Form of Government: Republic (currently under a military junta)
Area: 1 248 574 sq km
Population: 20 537 000 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 16.45 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 25° - 10° N; long. 12° W - 4° E
Capital: Bamako (capital) 2 285 000 inhab. (2016);
Currency: CFA franc (100 centimes)
Human development index: 0.434 (rank: 184)
Interim President: Assimi Goïta, since 28 May 2021
Interim Prime Minister: Choguel Kokalla Maïga (5 June Movement-Rally of Patriotic Forces), since 7 June 2021
National Assembly (dissolved): seats based on the elections of 29 March and 19 April 2020: RPM (Rally for Mali), 51; ADEMA (Alliance for Democracy in Mali), 24; URD (Union for the Republic and Democracy), 19; MPM (Movement for Mali), 10; independents, 2; others, 41
Internet: www.instat-mali.org (Institut National de la Statistique)
Member of AU, ECOWAS, OIC, UN, WTO

Mali

Mali, République du Mali
Useful information

International license plate code RMM
International dialling code 00223
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ml

GMT  0
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Bamako 27.8
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Bamako 25/27
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Bamako 8/8.5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Bamako 976
Days of rainfall (annual average) Bamako 71

Politics and current affairs

On 24 May 2021, Colonel A. Goïta, who led the coup d’etat against President Boubacar Keïta on 18 August 2020, took power after having President Bah Ndaw and Prime Minister Moctar Ouane arrested.

Geography.
Mali is bordered by Algeria to the north, Niger to the east, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire and Guinea to the south, and by Senegal and Mauritania to the west. The terrain is essentially a large plateau which rises to an altitude of 900 m in the south-east. It includes the upper basin of the Senegal and part of the middle and upper basin reaches of the Niger. The northern part stretches along the massifs of the Central Sahara. The climate is principally steppe and desert-like.

Government


Formerly a French colony under the name of French Sudan, Mali became independent on 20 June 1960 (along with Senegal) in the Mali Federation. After the collapse of the union, Mali proclaimed its independence on 22 September 1960. Modibo Keïta’s Third-Worldist presidency (1960-68) was succeeded by the military dictatorship of Moussa Traoré (1968-91); a democratization process began in 1992. On 22 March 2012, a military coup d’état dismissed the government and suspended the Constitution, on the pretext of the tough situation in the north of the country, where the return of militia previously in the pay of Gaddafi’s Libyan regime once more stirred up the Tuareg rebellion (MNLA, National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad), backed by Islamic fundamentalist movements with links to al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (Ansar Dine and MUJAO, Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa), which took control of the northern part of the country. On 11 January 2013, a group of French troops, with forces from Chad and Nigeria, launched a military operation, allowing the swift repossession of most of the occupied land. On 25 April 2013, the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) was instituted, which was also tasked with supervising the correct execution of the presidential elections. Despite the June 2015 peace agreements, attacks by armed groups continue; Sunni fundamentalism has merged with the claims of ethnic minorities (Tuareg and Fulbe), forming, in 2017, the Group for the Support of Islam and Muslims, which participated in the violent inter-ethnic clashes between nomadic pastoralists (Fulbe) and farmers (Bambara, Dogon). According to the 1992 Constitution, the President is elected directly for five years, as is the National Assembly (147 members). After the 2020 coup, the Assembly was dissolved and replaced by a National Transitional Council of 121 members.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Army100%2015
Military expenditure2.709% of GDP2019
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides10.9per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Bamako2 285 000inhab.2016
Sikasso226 618inhab.2009
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate41.0352019
Death rate9.4122019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Bambara34.1%2012
Fulbe14.7%2012


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim94.8%2009
Christian2.4%2009


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic
French (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years47.7%2020
15-29 years25.8%2020


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)171.33index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)121.06index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population7 384 689units2020
Active population, Females43.7%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate7.5%2020
Unemployment rate, Females48.2%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses2 531 000M LCU2019
Revenues2 235 000M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture62.6%2019
industry7.6%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture39.791%2019
industry23.236%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation1 069.52BN LCU2020
International reserves123.6M US$2016
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Agriculture


The country relies on cotton and gold prices. Economic growth is being threatened by the long-lasting situation of insecurity. Most of the active population is employed in agriculture at a subsistence level (millet, sorghum, maize, rice and sweet potatoes or batata. The main plantation crop is cotton, which is exported to foreign markets. Fishing in inland waters (especially cichlids and clariids) is important from the point of view of feeding the local population. Mali’s forests constitute a precious resource, yielding timber and gum arabic for export. The only minerals being extracted are gold and iron ore but there are also deposits of phosphates, diamonds, manganese and salt. The manufacturing industry is limited: a tractor assembly plant, textile mills, chemical plants and cement works, shoe factories, sugar refineries and a peanut oil plant.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land5.377%2018
forests10.897%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total10 451.4421000 t2019
maize3 816.5361000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava70.3121000 t2019
potatoes303.2571000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages78.2941000 t2019
carrots and turnips15.9411000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry159.8141000 t2019
beans, green3.4331000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts368.6721000 t2019
sesame seed51.1481000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ginger17.1371000 t2019
pepper0.0231000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet11.6321000 t2019
sugar cane370.0281000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton710.7311000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute1.4491000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total1 996.7581000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts167.6211000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits169.4891000 t2019
grapefruits1.2571000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas196.4211000 t2019
dates0.671000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize1 432.1511000 ha2019
millet1 989.9531000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava5.9051000 ha2019
potatoes13.4591000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages4.1881000 ha2019
carrots and turnips1.0931000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry15.8351000 ha2019
beans, green0.4051000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts452.3691000 ha2019
sesame seed99.5271000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ginger1.2941000 ha2019
tea0.1081000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet0.8191000 ha2019
sugar cane5.1081000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton738.1931000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute2.5451000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts40.0091000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits9.5931000 ha2019
grapefruits0.1121000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas8.271000 ha2019
dates0.0911000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber6 652 4512019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle12 111.1281000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes12 111.1281000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs86.1821000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep19 183.51000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats26 486.241000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses1 144.3361000 heads2019
asses and mules1 144.3361000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels1 241.0931000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds49 6181000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey2.0151000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs14.9041000 t2019
hides and skins58.971000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes116 347t2019
total catch116 347t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
phosphate rock20$1000 t2013
salt6$1000 t2011
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold61 000kg2020
semiprecious stones10 000 000kg2011
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 083.04M kWh2018
- hydro1 363.23M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal4101000 kW2018
- hydro1841000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation3 530.27M kWh2018
total installed capacity618.561000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nitrogen fertilizers46.81000 t2017
phosphate fertilizers14.61000 t2017
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fabrics - m7 0541000 metres2012
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley18$1000 t2018
cottonseed oil61.61000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes975.9M units2009
cigarettes, boxes142.31000 units2012
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper6001000 t2016
paper6001000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement6601000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production1 185.276M US$2020
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products13.094% of goods exports2017
manufactures12.761% of goods exports2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20204 212M US$ -
20193 693M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20205 142M US$ -
20194 939M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures255M US$2018
Number of arrivals217 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown1 500 000km flown2001
Civil aviation, passengers carried33.41000 units2013
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers7.25per 1000 pop.2019
Computers8.1per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling7.461years2017
Gross enrolment ratio, primary - Female71.603index2018
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level2 477 081units2018
Students, secondary level1 046 493units2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.12per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians0.12per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV1.2% of adults2019
HIV, total0.9%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.292% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking0.9%2019
Access to electricity48.021%2019
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