Form of Government: Federal constitutional monarchy
Area: 330 621 sq km
Population: 32 380 000 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 97.94 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 8° - 1° N; long. 98° - 120° E
Capital: Kuala Lumpur (capital) 1 588 750 inhab. (2010); ; Putrajaya (seat of government) 68 361 inhab. (2010);
Currency: ringgit (100 sen)
Human development index: 0.802 (rank: 57)
Supreme Head of the Federation: Abdullah (Sultan of the state of Pahang), in office since 31 January 2019
Prime Minister: Mahathir bin Mohamad (Malaysian United Indigenous Party), since 10 May 2018
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 9 May 2018: PH (Alliance of Hope, social democratic), 113; BN (National Front, conservative coalition including UNMO), 79; PAS (Malaysian Islamic Party), 18; others, 12
Internet: www.statistics.gov.my (Department of Statistics)
Member of APEC, ASEAN, Commonwealth, OIC, UN, WTO

Malaysia

Malaysia
Useful information

International license plate code MAL
International dialling code 0060
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 240
Driving side left
Internet code .my

GMT  +8
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Kuala Lumpur 27.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Kuala Lumpur 27/27.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Kuala Lumpur 6.5/5.5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Kuala Lumpur 2365
Days of rainfall (annual average) Kuala Lumpur 157

Politics and current affairs

The head of state, Muhammad V, resigned on 6 January 2019. On 24 January, Abdullah, Sultan of Pahang, was elected as his successor, taking office on 31 January.

Geography.
Malaysia comprises the southern tip of the Malacca Peninsula, sharing a border with Thailand to the north and overlooking the Johore Strait, which divides it from Singapore, to the south. The territories of Sarawak and Sabah (East Malaysia) occupy the northern part of the Borneo island (apart from the two parts of the state of Brunei) and lie between the South China Sea to the north, the Sulu Sea to the north-east and the Celebes Sea to the east. The rest of the territory is Indonesian. Peninsular Malaysia is formed by a few isolated mountains and coastal plains.
A series of islands and coral reefs lie off its low-lying, uniform coastline. The territories of Sarawak, to the west, and Sabah, to the east, are separated by a coastal mountain chain (the Crocker Range). The climate is hot and humid. In 2002, The International Court of Justice in the Hague awarded the two islands of Sipadan and Ligitan, situated off the island of Sabah, to Malaysia.

Government


An independent federal state of the British Commonwealth, the Federation of Greater Malaysia was constituted on 16 September 1963, uniting the 11 states of the Federation of Malaysia (independent since 31 August 1957) with Sabah and Sarawak (formerly territories of British Borneo) and Singapore. The latter left the Federation on 9 August 1965. The UMNO (United Malays National Organization) has dominated the country’s politics until the 2018 elections, won by an opposition coalition led by Mahathir bin Mohamad, former Prime Minister for 22 years until 2003.
Each one of the 13 states of the Federation has its own State Legislative Assembly and executive bodies. The hereditary sovereigns and elective heads of state of the member states choose the Supreme Chief of the Federation (the Yang di-Pertuan Agong) who remains in office for five years.
The Prime Minister reports to the Federal Parliament, made up of the House of Representatives (222 members elected by universal suffrage for five years; Sarawak has 27 seats, Sabah has 20 seats) and the Senate (70 members, with 44 appointed by the head of the Federation and 26 by the individual State Legislative Assemblies, who remain in office for three years).


Defence and justice.
The legal system is based on British Common Law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force13.8%2015
Army73.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes309.7per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides2.1per 100 000 pop.2013
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Kuala Lumpur1 588 750inhab.2010
Klang744 062inhab.2010
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

80% of the population is concentrated in Peninsular Malaysia. The main ethnic groups are Malay Muslims, Chinese and Indians. There are many refugees, especially Burmese.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate15.92017
Death rate5.32017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Malay67.9%2013
Chinese24%2013


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim61.3%2010
Buddhist19.8%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Chinese
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years27.5%2018
15-29 years24.4%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
Thanks to internal demand, economic growth remains high despite the decline in the price of hydrocarbons. Exports (especially gas and oil, oil palm, electronic devices and components) play an important role in the country’s economy. The government aims to encourage the diversification of production activities and to draw in foreign investments, although this is hampered by the fact that people of Malaysian origin are granted special privileges. To reduce the public deficit in 2015 a 6% value-added tax was introduced.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)122.7index2016
Balance of trade29 894.6M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population15 722 423units2018
Active population, Females38.1%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate3.4%2018
Unemployment rate, Females43.3%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses260 727M LCU2017
Revenues220 406M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture11.1%2018
industry27.3%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture8.9%2017
industry39.3%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation106.4BN LCU2018
International reserves101 452.5M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector

The main food crop is rice, which is cultivated especially in the areas of Kota Baharu and Kuala Terengganu.
The most relevant industrial crops are oil palms, coconut palms and tropical fruits (especially pineapples and bananas), which are also exported. Malaysia is one of the world’s largest rubber producers, with 85% of the plantations are located in Peninsular Malaysia. Fishing is also relevant (scombrids, carangids, tuna, shrimp, cuttlefish).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land22.99%2015
forests67.55%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total2 974.4551000 t2017
maize72.5611000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava44.2291000 t2017
roots and tubers, total86.8121000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages77.3421000 t2017
chillies and peppers27.3581000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.2341000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits101 740.91000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts517.5891000 t2017
copra511000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cloves0.2171000 t2017
cocoa1.0291000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane29.991000 t2017
tobacco1.0911000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute7.5731000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total999.7441000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts15.6611000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits39.8681000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes6.6251000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas350.4931000 t2017
mangoes113.8241000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize10.4771000 ha2017
rice689.2681000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava2.5661000 ha2017
sweet potatoes2.4411000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages3.2791000 ha2017
chillies and peppers2.8351000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.0711000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit5 110.7131000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts74.0081000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cloves0.9461000 ha2017
cocoa17.5541000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane1.6681000 ha2017
tobacco1.4121000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute2.3961000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts7.5451000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits4.5221000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes1.1031000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas27.5651000 ha2017
mangoes9.5711000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber740 138t2017
timber16 323 1732017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle744.1741000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes863.4381000 heads2017
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes119.2641000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 647.5941000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep137.8721000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats431.2581000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total4.2171000 heads2017
horses4.2171000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds318 6091000 heads2017
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
condensed milk207 000t2014
eggs873.2341000 t2017
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals4 000t2017
crustaceans and molluscs274 155.49t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Considerable quantities of crude oil are extracted from the reserves off the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia (at Bekok, Tapis, Pulai and Dulang), from reserves in Sabah (at Barton, Erb, Samarang, Lotan and Ketam) and from offshore wells in Sarawak (at West Lutong, Baram, Siwa, Temana and Bayan). Reserves of natural gas are being exploited at Kinarut (in Sabah) and at West Lutong, Baram, Siwa, Temana and Bayan (in Sarawak). A state-owned company, Petroliam Nasional Berhad (Petronas), is responsible for extracting and producing hydrocarbons. Most of Malaysia’s tin is mined at deposits near Ipoh (in Perak) and at Kuala Lumpur; smaller deposits are found at Mersing (in Johor) and at Kuantan (in Pahang). Reasonable quantities of iron-ore are mined at Dungun (in Terengganu) and Ulu Rompin (in Pahang), bauxite at Telok Ramunia (in Johor), silver at Mamut (in Sabah), gold in Peninsular Malaysia (Kelantan, Pahang and Terengganu) and in Sarawak, coal, antimony, ilmenite and feldspar.
Industry.
There are oil refineries at Kerteh, Melaka, Port Dickson and Lutong (in Sarawak). There is a large petrochemical facility and a gas liquefaction plant at Bintulu (in Sarawak). Foundries located at Pinang, Butterworth and Kelang supply especially tin and by-products such as columbite and ilmenite. There are cement factories at Rawang, Kanthan and Pasir Gudang. The engineering industry is based in Pinang (shipyards), at Kuala Lumpur (railway rolling stock production plants), at Tampoi, Batu Tiga and Kuala Lumpur (vehicle assembly plants). The main industrial sector is electronics, which drives exports (especially in the semi-conductor segment).
The processing of local products, such as palm oil, sugar, copra (in Pinang), pineapples (at Johor Baharu) and timber (in Sarawak) is still quite important for the economy.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal2 264.81000 t2016
coal, total2 481.61000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bauxite2 0001000 t2018
columbite-tantalite0.086t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite171000 t2016
feldspar3501000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite501000 t2015
kaolin2841000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold2 249kg2016
silver945kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal127 436.74M kWh2016
- hydro19 819M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal25 7101000 kW2016
- hydro6 0301000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation148 325.74M kWh2016
total installed capacity33 0001000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium7601000 t2017
lead, secondary701000 t2012
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars522 392no.2018
commercial vehicles72 709no.2018
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners4 395 397no.2018
radios6 686 000no.2018
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1971000 t2016
petrol8 182.61000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1 5001000 t2017
fertilizers3 616.41000 t2018
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics - m150.6M m2018
cotton yarn35.51000 t2013
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear5 173 000pairs2018
rubber gloves54 184 277 000pairs2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley2951000 t2014
coconut oil58.21000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes - t2.51000 t2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp1311000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp1311000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement17 5561000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production6 526.8M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production8 260M US$2016
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
Malaysia’s main imports are semi-finished products, machinery and equipment. Its main trading partners are Singapore, China, the USA, Hong Kong and Japan.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017)
electronic integrated circuits and microassemblies 32 766, electrical and electronic equipment 31 566, crude oil and 
petroleum products 22 082, machinery 12 687, computers 
and accessories 11 060, natural gas 10 015, palm oil 9 660, 
chemicals 8 891, technical and electro-medical appliances 7 827, plastics 7 439, natural rubber and rubber articles 7 189


Finance and banking.
The central bank is the Bank Negara Malaysia. The financial system is well developed. There is a stock exchange in Kuala Lumpur.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures67.993% of goods exports2017
fuels14.989% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Singapore34 471M US$2018
China34 414M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China43 316M US$2018
Singapore25 474M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018247 365M US$ -
2017217 722M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018217 471M US$ -
2017194 750M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Tourism constitutes an important source of revenues in foreign currency.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures10 699M US$2017
Number of arrivals25 948 000units2017
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Communications


Transport.
In Peninsular Malaysia, the road and rail networks are quite highly developed. In Sarawak (where there is no railway) and Sabah the road network is limited. There is a modern, far-reaching air service based on the hub at Sepang (Kuala Lumpur International Airport).

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown277 600 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried58 188.81000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers84.991per 1000 pop.2017
Computers231per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education.
In state schools, education is free and compulsory between the ages of 6 and 16.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling13.5years2017
Gradautes, percentage16%2009
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level264 648units2017
Teachers, secondary level223 594units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending4.6% of total expenses2002
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.9per 1000 pop.2015
Physicians1.5per 1000 pop.2015
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.4% of adults2017
HIV, total0.2%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.4% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking96.3%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear3.4%2016
education1.3%2016
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