Form of Government: Republic
Area: 587 295 sq km
Population: 24 894 551 inhab. (estimate 2016)
Density: 42.39 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 12° - 26° S; long. 43° - 50° E
Capital: Antananarivo (capital) 2 146 000 inhab. (2014);
Currency: ariary (5 iraimbilanja)
Human development index: 0.512 (rank: 158)
Interim President: Rivo Rakotovao, since 7 September 2018 (until the election of a new president)
Prime Minister: Christian Tsay (independent), since 6 June 2018
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 20 December 2013: MAPAR (party supporting former president Andry Rajoelina), 49; Ravalomanana Movement, 20; VPM-MMM (movement led by former deputy prime minister Andrianainarivelo), 13; independents, 25; others, 40; vacant, 4
Internet: www.instat.mg (Institut National de la Statistique)
Member of AU, COMESA, SADC, UN, WTO

Madagascar

Madagasikara, Madagascar, Repoblikan‘i Madagasikara, République de Madagascar
Useful information

International license plate code RM
International dialling code 00261
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 127/220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .mg

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Antananarivo 18.7
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Antananarivo 21/14.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Antananarivo 7/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Antananarivo 121
Days of rainfall (annual average) Antananarivo 89

Geography.
Lying in the Indian Ocean off the south-east coast of Africa, the island of Madagascar is separated from the mainland by the Mozambique Canal.
It is made up of a central highland area with many extinct volcanoes, and the cones of some of them are now lakes. There are numerous rivers, the most important of which are the River Betsiboka and the River Mangoky. The climate is both hot and humid, becoming less so with altitude.

Government


Formerly a French colony, Madagascar gained independence on the 26 June 1960. After a military coup d’état in 1972, in 1975, power was assumed by Didier Ratsiraka, who transformed the country into a socialist-style democratic republic. Opposition to the regime began in 1991 with large-scale demonstrations organized by the CFV (Committee of Active Forces). On 19 August 1992, a new Constitution was approved by a referendum. Presidential and legislative elections in 1993 were won by the CFV, but in 1996 President Albert Zafy was deposed and the former president Didier Ratsiraka (1976-1993) won the subsequent elections.
After the presidential elections of 2001, Ratsiraka refused to recognise the victory of M. Ravalomanana. However, after months of clashes, on the 7 July 2002, Ratsiraka fled into exile. Re-elected in the 2006 elections, Ravalomanana was forced to resign on 7 March 2009 after clashing politically with Andy Rajoelina, mayor of the country’s capital whom the military then appointed President of the High Transitional Authority, which replaced the Parliament until the legislative elections of 20 December 2013; the first session of the newly elected National Assembly (18 February 2014) marked the end of the transition period, putting legislative power back in the Parliament’s hands (the National Assembly with 151 members elected for five years, and the Senate with 42 members elected and 21 appointed by the President). The President of the Republic, elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term, appoints the Prime Minister.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force3.7%2015
Army92.6%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides11.1per 100 000 pop.2012
Police personnel34.1per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Antananarivo2 146 000inhab.2014
Toamasina282 100inhab.2014
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate33.12016
Death rate6.32016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Malagasy95.9%2000
other1.9%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant45.8%2010
Catholic38.1%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English
French (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years39.9%2017
15-29 years28.5%2017


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Economy


Economic situation.
Positive growth in 2016-18 was helped by the expansion of services and the construction of infrastructure, but the bad rice harvest in 2017 led to an increase in prices.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)118.25index2016
Balance of trade-1 613M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population13 053 140units2017
Active population, Females48.8%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate1.8%2017
Unemployment rate, Females51%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses5 271 429M LCU2017
Revenues4 395 429M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture74.4%2017
industry9.2%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture34.6%2016
industry7.9%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation3 337.2BN LCU2017
International reserves1 600.2M US$2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The main crops of rice and cassava are for local consumption. The country’s plantations grow vanilla (eastern coastal plain), of which the country is the main exporter, coffee, typical on the hill slopes overlooking the Indian Ocean (Mananjary, Manakara), sugarcane, cloves (the lower eastern coast, from Mananara to Sambava), tobacco and cocoa. Pepper (at Sambriano), and other herbs and spices (such as lemon grass, geranium, basil, ylang-ylang and cinnamon) are also important. Other products for exportation are copra, sisal fibres and kenaf fibres. Wine-growing is practised in Betsileo and in the province of Antananarivo.
The eastern forests provide ebony, mahogany and rosewood, while those on the coast provide raffia palms. Deforestation and illegal trade have become a serious concern. Frequent cyclones cause serious damage to crops.
Livestock farming of zebu cattle provides meat for the processing plants in Boanamary, Toamasina, Antananarivo, Antisiranana and Antisirabé. Fishing is of local importance, even though exports of prawns are growing thanks to an agreement with the European Union.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land7.08%2015
forests21.44%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total4 138.41000 t2016
maize316.3311000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava2 629.4781000 t2016
potatoes238.421000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages18.2911000 t2016
carrots and turnips8.5991000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry87.9351000 t2016
beans, green1.1091000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes13.3741000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed2.7331000 t2016
groundnuts58.3021000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits21.1211000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tung
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tung nuts2.6351000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts74.9511000 t2016
copra10.21000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cinnamon2.461000 t2016
cloves20.8211000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane3 005.6411000 t2016
tobacco1.6351000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton13.6251000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.2541000 t2014
sisal17.8161000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples7.0911000 t2016
apricots1.4221000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts7.1311000 t2016
pistachios1.731000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits100.6491000 t2016
grapefruits11.9721000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados26.4331000 t2016
bananas373.8961000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms2.2621000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize189.641000 ha2016
rice861.6261000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava327.221000 ha2016
potatoes39.9391000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.8451000 ha2016
carrots and turnips2.4481000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry76.5121000 ha2016
beans, green0.4671000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape2.6461000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed7.6741000 ha2016
groundnuts82.6941000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit1.8131000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tung
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tung nuts4.4281000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts33.4731000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cinnamon1.4041000 ha2016
cloves65.8451000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane94.1571000 ha2016
tobacco1.851000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton14.8071000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.4461000 ha2014
sisal14.091000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples4.6161000 ha2016
apricots0.1731000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts15.3921000 ha2016
pistachios4.311000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits16.1151000 ha2016
grapefruits1.5031000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados3.2661000 ha2016
bananas69.9021000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber14 325 5542016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle10 301.491000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes10 301.491000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 6691000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep751.6491000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1 425.5621000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses0.1571000 heads2016
asses and mules0.1571000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds47 1311000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey31000 t2013
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
condensed milk1 733t2014
eggs22.051000 t2016
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs29 428t2016
freshwater fishes34 861t2016
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
Numerous minerals are to be found under the nation’s soil, principally nickel and cobalt (in the region of Atsinanana), graphite (Atsinanana), chromite (Boeny), ilmenite (around Toliara) and mica (Tôlañaro). Gold and other precious stones (beryl, zirconia, tourmaline, jasper, amethyst, garnet and sapphire) are also mined. The main industry is the food-processing industry.
There are sugar refineries (at Ambilobe, Analaiva and Namakia) and oil-processing plants and breweries (in Toliara). There are also textile factories (at Antsirabe, Mahajanga and Toliara), which work for foreign companies, chemical and oil refineries (at Toamasina), as well as wood, paper, tobacco and cement plants (at Ambohimanambola, Ibity and Mahajanga).
The country imports raw materials, fuel, machinery, industrial equip­ment and chemical products. It exports primary-sector goods (coffee, spices, wood, prawns), minerals and dresses.

Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beryllium0.0061000 t2017
chromite2301000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
graphite71000 t2017
mica181000 t2017
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite4.21000 t2015
granite3.11000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold160kg2014
ornamental stones12 760 000kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro900M kWh2015
- thermal607M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal4941000 kW2015
- hydro1641000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation1 508M kWh2015
total installed capacity668.21000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cobalt3.51000 t2015
nickel47.31000 t2015
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol176.31000 t2005
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics20M m²2002
cotton yarn0.751000 t2006
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear568 000pairs2001
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1201000 t2014
coconut oil6.61000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes8.5M units2006
tobacco3.6t2006
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp0.31000 t2016
chemi-mechanical pulp0.71000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2401000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production14.9M US$2006
food, beverages and tobacco production3.5M US$2006
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products38.917% of goods exports2016
manufactures30.507% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
France538M US$2016
United States292M US$2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China632M US$2016
France205M US$2016
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20172 346.441M US$ -
20162 324.830M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20173 959.781M US$ -
20162 854.704M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures300M US$2016
Number of arrivals293 000units2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown11 300 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried486.41000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers0.980per 1000 pop.2017
Computers5.8per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling10.6years2015
Graduates26 257units2015
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level116 577units2016
Teachers, secondary level64 622units2014
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending0.3% of total expenses2011
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.2per 1000 pop.2010
Physicians0.1per 1000 pop.2012
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.2% of adults2016
HIV, total0.1%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.02% of GDP2014
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking0.91%2016
Access to electricity22.9%2016
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