Form of Government: Republic
Area: 1 248 574 sq km
Population: 18 541 980 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 14.85 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 25° - 10° N; long. 12° W - 4° E
Capital: Bamako (capital) 2 285 000 inhab. (2016);
Currency: CFA franc (100 centimes)
Human development index: 0.427 (rank: 182)
President: Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta (RPM), elected on 11 August 2013, in office since 4 September 2013, reconfirmed 12 August 2018
Prime Minister: Boubou Cissé (independent), since 23 April 2019
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 24 November and 15 December 2013: RPM (Rally for Mali), 66; URD (Union for the Republic and Democracy), 17; ADEMA (Alliance for Democracy in Mali), 16; independents, 4; others, 44
Internet: www.instat-mali.org (Institut National de la Statistique)
Member of AU, ECOWAS, OIC, UN, WTO

Mali

Mali, République du Mali
Useful information

International license plate code RMM
International dialling code 00223
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ml

GMT  0
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Bamako 27.8
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Bamako 25/27
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Bamako 8/8.5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Bamako 976
Days of rainfall (annual average) Bamako 71

Politics and current affairs

Despite the June 2015 peace agreements, attacks by armed groups continue, now no longer limited to just the northern part of the country. Sunni fundamentalism, supported by the arrival of militiamen from Libya and Syria, has merged with the claims of ethnic minorities (Tuareg and Fulbe), forming since the beginning of 2017 the Group for the Support of Islam and Muslims.

Geography.
Mali is bordered by Algeria to the north, Niger to the east, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire and Guinea to the south, and by Senegal and Mauritania to the west. The terrain is essentially a large plateau which rises to an altitude of 900 m in the south-east. It includes the upper basin of the Senegal and part of the middle and upper basin reaches of the Niger. The northern part stretches along the massifs of the Central Sahara. The climate is principally steppe and desert-like.

Government


Formerly a French colony under the name of French Sudan, Mali became independent on 20 June 1960 (along with Senegal) in the Mali Federation. After the collapse of the union, Mali proclaimed its independence on 22 September 1960. Modibo Keïta’s Third-Worldist presidency (1960-68) was succeeded by the military dictatorship of Moussa Traoré (1968-91); a democratization process began in 1992. On 22 March 2012, a military coup d’état dismissed the government and suspended the Constitution, on the pretext of the tough situation in the north of the country, where the return of militia previously in the pay of Gaddafi’s Libyan regime once more stirred up the Tuareg rebellion (MNLA, National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad), backed by Islamic fundamentalist movements with links to al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (Ansar Dine and MUJAO, Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa), which took control of the northern part of the country. On 11 January 2013, a group of French troops, with forces from Chad and Nigeria, launched a military operation, allowing the swift repossession of most of the occupied land. On 25 April 2013, the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) was instituted, which was also tasked with supervising the correct execution of the presidential elections. Despite the June 2015 peace agreements, attacks by armed groups continue; Sunni fundamentalism has merged with the claims of ethnic minorities (Tuareg and Fulbe), forming, in 2017, the Group for the Support of Islam and Muslims, which participated in the violent inter-ethnic clashes between nomadic pastoralists (Fulbe) and farmers (Bambara, Dogon). According to the 1992 Constitution, the President is elected directly for five years, as is the National Assembly (147 members).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Army100%2015
Military expenditure3.1% of GDP2017
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides10.9per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Bamako2 285 000inhab.2016
Sikasso226 618inhab.2009
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate42.12017
Death rate102017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Bambara34.1%2012
Fulbe14.7%2012


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim94.8%2009
Christian2.4%2009


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic
French (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years48%2018
15-29 years25.6%2018


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)171.33index2016
Balance of trade-1 976.5M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population7 117 859units2018
Active population, Females43.8%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate9.6%2018
Unemployment rate, Females51.5%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses1 926M LCU2018
Revenues1 476M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture65.3%2018
industry6.5%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture40.7%2017
industry18.5%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation620.84BN LCU2018
International reserves123.6M US$2016
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Agriculture


The country relies on cotton and gold prices. Since 2014, growth remains strong, but it is being threatened by the long-lasting situation of insecurity. Most of the active population is employed in agriculture at a subsistence level (millet, sorghum, maize, rice and sweet potatoes or batata. The main plantation crop is cotton, which is exported to foreign markets. Fishing in inland waters is important from the point of view of feeding the local population. Mali’s forests constitute a precious resource, yielding timber and gum arabic for export. The only minerals being extracted are gold (mines at Syama, Sadiola, Loulo, Gao, Morila, Tabakoto, Yatela and Kalana) and iron ore (at Tienfala) but there are also deposits of phosphates (at Gao and Bouren), diamonds (at Kénièba), manganese and salt. The manufacturing industry is limited: a tractor assembly plant, textile mills (at Bamako and Ségou), chemical plants and cement works (at Diamou), shoe factories (at Bamako), sugar refineries (at Dougabougou and Seribala) and a peanut oil plant (at Kita).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land5.38%2015
forests3.86%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total8 866.5921000 t2017
maize2 811.3851000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava108.4391000 t2017
potatoes251.5581000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages741000 t2017
carrots and turnips16.1541000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry168.9441000 t2017
beans, green1.9231000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts301.2071000 t2017
sesame seed27.8271000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ginger38.1791000 t2017
pepper0.0231000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet6.6731000 t2017
sugar cane368.9161000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton591.6371000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute1.4491000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total380.3311000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts72.0091000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits538.1371000 t2017
grapefruits0.7071000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas191.2281000 t2017
dates0.7721000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize1 233.0081000 ha2017
millet2 155.7291000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava6.6851000 ha2017
potatoes11.751000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages4.1071000 ha2017
carrots and turnips1.1941000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.2391000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts386.9931000 ha2017
sesame seed66.8871000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ginger2.4231000 ha2017
tea0.0931000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet0.51000 ha2017
sugar cane5.0871000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton630.8111000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute2.5451000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts33.3841000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits27.6031000 ha2017
grapefruits0.091000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas7.7521000 ha2017
dates0.061000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber6 548 1002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle11 415.91000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes11 415.91000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs84.151000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep17 4001000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats24 023.81000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses1 099.91000 heads2017
asses and mules1 099.91000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels1 192.91000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds45 0001000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.2561000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs231000 t2017
hides and skins49.0681000 t2013
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes110 135t2017
total catch110 135t2017
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
phosphate rock201000 t2013
salt61000 t2011
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold42 000kg2016
semiprecious stones10 000 000kg2011
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1 336.68M kWh2016
- hydro1 091M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal4001000 kW2016
- hydro1841000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation2 488.68M kWh2016
total installed capacity5901000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nitrogen fertilizers46.81000 t2016
phosphate fertilizers14.61000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fabrics - m7 0541000 metres2012
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley131000 t2014
cottonseed oil44.51000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes975.9M units2009
cigarettes, boxes142.31000 units2012
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper6001000 t2016
paper6001000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement6301000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production194.7M US$2007
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products38.395% of goods exports2017
manufactures37.434% of goods exports2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20182 943M US$ -
20172 907M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20184 920M US$ -
20174 285M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures150M US$2015
Number of arrivals193 300units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown1 500 000km flown2001
Civil aviation, passengers carried33.41000 units2013
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers1.191per 1000 pop.2016
Computers8.1per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling7.3years2015
Gross enrolment ratio, primary - Female76index2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level66 418units2017
Teachers, secondary level58 364units2017
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.1per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians0.1per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV1.2% of adults2017
HIV, total0.9%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.3% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking0.96%2016
Access to electricity43.089%2017
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