Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy
Area: 442 311 sq km
Population: 34 677 478 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 78.40 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 36° - 27° N; long. 13° - 1° W
Capital: Rabat (capital) 577 827 inhab. (2014); Rabat 2 120 192 inhab. (2014), urban agglomeration
Currency: Moroccan dirham (100 santimat)
Human development index: 0.667 (rank: 123)
Sovereign: Sidi Mohammed (Mohammed VI), since 24 July 1999
Prime Minister: Saadeddine Othmani (PJD), since 17 March 2017
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 7 October 2016: PJD (Justice and Development Party, Islamic), 125; PAM (Authenticity and Modernity Party, conservative), 102; Istiqlal (Independence Party, social democrat), 46; RNI (National Rally of Independents, right-wing), 37; MP (Popular Movement, liberal), 27; USFP (Socialist Union of Popular Forces), 20; UC (Constitutional Union), 19; PPS (Party of Progress and Socialism), 12; others, 7
Internet: www.hcp.ma (Haut-Commissariat au Plan)
Member of Arab League, AU, EBRD, OAS observer, OIC, UN, WTO

Morocco

Al-Maghrib, Al-Mamlakah al-Maghribīyah
Useful information

International license plate code MA
International dialling code 00212
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 127/220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ma

GMT  0
DST  +1
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Rabat 17.8; Marrakech 19.7
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Rabat 13/22.5; Marrakech 12.5/28
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Rabat 10/5; Marrakech 11/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Rabat 424; Marrakech 244
Days of rainfall (annual average) Rabat 53; Marrakech 52

Politics and current affairs

The coalition government, led by S. Othmani, is trying to adopt important socio-economic reforms, in part to respond to protests in the Berber region of Rif and the region of Jerada.

Geography.
Morocco is bordered by Algeria to the east and south-east, by Ceuta and Melilla to the north and Western Sahara to the south-west. The Mediterranean Sea lies off its north-east coast and the Atlantic Ocean lies off its north-west and west coast. The very varied terrain comprises a coastal strip and several mountains ranges: the Rif, the Middle Atlas, the High Atlas and the Anti-Atlas, which culminate in Mount Toubkal (4167 m). In the south-east of the country lie the spurs of the Sahara. The most important river is the River Oum er-Rbia. It has a mediterranean oceanic climate along the coast and a mountain desert climate inland. Morocco lays claim to the Spanish possessions along the Mediterranean coast: Ceuta, Melilla, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, the Chafarinas Islands and the island of Peñón de Alhucemas.

Government


Having been a French protectorate from 1912 (except for some territories occupied by Spain), Morocco has been independent since 28 March 1956. In 1975, it occupied Western Sahara (formerly Spanish Sahara), where the national liberation movement of the Sahrawi people (the Polisario Front) developed, with whom fruitless negotiations have been conducted over the years. Poverty and income inequality are the basis of social tensions that often lead to protests. According to the amendments made to the Constitution approved by a referendum held on 1 July 2011, the king appoints a prime minister from the majority party, but actually keeps tight control over the government, sparking a conflict of competencies that slows down political activities. A vote of no confidence in the government can be expressed by both the House of Representatives (395 members elected directly for five years) and the Chamber of Councillors (120 members elected for six years by local bodies and professional organizations).


Justice.
The legal system is based on French Law and Islamic Law (sharia). In 2004, Moroccan women gained new rights with regard to marriage and property with the Family Code.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force6.6%2015
Army89.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes970.2per 100 000 pop.2006
Homicides1.2per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Casablanca=Dar-el-Beida3 359 818inhab.2014
Fès1 112 072inhab.2014
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Casablanca4 270 750inhab.2014
Rabat2 120 192inhab.2014
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate19.52017
Death rate5.12017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Berber45%2000
Arab44%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Sunni)99%2017
other1%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
Berber dialects
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years25.5%2018
15-29 years25%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
The fall in agricultural production in 2018 has slowed economic growth, despite the good results of the mining sector. Since 2014, a cut in hydrocarbon subsidies has contributed to mitigating the public deficit. Since 2014, a cut in hydrocarbon subsidies has contributed to mitigating the public deficit. In 2014, the government launched an industrial acceleration plan with the aim of increasing high value-added production, compensating in part for the drop in revenue from the extraction of phosphate. Good economic growth has had a marginal impact on unemployment, which is especially high amongst educated youths; to resolve social conflicts, the current government is carrying out a plan to reduce economic inequality and poverty.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)121.63index2016
Balance of trade-21 940.8M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population11 955 431units2018
Active population, Females24.2%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate9%2018
Unemployment rate, Females27.7%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses278 864M LCU2018
Revenues259 788M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture38.1%2018
industry21.6%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture14%2017
industry29.5%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation248.48BN LCU2018
International reserves24 461M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
More than half of the arable land is used for cultivating cereals, especially wheat and barley, which are mainly grown around Kénitra. The production of sugar beet, fruit and vegetables (which have a large market in the EU), flowers and olive oil is very important. Olives are grown especially around Fès, Meknès, Marrakech and Casablanca. The forests of Morocco are important for their cork and prized timber: oak, thuja and cedar.
Livestock and fishing.
The most important livestock are sheep and goats. Fishing is profitable (sardines, mackerel, tuna fish, shellfish, seafood) and is favoured by the cold currents flowing from the Canary Islands. The main fishing ports are Safi, Mohammedia, Casablanca, Agadir and Al Hoceïma.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land21.49%2015
forests12.62%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley2 466.4621000 t2017
cereals, total9 787.2461000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes1 924.8711000 t2017
roots and tubers, total1 940.0181000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes45.4571000 t2017
asparagus0.2861000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry14.9031000 t2009
beans, green168.8871000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes378.1281000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives1 039.1171000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.1141000 t2017
groundnuts35.7331000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pyrethrum0.1841000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet3 741.4381000 t2017
sugar cane553.1151000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.3021000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal1.5581000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples820.5471000 t2017
apricots112.5381000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds116.9231000 t2017
pistachios0.0471000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits2 375.0041000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes18.681000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados41.6951000 t2017
bananas333.6191000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms2.1111000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley2 001.4731000 ha2017
maize130.7421000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes64.2931000 ha2017
sweet potatoes0.7771000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes2.9231000 ha2017
cabbages1.8621000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry16.7261000 ha2009
beans, green7.4761000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape42.8331000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive1 020.5691000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.191000 ha2017
groundnuts14.061000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet57.7941000 ha2017
sugar cane10.5961000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.1421000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal3.9831000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples49.4981000 ha2017
apricots11.4191000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds170.8641000 ha2017
walnuts7.4591000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits125.6611000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes2.1261000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados3.5051000 ha2017
bananas8.521000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber6 942 3482017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle3 3641000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes3 3641000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs7.9891000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep19 8631000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats5 2051000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses9301000 heads2017
asses and mules1 3221000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels591000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds212 4351000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey3.81000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter36.1071000 t2014
cheese33.3751000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals4.8t2017
crustaceans and molluscs98 977t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
At present, reserves of fuel are scarce: the coal from Jerada and the crude oil at Sidi Kacem and Sidi Rhalem manage to cover only a tiny part of the national requirement. Recently, however, reserves of gas and crude oil have been discovered near Essaouira and on the Atlantic Coast. Morocco is one of the world’s top producers of phosphates and this role was strengthened with the occupation of Western Sahara. The most important mines are at Khouribga, Youssoufia, Benguerir, Sidi Chennane and Meskala. Other minerals include iron ores (at Nador and Guemassa), copper (at Bleida, Guemassa and Tiouit), manganese (at Imini, where the ore is transferred by a ropeway to Marrakech), cobalt (at Bou Azzer, in the Anti-Atlas), gold (near Tiznit), lead (at Mfis and Tizi n’Ressas), zinc (at Guemassa), tin and silver (at Imiter and Igoudrane), antimony (near Ceuta and at Oued Zem) and molybdenum (at Azegour).
Energy and industry.
The major thermal power plants are coal-fired and are located near El-Jadida, Safi and Nador; wind and photovoltaic production are under development.
The main metal-working centres are at Oued-el-Heimer (lead), Casablanca and Nador (refined lead, cast iron and steel). In Sidi Kacem and at Mohammedia there are oil refineries, whereas chemical plants are located at Safi, Aïn Sebaa, Tétouan, Kénitra, Berrechid and Jorf Lasfar. Cement works are located near the major cities. In the engineering segment, the automotive industry (models of Renault, Peugeot and Citroën are made here) is based in Casablanca and Tangier; the aeronautic industry is also significant (in Casablanca, Nouacer and Tangier). The textile industry (at Mohammedia and Safi) produces cotton yarns and fabrics. The clothing and leather-working sectors are also important. The food-processing sector is highly developed and attracts large amounts of foreign investment. There are oil mills, sugar refineries (at Casablanca, Ben Slimane and Mechrá Belqsiri) and food-preserving facilities (at Safi, Essaouira and Agadir). There are also tobacco-processing plants (at Aïn Harrouda) and paper mills (at Casablanca and Kénitra). Moroccan carpets are highly prized (workshops at Rabat and Ouazzane) and Moroccan craft products are famous. A tax-free zone has been established in the Tangier-Med port.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas87M m³2017
oil, crude81000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cobalt2.31000 t2018
copper18.31000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite1 0001000 t2018
bentonite921000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold300kg2016
silver216 383kg2015
Mineral resources - Other minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arsenic61000 t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal24 229.44M kWh2016
- other renew.3 401M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal5 4311000 kW2016
- hydro1 3061000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation28 750.44M kWh2016
total installed capacity8 3031000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cobalt2.11000 t2016
lead431000 t2015
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars368 601no.2018
commercial vehicles33 484no.2018
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen2471000 t2015
petrol1 367.51000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fertilizers5 2101000 t2015
nitrogen fertilizers917.81000 t2017
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets225.81000 m²2007
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley49.41000 t2014
cottonseed oil0.031000 t2014
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp1511000 t2013
other paper1561000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement16 0001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production2 588.3M US$2015
food, beverages and tobacco production5 141M US$2015
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
The structural deficit in the balance of trade is partially compensated by tourism, which is on the rise, and remittances from Moroccans working abroad.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) electrical and electronic equipment 4 228, cars 3 198, apparel and accessories 3 178, fertilizers 2 584, fruit and vegetables 2 040, fresh and preserved fish 2 008, chemicals 1 161, phosphates 864


Finance and banking.
On the whole, the banking system is organized according to the French model. The Bank Al-Maghrib acts as the central bank. Several commercial banks also operate in the country.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures70.448% of goods exports2017
food products20.874% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Spain6 927M US$2018
France6 388M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Spain8 109M US$2018
France6 089M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201829 074M US$ -
201725 332M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201851 015M US$ -
201744 924M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The largest tourist complexes are in Casablanca, Marrakech, Agadir, Tangier and Restinga (near Tétouan). Most of Morocco’s visitors come from the EU.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures2 829M US$2017
Number of arrivals11 349 000units2017
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Communications


Transport.
The motorway network is in great development. Part of the rail network is used for conveying phosphates from the mines to the ports of Casablanca and Safi. A high-speed train line between Casablanca and Tangier has been operating since 2018.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown70 500 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried8 4371000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers38.581per 1000 pop.2017
Computers57per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education.
Education is compulsory between the ages of 7 and 13. The pupils are taught in Arabic for the first two years, after which French, English and the Berber language are also used as a teaching medium. Secondary education lasts for six years, and is divided into two phases.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling13.5years2017
Graduates163 233units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level150 198units2017
Teachers, secondary level140 474units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending9.3% of total expenses2006
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.7per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians0.7per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2017
HIV, total0.04%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.71% of GDP2010
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking96.75%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing3.2%2014
education, culture, recreation5.6%2014
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