenses2006
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.7per 1000 pop.2019
Physicians0.7per 1000 pop.2019
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2019
HIV, total0.04%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.71% of GDP2010
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking98.1%2019
Access to electricity99.6%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing3.2%2014
education, culture, recreation5.6%2014
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