Form of Government: Republic
Area: 587 295 sq km
Population: 25 570 895 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 43.54 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 12° - 26° S; long. 43° - 50° E
Capital: Antananarivo (capital) 3 058 387 inhab. (2018);
Currency: ariary (5 iraimbilanja)
Human development index: 0.519 (rank: 161)
President: Andry Rajoelina (MAPAR), elected 19 December 2018, in office since 19 January 2019
Prime Minister: Christian Ntsay (independent), since 6 June 2018
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 27 May 2019: IRD (We are all with Andy Rajoelina, coalition led by MAPAR, party supporting former president Rajoelina), 84; TIM (I Love Madagascar, party supporting former president Ravalomanana), 16; independents, 46; others, 5
Internet: www.instat.mg (Institut National de la Statistique)
Member of AU, COMESA, SADC, UN, WTO

Madagascar

Madagasikara, Madagascar, Repoblikan‘i Madagasikara, République de Madagascar
Useful information

International license plate code RM
International dialling code 00261
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 127/220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .mg

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Antananarivo 18.7
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Antananarivo 21/14.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Antananarivo 7/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Antananarivo 121
Days of rainfall (annual average) Antananarivo 89

Politics and current affairs

At the second round of voting in the presidential elections (19 December 2018), Andry Rajoelina defeated Marc Ravalomanana with 55.7% of the votes; both have already held the position in the past.

Geography.
Lying in the Indian Ocean off the south-east coast of Africa, the island of Madagascar is separated from the mainland by the Mozambique Canal.
It is made up of a central highland area with many extinct volcanoes, and the cones of some of them are now lakes. There are numerous rivers, the most important of which are the River Betsiboka and the River Mangoky. The climate is both hot and humid, becoming less so with altitude.

Government


Formerly a French colony, Madagascar gained independence on the 26 June 1960. After a military coup d’état in 1972, in 1975, power was assumed by Didier Ratsiraka, who transformed the country into a socialist-style democratic republic. Opposition to the regime began in 1991 with large-scale demonstrations organized by the CFV (Committee of Active Forces). On 19 August 1992, a new Constitution was approved by a referendum. Presidential and legislative elections in 1993 were won by the CFV, but in 1996 President Albert Zafy was deposed and the former president Didier Ratsiraka (1976-1993) won the subsequent elections.
After the presidential elections of 2001, Ratsiraka refused to recognise the victory of M. Ravalomanana. However, after months of clashes, on the 7 July 2002, Ratsiraka fled into exile. Re-elected in the 2006 elections, Ravalomanana was forced to resign on 7 March 2009 after clashing politically with Andy Rajoelina, mayor of the country’s capital whom the military then appointed President of the High Transitional Authority, which replaced the Parliament until the legislative elections of 20 December 2013; the first session of the newly elected National Assembly (18 February 2014) marked the end of the transition period, putting legislative power back in the Parliament’s hands (the National Assembly with 151 members elected for five years, and the Senate with 42 members elected and 21 appointed by the President). The President of the Republic, elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term, appoints the Prime Minister.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force3.7%2015
Army92.6%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides7.7per 100 000 pop.2015
Police personnel34.1per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Antananarivo3 058 387inhab.2018
Toamasina282 100inhab.2014
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate32.92017
Death rate6.22017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Malagasy95.9%2000
other1.9%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant45.8%2010
Catholic38.1%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English
French (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years39.5%2018
15-29 years28.5%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
The strong growth in 2016-19 was helped by the expansion of services and the construction of infrastructures. The favourable climatic conditions of 2018 have led to the good result of the agricultural sector.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)118.25index2016
Balance of trade- 979.5M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population13 465 271units2018
Active population, Females48.9%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate1.7%2018
Unemployment rate, Females52.6%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses7 180 000M LCU2018
Revenues6 330 000M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture68.2%2018
industry7.4%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture27.7%2017
industry13.5%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation3 671.7BN LCU2018
International reserves1 739.6M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The main crops of rice and cassava are for local consumption. The country’s plantations grow vanilla (eastern coastal plain), of which the country is the main exporter, coffee, typical on the hill slopes overlooking the Indian Ocean (Mananjary, Manakara), sugarcane, cloves (the lower eastern coast, from Mananara to Sambava), tobacco and cocoa. Pepper (at Sambriano), and other herbs and spices (such as lemon grass, geranium, basil, ylang-ylang and cinnamon) are also important. Other products for exportation are copra, sisal fibres and kenaf fibres. Wine-growing is practised in Betsileo and in the province of Antananarivo.
The eastern forests provide ebony, mahogany and rosewood, while those on the coast provide raffia palms. Deforestation and illegal trade have become a serious concern. Frequent cyclones cause serious damage to crops.
Livestock farming of zebu cattle provides meat for the processing plants in Boanamary, Toamasina, Antananarivo, Antisiranana and Antisirabé. Fishing is of local importance, even though exports of prawns are growing thanks to an agreement with the European Union.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land7.08%2015
forests21.44%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total3 387.221000 t2017
maize2811000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava2 5001000 t2017
potatoes235.4061000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages18.4541000 t2017
carrots and turnips8.6121000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry87.0071000 t2017
beans, green1.0251000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes13.6481000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed2.7361000 t2017
groundnuts55.6461000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits21.1051000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tung
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tung nuts2.6391000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts74.1131000 t2017
copra10.21000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cinnamon2.8111000 t2017
cloves19.6771000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane3 041.6281000 t2017
tobacco1.5781000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton13.7451000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.2541000 t2014
sisal17.5821000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples7.1261000 t2017
apricots1.4241000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts7.1181000 t2017
pistachios3.51000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits100.7451000 t2017
grapefruits12.1031000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados26.561000 t2017
bananas378.0461000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms2.3261000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize162.1761000 ha2017
rice7301000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava307.7951000 ha2017
potatoes39.2851000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.8431000 ha2017
carrots and turnips2.461000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry76.4741000 ha2017
beans, green0.4421000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape2.6971000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed7.661000 ha2017
groundnuts78.4261000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit1.8121000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tung
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tung nuts4.5221000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts33.3931000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cinnamon1.621000 ha2017
cloves59.9661000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane95.5341000 ha2017
tobacco1.8331000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton14.4621000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.4461000 ha2014
sisal13.8381000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples4.6171000 ha2017
apricots0.1741000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts15.4621000 ha2017
pistachios91000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits16.0991000 ha2017
grapefruits1.5281000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados3.2831000 ha2017
bananas71.0311000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber14 592 0722017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle10 284.4291000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes10 284.4291000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 692.711000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep769.5011000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1 404.1241000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses0.1571000 heads2017
asses and mules0.1571000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds48 6181000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey31000 t2013
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
condensed milk1 733t2014
eggs22.51000 t2017
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs41 215t2017
freshwater fishes41 383t2017
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
Numerous minerals are to be found under the nation’s soil, principally nickel and cobalt (in the region of Atsinanana), graphite (Atsinanana), chromite (Boeny), ilmenite (around Toliara) and mica (Tôlañaro). Gold and other precious stones (beryl, zirconia, tourmaline, jasper, amethyst, garnet and sapphire) are also mined. The main industry is the food-processing industry.
There are sugar refineries (at Ambilobe, Analaiva and Namakia) and oil-processing plants and breweries (in Toliara). There are also textile factories (at Antsirabe, Mahajanga and Toliara), which work for foreign companies, chemical and oil refineries (at Toamasina), as well as wood, paper, tobacco and cement plants (at Ambohimanambola, Ibity and Mahajanga).
The country imports raw materials, fuel, machinery, industrial equip­ment and chemical products. It exports primary-sector goods (coffee, spices, wood, prawns), minerals and dresses.

Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beryllium0.0061000 t2018
chromite2001000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
graphite91000 t2018
mica231000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite4.21000 t2015
granite3.11000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold160kg2014
ornamental stones12 760 000kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro940M kWh2016
- thermal765M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal5001000 kW2016
- hydro1641000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation1 706M kWh2016
total installed capacity675.41000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cobalt3.31000 t2016
nickel42.11000 t2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol176.31000 t2005
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics20M m²2002
cotton yarn0.751000 t2006
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear568 000pairs2001
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1201000 t2014
coconut oil6.61000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes8.5M units2006
tobacco3.6t2006
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp0.31000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp0.71000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2401000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production14.9M US$2006
food, beverages and tobacco production3.5M US$2006
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products46.214% of goods exports2017
manufactures32.322% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
France538M US$2016
United States292M US$2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China632M US$2016
France205M US$2016
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20183 052M US$ -
20172 848M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20184 031M US$ -
20173 670M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures319M US$2017
Number of arrivals255 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown11 300 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried486.41000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers0.980per 1000 pop.2017
Computers5.8per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling10.4years2016
Graduates30 145units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level120 351units2017
Teachers, secondary level76 549units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending0.3% of total expenses2011
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.2per 1000 pop.2010
Physicians0.1per 1000 pop.2012
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.3% of adults2017
HIV, total0.1%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.02% of GDP2014
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking0.91%2016
Access to electricity24.075%2017
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