Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy
Area: 442 311 sq km
Population: 35 586 616 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 80.46 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 36° - 27° N; long. 13° - 1° W
Capital: Rabat (capital) 577 827 inhab. (2014); Rabat 2 120 192 inhab. (2014), urban agglomeration
Currency: Moroccan dirham (100 santimat)
Human development index: 0.676 (rank: 121)
Sovereign: Sidi Mohammed (Mohammed VI), since 24 July 1999
Prime Minister: Saadeddine Othmani (PJD), since 17 March 2017
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 7 October 2016: PJD (Justice and Development Party, Islamic), 125; PAM (Authenticity and Modernity Party, conservative), 102; Istiqlal (Independence Party, social democrat), 46; RNI (National Rally of Independents, right-wing), 37; MP (Popular Movement, liberal), 27; USFP (Socialist Union of Popular Forces), 20; UC (Constitutional Union), 19; PPS (Party of Progress and Socialism), 12; others, 7
Internet: www.hcp.ma (Haut-Commissariat au Plan)
Member of Arab League, AU, EBRD, OAS observer, OIC, UN, WTO

Morocco

Al-Maghrib, Al-Mamlakah al-Maghribīyah
Useful information

International license plate code MA
International dialling code 00212
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 127/220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ma

GMT  0
DST  +1
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Rabat 17.8; Marrakech 19.7
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Rabat 13/22.5; Marrakech 12.5/28
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Rabat 10/5; Marrakech 11/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Rabat 424; Marrakech 244
Days of rainfall (annual average) Rabat 53; Marrakech 52

Geography.
Morocco is bordered by Algeria to the east and south-east, by Ceuta and Melilla to the north and Western Sahara to the south-west. The Mediterranean Sea lies off its north-east coast and the Atlantic Ocean lies off its north-west and west coast. The very varied terrain comprises a coastal strip and several mountains ranges: the Rif, the Middle Atlas, the High Atlas and the Anti-Atlas, which culminate in Mount Toubkal (4167 m). In the south-east of the country lie the spurs of the Sahara. The most important river is the River Oum er-Rbia. It has a mediterranean oceanic climate along the coast and a mountain desert climate inland. Morocco lays claim to the Spanish possessions along the Mediterranean coast: Ceuta, Melilla, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, the Chafarinas Islands and the island of Peñón de Alhucemas.

Government


Having been a French protectorate from 1912 (except for some territories occupied by Spain), Morocco has been independent since 28 March 1956. In 1975, it occupied Western Sahara (formerly Spanish Sahara), where the national liberation movement of the Sahrawi people (the Polisario Front) developed, with whom fruitless negotiations have been conducted over the years. Poverty and income inequality are the basis of social tensions that often lead to protests. According to the amendments made to the Constitution approved by a referendum held on 1 July 2011, the king appoints a prime minister from the majority party, but actually keeps tight control over the government, sparking a conflict of competencies that slows down political activities. A vote of no confidence in the government can be expressed by both the House of Representatives (395 members elected directly for five years) and the Chamber of Councillors (120 members elected for six years by local bodies and professional organizations).


Justice.
The legal system is based on French Law and Islamic Law (sharia). In 2004, Moroccan women gained new rights with regard to marriage and property with the Family Code.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force6.6%2015
Army89.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes970.2per 100 000 pop.2006
Homicides1.2per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Casablanca=Dar-el-Beida3 359 818inhab.2014
Fès1 112 072inhab.2014
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Casablanca4 270 750inhab.2014
Rabat2 120 192inhab.2014
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate18.92018
Death rate5.12018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Berber45%2000
Arab44%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Sunni)99%2017
other1%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
Berber dialects
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years25.5%2018
15-29 years25%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
The recessive impact of COVID-19 has compounded last year’s drought-driven fall in agricultural production: the government has replied by introducing a support scheme for businesses, families and the health system. This has increased the public deficit and debt, which, thanks to some years of tightly controlled expenditure, had previously been on the wane. In a bid to combat youth unemployment, the government has also launched a credit programme for young people and small businesses; but financial inequality and poverty continue to fuel social conflict.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)121.63index2016
Balance of trade-21 861M US$2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population12 067 484units2019
Active population, Females24.2%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate9%2019
Unemployment rate, Females27.9%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses223 491M LCU2019
Revenues276 286M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture34.7%2019
industry21.7%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture13.9%2018
industry29.4%2018
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation266.771BN LCU2019
International reserves26 412.8M US$2019
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
More than half of the arable land is used for cultivating cereals, especially wheat and barley, which are mainly grown around Kénitra. The production of sugar beet, fruit and vegetables (which have a large market in the EU), flowers and olive oil is very important. Olives are grown especially around Fès, Meknès, Marrakech and Casablanca. The forests of Morocco are important for their cork and prized timber: oak, thuja and cedar.
Livestock and fishing.
The most important livestock are sheep and goats. Fishing is profitable (sardines, mackerel, tuna fish, shellfish, seafood) and is favoured by the cold currents flowing from the Canary Islands. The main fishing ports are Safi, Mohammedia, Casablanca, Agadir and Al Hoceïma.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land21.49%2015
forests12.62%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley2 851.0221000 t2018
cereals, total10 388.6651000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes1 869.1491000 t2018
roots and tubers, total1 887.4131000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes44.5911000 t2018
asparagus0.061000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry14.9031000 t2009
beans, green148.3921000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes451.1581000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives1 561.4651000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.1571000 t2018
groundnuts32.1521000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pyrethrum0.1811000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet3 710.5141000 t2018
sugar cane616.1141000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.2171000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal1.5911000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples696.951000 t2018
apricots101.6121000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds117.271000 t2018
pistachios0.0471000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits2 287.3511000 t2018
citrus fruits, nes18.2411000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados51.171000 t2018
bananas319.951000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms2.1581000 t2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 564.461000 ha2018
maize148.1781000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes62.0331000 ha2018
sweet potatoes0.8371000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes3.2741000 ha2018
cabbages1.9491000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry16.7261000 ha2009
beans, green6.0071000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape42.3051000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive1 045.1861000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.261000 ha2018
groundnuts12.851000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet53.961000 ha2018
sugar cane8.7461000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.1041000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal4.9021000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples50.5891000 ha2018
apricots11.1531000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds186.2551000 ha2018
walnuts7.7021000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits127.3171000 ha2018
citrus fruits, nes2.0591000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados4.4491000 ha2018
bananas8.4121000 ha2018
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber6 921 5572018
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle3 4411000 heads2018
cattle and buffaloes3 4411000 heads2018
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs8.0011000 heads2018
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep19 8801000 heads2018
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats5 7311000 heads2018
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses9341000 heads2018
asses and mules1 3241000 heads2018
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels59.8231000 heads2018
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds214 5991000 heads2018
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey7.431000 t2018
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter36.1071000 t2014
cheese33.3751000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals3.503t2018
crustaceans and molluscs75 469.371t2018
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
At present, reserves of fuel are scarce: the coal from Jerada and the crude oil at Sidi Kacem and Sidi Rhalem manage to cover only a tiny part of the national requirement. Modest quantities of natural gas are extracted from the Essaouira basin. Morocco is one of the world’s top producers of phosphates and this role was strengthened with the occupation of Western Sahara. The most important mines are at Khouribga, Youssoufia, Benguerir, Sidi Chennane and Meskala. Other minerals include iron ores (at Nador and Guemassa), copper (at Bleida, Guemassa and Tiouit), manganese (at Imini, where the ore is transferred by a ropeway to Marrakech), cobalt (at Bou Azzer, in the Anti-Atlas), gold (near Tiznit), lead (at Mfis and Tizi n’Ressas), zinc (at Guemassa), tin and silver (at Imiter and Igoudrane), antimony (near Ceuta and at Oued Zem) and molybdenum (at Azegour).
Energy and industry.
The major thermal power plants are coal-fired and are located near El-Jadida, Safi and Nador; wind and photovoltaic production are under development.
The main metal-working centres are at Oued-el-Heimer (lead), Casablanca and Nador (refined lead, cast iron and steel). In Sidi Kacem and at Mohammedia there are oil refineries, whereas chemical plants are located at Safi, Aïn Sebaa, Tétouan, Kénitra, Berrechid and Jorf Lasfar. Cement works are located near the major cities. In the engineering segment, the automotive industry (models of Renault, Peugeot and Citroën are made here) is based in Casablanca, Tangier and Kénitra; the aeronautic industry is also significant (in Casablanca, Nouacer and Tangier). The textile industry (at Mohammedia and Safi) produces cotton yarns and fabrics. The clothing and leather-working sectors are also important.
The food-processing sector is highly developed and attracts large amounts of foreign investment. There are oil mills, sugar refineries (at Casablanca, Ben Slimane and Mechrá Belqsiri) and food-preserving facilities (at Safi, Essaouira and Agadir). There are also tobacco-processing plants (at Aïn Harrouda) and paper mills (at Casablanca and Kénitra). Moroccan carpets are highly prized (workshops at Rabat and Ouazzane) and Moroccan craft products are famous. A tax-free zone has been established in the Tangier-Med port.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas105.6M m³2019
oil, crude81000 t2019
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cobalt2.11000 t2019
copper126.11000 t2017
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite1 1001000 t2019
bentonite921000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold400kg2017
silver222 895kg2016
Mineral resources - Other minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arsenic61000 t2019
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal25 262M kWh2017
- other renew.3 463M kWh2017
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal5 4311000 kW2017
- other renew.1 9571000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation29 768M kWh2017
total installed capacity8 4281000 kW2017
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cobalt2.11000 t2016
lead111000 t2016
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars360 110no.2019
commercial vehicles34 542no.2019
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen2471000 t2015
petrol1 367.51000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fertilizers5 2101000 t2015
nitrogen fertilizers917.81000 t2017
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets225.81000 m²2007
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley49.41000 t2014
cottonseed oil0.031000 t2014
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper1561000 t2018
paper1561000 t2018
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement16 4001000 t2017
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production3 645.6M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production4 912M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
The structural deficit in the balance of trade is partially compensated by tourism, which is on the rise, and remittances from Moroccans working abroad.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) electrical and electronic equipment 4 228, cars 3 198, apparel and accessories 3 178, fertilizers 2 584, fruit and vegetables 2 040, fresh and preserved fish 2 008, chemicals 1 161


Finance and banking.
On the whole, the banking system is organized according to the French model. The Bank Al-Maghrib acts as the central bank. Several commercial banks also operate in the country.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures71.549% of goods exports2018
food products20.343% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Spain7 066M US$2019
France6 341M US$2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Spain7 945M US$2019
France6 243M US$2019
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201928 780M US$ -
201828 609M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201950 640M US$ -
201851 038M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The largest tourist complexes are in Casablanca, Marrakech, Agadir, Tangier and Restinga (near Tétouan). Most of Morocco’s visitors come from the EU.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures3 018M US$2018
Number of arrivals12 289 000units2018
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Communications


Transport.
The motorway network is in great development. Part of the rail network is used for conveying phosphates from the mines to the ports of Casablanca and Safi. A high-speed train line between Casablanca and Tangier has been operating since 2018.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown70 500 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried8 132.91000 units2018
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers43.092per 1000 pop.2018
Computers57per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education.
Education is compulsory between the ages of 7 and 13. The pupils are taught in Arabic for the first two years, after which French, English and the Berber language are also used as a teaching medium. Secondary education lasts for six years, and is divided into two phases.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling13.7years2018
Graduates171 738units2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level161 288units2018
Teachers, secondary level147 805units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending9.3% of total expenses2006
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.7per 1000 pop.2019
Physicians0.7per 1000 pop.2019
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2018
HIV, total0.04%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.71% of GDP2010
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking96.75%2016
Access to electricity100%2018
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing3.2%2014
education, culture, recreation5.6%2014
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