Form of Government: Federal constitutional monarchy
Area: 330 411 sq km
Population: 32 660 000 inhab. (estimate 2021)
Density: 98.85 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 8° - 1° N; long. 98° - 120° E
Capital: Kuala Lumpur (capital) 1 588 750 inhab. (2010); ; Putrajaya (seat of government) 68 361 inhab. (2010);
Currency: ringgit (100 sen)
Human development index: 0.81 (rank: 62)
Supreme Head of the Federation: Abdullah (Sultan of the state of Pahang), in office since 31 January 2019
Prime Minister: Ismail Sabri bin Yaakob (United Malays National Organization), since 21 August 2021
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 9 May 2018: PH (Alliance of Hope, social democratic), 113; BN (National Front, conservative coalition including UNMO), 79; PAS (Malaysian Islamic Party), 18; others, 12
Internet: www.dosm.gov.my (Department of Statistics)
Member of APEC, ASEAN, Commonwealth, OIC, UN, WTO

Malaysia

Malaysia
Useful information

International license plate code MAL
International dialling code 0060
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 240
Driving side left
Internet code .my

GMT  +8
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Kuala Lumpur 27.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Kuala Lumpur 27/27.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Kuala Lumpur 6.5/5.5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Kuala Lumpur 2365
Days of rainfall (annual average) Kuala Lumpur 157

Politics and current affairs

The high increase in COVID-19 cases in the second quarter of 2021 caused difficulties for Muhyddin Yassin’s government, which is blamed for the slow vaccination effort.

Geography.
Malaysia comprises the southern tip of the Malacca Peninsula, sharing a border with Thailand to the north and overlooking the Johore Strait, which divides it from Singapore, to the south. The territories of Sarawak and Sabah (East Malaysia) occupy the northern part of the Borneo island (apart from the two parts of the state of Brunei) and lie between the South China Sea to the north, the Sulu Sea to the north-east and the Celebes Sea to the east. The rest of the territory is Indonesian. Peninsular Malaysia is formed by a few isolated mountains and coastal plains.
A series of islands and coral reefs lie off its low-lying, uniform coastline. The territories of Sarawak, to the west, and Sabah, to the east, are separated by a coastal mountain chain (the Crocker Range). The climate is hot and humid. In 2002, The International Court of Justice in the Hague awarded the two islands of Sipadan and Ligitan, situated off the island of Sabah, to Malaysia.

Government


An independent federal state of the British Commonwealth, the Federation of Greater Malaysia was constituted on 16 September 1963, uniting the 11 states of the Federation of Malaysia (independent since 31 August 1957) with Sabah and Sarawak (formerly territories of British Borneo) and Singapore. The latter left the Federation on 9 August 1965. The UMNO (United Malays National Organization) has dominated the country’s politics until the 2018 elections, won by an opposition coalition led by Mahathir bin Mohamad, former Prime Minister for 22 years until 2003.
Each one of the 13 states of the Federation has its own State Legislative Assembly and executive bodies. The hereditary sovereigns and elective heads of state of the member states choose the Supreme Chief of the Federation (the Yang di-Pertuan Agong) who remains in office for five years.
The Prime Minister reports to the Federal Parliament, made up of the House of Representatives (222 members elected by universal suffrage for five years; Sarawak has 27 seats, Sabah has 20 seats) and the Senate (70 members, with 44 appointed by the head of the Federation and 26 by the individual State Legislative Assemblies, who remain in office for three years). The right to vote is acquired at the age of 21.


Defence and justice.
The legal system is based on British Common Law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force13.8%2015
Army73.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes256.6per 100 000 pop.2019
Homicides2.1per 100 000 pop.2013
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Kuala Lumpur1 588 750inhab.2010
Klang744 062inhab.2010
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

80% of the population is concentrated in Peninsular Malaysia. The main ethnic groups are Malay Muslims, Chinese and Indians. There are many refugees, especially Burmese.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate15$2019
Death rate5.32019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Malay67.9%2013
Chinese24$%2013


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim61.3%2010
Buddhist19.8%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Chinese
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years23.1%2020
15-29 years26.6%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
In 2021, the recovery from the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic began, which damaged the country’s export-based economy, prompting the government to introduce measures to stimulate the economy and support the least affluent families; it also hopes to encourage the diversification of production activities and to draw in foreign investments, although the special privileges enjoyed by people of Malay origin represents something of a stumbling block. The burdensome system of subsidies has been revived in a bid to reduce the public deficit, and in 2015 a 6% value-added tax was introduced.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)122.7index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)105.12index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population15 904 357units2020
Active population, Females38.4%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.6%2020
Unemployment rate, Females43.2%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses264 332.8M LCU2019
Revenues255 120.8M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture10.4%2019
industry27$%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture7.339%2019
industry37.829%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation130.422BN LCU2020
International reserves107 643.865M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector

The main food crop is rice, which is cultivated especially in the areas of Kota Baharu and Kuala Terengganu. The most relevant industrial crops are oil palms (in particular in Sabah), coconut palms and tropical fruits (especially pineapples and bananas), which are also exported. Malaysia is one of the world’s largest rubber producers, with 85% of the plantations are located in Peninsular Malaysia.
Fishing is also relevant (scombrids, carangids, tuna, shrimp, cuttlefish).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land25.22%2018
forests58.482%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total2 965.9761000 t2019
maize53.7731000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava42.2671000 t2019
roots and tubers, total101.1641000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages66.0641000 t2019
chillies and peppers27.5551000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.2621000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits99 065.3641000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts536.6061000 t2019
copra51$1000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cloves0.2281000 t2019
cocoa1.0051000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane20.6181000 t2019
tobacco1.0261000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute7.5731000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total1 113.9841000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts16.6921000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits35.7321000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes3.1091000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas322.7321000 t2019
mangoes80.8411000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize6.5331000 ha2019
rice684.4161000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava2.4461000 ha2019
sweet potatoes3.3171000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages2.741000 ha2019
chillies and peppers2.8431000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.0871000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit5 216.8221000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts76.7761000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cloves1.0141000 ha2019
cocoa15.0081000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane1.1581000 ha2019
tobacco1.3651000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute2.3961000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts7.5391000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits3.621000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes0.671000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas21.3631000 ha2019
mangoes8.4421000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber639 830t2019
timber17 208 1642019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle683.5011000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes790.8481000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes107.3471000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 952.3851000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep127.7961000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats371.7471000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total4.2581000 heads2019
horses4.2581000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds286 3171000 heads2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
condensed milk209 591t2019
eggs848.6581000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals4 000t2019
crustaceans and molluscs268 208.518t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Considerable quantities of crude oil are extracted from the reserves off the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia (at Bekok, Tapis, Pulai and Dulang), from reserves in Sabah (at Barton, Erb, Samarang, Lotan and Ketam) and from offshore wells in Sarawak (at West Lutong, Baram, Siwa, Temana and Bayan). Reserves of natural gas are being exploited at Kinarut (in Sabah) and at West Lutong, Baram, Siwa, Temana and Bayan (in Sarawak). A state-owned company, Petroliam Nasional Berhad (Petronas), is responsible for extracting and producing hydrocarbons. Most of Malaysia’s tin is mined at deposits near Ipoh (in Perak) and at Kuala Lumpur; smaller deposits are found at Mersing (in Johor) and at Kuantan (in Pahang). Reasonable quantities of iron-ore are mined at Dungun (in Terengganu) and Ulu Rompin (in Pahang), bauxite at Telok Ramunia (in Johor), silver at Mamut (in Sabah), gold in Peninsular Malaysia (Kelantan, Pahang and Terengganu) and in Sarawak, coal, antimony, ilmenite and feldspar.
Industry.
There are oil refineries at Kerteh, Melaka, Port Dickson and Lutong (in Sarawak). There is a large petrochemical facility and a gas liquefaction plant at Bintulu (in Sarawak). Foundries located at Pinang, Butterworth and Kelang supply especially tin and by-products such as columbite and ilmenite. There are cement factories at Rawang, Kanthan and Pasir Gudang. The engineering industry is based in Pinang (shipyards), at Kuala Lumpur (railway rolling stock production plants), at Tampoi, Batu Tiga and Kuala Lumpur (vehicle assembly plants). The main industrial sector is electronics, which drives strong exports.
The processing of local products, such as palm oil, sugar, copra (in Pinang), pineapples (at Johor Baharu) and timber (in Sarawak) is still quite important for the economy.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal2 264.81000 t2016
coal, total3 4601000 t2019
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bauxite5001000 t2020
columbite-tantalite0.077t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite17$1000 t2016
feldspar2001000 t2020
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite50$1000 t2015
kaolin417.21000 t2019
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold2 520kg2018
silver1 702kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal133 752M kWh2019
- hydro26 730M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal26 9901000 kW2018
- hydro6 2451000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation159 946M kWh2018
total installed capacity34 530.431000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium7601000 t2019
lead, secondary70$1000 t2012
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars457 755no.2020
commercial vehicles27 431no.2020
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners4 953 912no.2019
radios8 789 000no.2019
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen4561000 t2018
petrol8 5631000 t2019
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia9901000 t2019
fertilizers3 720.81000 t2019
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics - m126.9M m2019
cotton yarn35.51000 t2013
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear3 111 000pairs2019
rubber gloves55 404 000 000pairs2019
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley3101000 t2018
coconut oil21.21000 t2019
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes - t3$1000 t2019
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp1311000 t2019
newsprint3001000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement16 1021000 t2019
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production7 351.57M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production9 679.542M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
Malaysia’s main imports are electronic products, machinery, oil products and vehicles.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017)
electronic integrated circuits and microassemblies 32 766, electrical and electronic equipment 31 566, crude oil and 
petroleum products 22 082, machinery 12 687, computers 
and accessories 11 060, natural gas 10 015, palm oil 9 660, 
chemicals 8 891, technical and electro-medical appliances 7 827, plastics 7 439, natural rubber and rubber articles 7 189


Finance and banking.
The central bank is the Bank Negara Malaysia. The financial system is well developed. There is a stock exchange in Kuala Lumpur.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures70.115% of goods exports2019
fuels14.472% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China37 774M US$2020
Singapore33 911M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China40 809M US$2020
Singapore17 567M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020234 129M US$ -
2019238 195M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020189 856M US$ -
2019204 999M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Tourism constitutes an important source of revenues in foreign currency.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures13 685M US$2019
Number of arrivals26 101 000units2019
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Communications


Transport.
In Peninsular Malaysia, the road and rail networks are quite highly developed. In Sarawak (where there is no railway) and Sabah the road network is limited. There is a modern, far-reaching air service based on the hub at Sepang (Kuala Lumpur International Airport).

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown277 600 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried63 623.11000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers92.786per 1000 pop.2019
Computers231per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education.
In state schools, education is free and compulsory between the ages of 6 and 16.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling13.679years2017
Gradautes, percentage16$%2009
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level3 084 630units2017
Students, secondary level2 592 970units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending4.6% of total expenses2002
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.9per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians1.8per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.4% of adults2019
HIV, total0.2%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.041% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking96.1%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear3.4%2016
education1.3%2016
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