Form of Government: Republic
Area: 1 248 574 sq km
Population: 18 343 000 inhab. (estimate 2016)
Density: 14.69 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 25° - 10° N; long. 12° W - 4° E
Capital: Bamako (capital) 2 285 000 inhab. (2016);
Currency: CFA franc (100 centimes)
Human development index: 0.442 (rank: 175)
President: Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta (RPM), elected on 11 August 2013, in office since 4 September 2013, reconfirmed 12 August 2018
Prime Minister: Soumeylou Boubèye Maïga (Alliance for Solidarity in Mali-Convergence of Patriotic Forces), since 31 December 2017
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 24 November and 15 December 2013: RPM (Rally for Mali), 66; URD (Union for the Republic and Democracy), 17; ADEMA (Alliance for Democracy in Mali), 16; independents, 4; others, 44
Internet: www.instat-mali.org (Institut National de la Statistique)
Member of AU, ECOWAS, OIC, UN, WTO

Mali

Mali, République du Mali
Useful information

International license plate code RMM
International dialling code 00223
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ml

GMT  0
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Bamako 27.8
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Bamako 25/27
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Bamako 8/8.5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Bamako 976
Days of rainfall (annual average) Bamako 71

Politics and current affairs

Despite the June 2015 peace agreements, attacks by armed groups continue, now no longer limited to just the northern part of the country. Sunni fundamentalism, supported by the arrival of militiamen from Libya and Syria, has merged with the claims of ethnic minorities (Tuareg and Fulbe), forming since the beginning of 2017 the Group for the Support of Islam and Muslims.

Geography.
Mali is bordered by Algeria to the north, Niger to the east, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire and Guinea to the south, and by Senegal and Mauritania to the west. The terrain is essentially a large plateau which rises to an altitude of 900 m in the south-east. It includes the upper basin of the Senegal and part of the middle and upper basin reaches of the Niger. The northern part stretches along the massifs of the Central Sahara. The climate is principally steppe and desert-like.

Government


Formerly a French colony under the name of French Sudan, Mali became independent on 20 June 1960 (along with Senegal) in the Mali Federation. After the collapse of the union, Mali proclaimed its independence on 22 September 1960. Modibo Keïta’s Third-Worldist presidency (1960-68) was succeeded by the military dictatorship of Moussa Traoré (1968-91); a democratization process began in 1992.
On 22 March 2012, a military coup d’état dismissed the government and suspended the Constitution, on the pretext of the tough situation in the north of the country, where the return of militia previously in the pay of Gaddafi’s Libyan regime once more stirred up the Tuareg rebellion (MNLA, National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad), backed by Islamic fundamentalist movements with links to al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (Ansar Dine and MUJAO, Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa), which took control of the northern part of the country.
On 11 January 2013, a group of French troops, with forces from Chad and Nigeria, launched a military operation, allowing the swift repossession of most of the occupied land. On 25 April 2013, the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) was instituted, which was also tasked with supervising the correct execution of the presidential elections. Despite the June 2015 peace agreements, attacks by armed groups continue; Sunni fundamentalism has merged with the claims of ethnic minorities (Tuareg and Fulbe), forming, in 2017, the Group for the Support of Islam and Muslims.
According to the 1992 Constitution, the President is elected directly for five years, as is the National Assembly (147 members).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Army100%2015
Military expenditure2.6% of GDP2016
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides10.8per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Bamako2 285 000inhab.2016
Sikasso226 618inhab.2009
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate38.72016
Death rate13.72016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Bambara34.1%2012
Fulbe14.7%2012


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim94.8%2009
Christian2.4%2009


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic
French (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years48.2%2017
15-29 years25.5%2017


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)171.33index2016
Balance of trade-1 910M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population6 932 737units2017
Active population, Females43.1%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate9.7%2016
Unemployment rate, Females27.3%2014
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses1 850M LCU2016
Revenues1 594M LCU2016
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture57.6%2017
industry8.4%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture39.8%2016
industry19.2%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation554.5BN LCU2017
International reserves123.6M US$2016
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Agriculture


The country relies on cotton and gold prices. Since 2014, growth remains strong, but it is being threatened by the long-lasting situation of insecurity. Most of the active population is employed in agriculture at a subsistence level (millet, sorghum, maize, rice and sweet potatoes or batata. The main plantation crop is cotton, which is exported to foreign markets. Fishing in inland waters is important from the point of view of feeding the local population. Mali’s forests constitute a precious resource, yielding timber and gum arabic for export. The only minerals being extracted are gold (mines at Syama, Sadiola, Loulo, Gao, Morila, Tabakoto, Yatela and Kalana) and iron ore (at Tienfala) but there are also deposits of phosphates (at Gao and Bouren), diamonds (at Kénièba), manganese and salt. The manufacturing industry is limited: a tractor assembly plant, textile mills (at Bamako and Ségou), chemical plants and cement works (at Diamou), shoe factories (at Bamako), sugar refineries (at Dougabougou and Seribala) and a peanut oil plant (at Kita).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land5.38%2015
forests3.86%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total8 849.691000 t2016
maize2 811.3851000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava118.8631000 t2016
potatoes210.2091000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages67.2631000 t2016
carrots and turnips15.7581000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry180.0791000 t2016
beans, green2.6151000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts374.3181000 t2016
sesame seed37.5771000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ginger38.5891000 t2016
pepper0.0231000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet6.2771000 t2016
sugar cane365.1191000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton597.2371000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute1.4491000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total380.3311000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts164.1851000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits527.2881000 t2016
grapefruits1.3711000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas163.8711000 t2016
dates0.6981000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize1 031.5221000 ha2016
millet2 040.1521000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava7.7681000 ha2016
potatoes10.5251000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages3.7491000 ha2016
carrots and turnips1.0091000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.2691000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts432.3541000 ha2016
sesame seed79.9951000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ginger2.481000 ha2016
tea0.0911000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet0.461000 ha2016
sugar cane5.0351000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton6551000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute2.5451000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts63.0261000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits34.8221000 ha2016
grapefruits0.1541000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas5.8191000 ha2016
dates0.0571000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber6 338 5302016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle10 941.31000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes10 941.31000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs83.1741000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep15 900.31000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats22 141.4971000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses999.11000 heads2016
asses and mules999.11000 heads2016
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels1 028.6091000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds58 0871000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.2561000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs23.3831000 t2016
hides and skins49.0681000 t2013
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes106 680t2016
total catch106 680t2016
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
phosphate rock201000 t2013
salt61000 t2011
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold40 900kg2015
semiprecious stones10 000 000kg2011
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro1 169M kWh2015
- thermal1 000M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal4001000 kW2015
- hydro1841000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation2 175M kWh2015
total installed capacity5901000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nitrogen fertilizers46.61000 t2014
phosphate fertilizers14.51000 t2014
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fabrics - m7 0541000 metres2012
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley131000 t2014
cottonseed oil44.51000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes975.9M units2009
cigarettes, boxes142.31000 units2012
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper6001000 t2016
paper6001000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement401000 t2001
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production194.7M US$2007
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agricultural raw materials38.937% of goods exports2016
food products38.322% of goods exports2016
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20172 822.236M US$ -
20162 802.997M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20174 732.406M US$ -
20164 099.776M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures150M US$2015
Number of arrivals173 200units2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown1 500 000km flown2001
Civil aviation, passengers carried33.41000 units2013
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers1.191per 1000 pop.2016
Computers8.1per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling7.3years2015
Gross enrolment ratio, primary - Female72index2015
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level60 288units2016
Teachers, secondary level52 033units2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.1per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians0.08per 1000 pop.2014
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV1% of adults2016
HIV, total0.9%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.58% of GDP2010
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking0.96%2016
Access to electricity35.069%2016
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