Form of Government: Republic
Area: 587 295 sq km
Population: 27 190 927 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 46.3 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 12° - 26° S; long. 43° - 50° E
Capital: Antananarivo (capital) 1 274 225 inhab. (2018);
Currency: ariary (5 iraimbilanja)
Human development index: 0.528 (rank: 164)
President: Andry Rajoelina (MAPAR), elected 19 December 2018, in office since 19 January 2019
Prime Minister: Christian Ntsay (independent), since 6 June 2018
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 27 May 2019: IRD (We are all with Andy Rajoelina, coalition led by MAPAR, party supporting former president Rajoelina), 84; TIM (I Love Madagascar, party supporting former president Ravalomanana), 16; independents, 46; others, 5
Internet: www.instat.mg (Institut National de la Statistique)
Member of AU, COMESA, SADC, UN, WTO

Madagascar

Madagasikara, Madagascar, Repoblikan‘i Madagasikara, République de Madagascar
Useful information

International license plate code RM
International dialling code 00261
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 127/220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .mg

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Antananarivo 18.7
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Antananarivo 21/14.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Antananarivo 7/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Antananarivo 121
Days of rainfall (annual average) Antananarivo 89

Geography.
Lying in the Indian Ocean off the south-east coast of Africa, the island of Madagascar is separated from the mainland by the Mozambique Canal.
It is made up of a central highland area with many extinct volcanoes, and the cones of some of them are now lakes. There are numerous rivers, the most important of which are the River Betsiboka and the River Mangoky. The climate is both hot and humid, becoming less so with altitude.

Government


Formerly a French colony, Madagascar gained independence on the 26 June 1960. After a military coup d’état in 1972, in 1975, power was assumed by Didier Ratsiraka, who transformed the country into a socialist-style democratic republic. Opposition to the regime began in 1991 with large-scale demonstrations organized by the CFV (Committee of Active Forces). On 19 August 1992, a new Constitution was approved by a referendum. Presidential and legislative elections in 1993 were won by the CFV, but in 1996 President Albert Zafy was deposed and the former president Didier Ratsiraka (1976-1993) won the subsequent elections.
After the presidential elections of 2001, Ratsiraka refused to recognise the victory of M. Ravalomanana. However, after months of clashes, on the 7 July 2002, Ratsiraka fled into exile. Re-elected in the 2006 elections, Ravalomanana was forced to resign on 7 March 2009 after clashing politically with Andy Rajoelina, mayor of the country’s capital whom the military then appointed President of the High Transitional Authority, which replaced the Parliament until the legislative elections of 20 December 2013; the first session of the newly elected National Assembly (18 February 2014) marked the end of the transition period, putting legislative power back in the Parliament’s hands (the National Assembly with 151 members elected for five years, and the Senate with 12 members elected by indirect suffrage and 6 appointed by the President). The President of the Republic, elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term, appoints the Prime Minister.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force3.7%2015
Army92.6%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides7.7per 100 000 pop.2015
Police personnel34.1per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Antananarivo1 274 225inhab.2018
Toamasina325 857inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate32.42019
Death rate5.92019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Malagasy95.9%2000
other1.9%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Christian84.7%2020
nonreligious/atheist7.3%2020


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English
French (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years38.7%2020
15-29 years28.4%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
Growth rates are positive again in 2021, after the recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. In recent years, economic development has been supported by the expansion of services and exports, and by the construction of infrastructure.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)118.25index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)104.25index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population13 851 030units2020
Active population, Females48.9%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate1.9%2020
Unemployment rate, Females51.4%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses7 840 000M LCU2019
Revenues7 115 000M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture64.2%2019
industry9$%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture24.112%2019
industry23.576%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation3 923.764BN LCU2020
International reserves1 980.767M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The main crops of rice and cassava are for local consumption. The country’s plantations grow vanilla (eastern coastal plain), of which the country is the main exporter, coffee, typical on the hill slopes overlooking the Indian Ocean (Mananjary, Manakara), sugarcane, cloves (the lower eastern coast, from Mananara to Sambava), tobacco and cocoa. Pepper (at Sambriano), and other herbs and spices (such as lemon grass, geranium, basil, ylang-ylang and cinnamon) are also important. Other products for exportation are copra, sisal fibres and kenaf fibres. Wine-growing is practised in Betsileo and in the province of Antananarivo.
The eastern forests provide ebony, mahogany and rosewood, while those on the coast provide raffia palms. Deforestation and illegal trade have become a serious concern. Frequent cyclones cause serious damage to crops.
Livestock farming of zebu cattle provides meat for the processing plants in Boanamary, Toamasina, Antananarivo, Antisiranana and Antisirabé. Fishing is of local importance, even though exports of prawns are growing thanks to an agreement with the European Union.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land6.188%2018
forests21.41%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total4 456.7121000 t2019
maize219.221000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava2 913.8621000 t2019
potatoes2501000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages19.3191000 t2019
carrots and turnips10.9281000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry63$1000 t2019
beans, green0.6891000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes13.4961000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed2.6981000 t2019
groundnuts58.51000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits21.1011000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tung
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tung nuts2.7151000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts74.7221000 t2019
copra10.21000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cinnamon3.5351000 t2019
cloves23.121000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane3 174.1611000 t2019
tobacco0.8781000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton16.0091000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.2541000 t2014
sisal17.5521000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples7.1371000 t2019
apricots1.4661000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts7.2081000 t2019
pistachios4.6421000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits100.7621000 t2019
grapefruits12.5561000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados26.8181000 t2019
bananas392.6521000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms2.5281000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize126.2581000 ha2019
rice815.6931000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava363.2271000 ha2019
potatoes41.4951000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.8531000 ha2019
carrots and turnips3.1681000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry55.281000 ha2019
beans, green0.2971000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape2.5151000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed7.5181000 ha2019
groundnuts81.9531000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit1.8171000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tung
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tung nuts4.1581000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts34.1431000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cinnamon2.0731000 ha2019
cloves70.7171000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane99.7991000 ha2019
tobacco1.0291000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton17.1921000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.4461000 ha2014
sisal14.0651000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples4.6351000 ha2019
apricots0.1821000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts15.41000 ha2019
pistachios12.1811000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits16.0211000 ha2019
grapefruits1.5851000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados3.3321000 ha2019
bananas75.9671000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber15 119 9182019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle9 984.6841000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes9 984.6841000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 166.5551000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep849.7231000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1 545.2311000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses0.1581000 heads2019
asses and mules0.1581000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds49 8851000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey3.9771000 t2019
Livestock - Silk farming
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silk, raw0.0141000 t2018
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
condensed milk1 639t2018
eggs25.3931000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs50 736.56t2019
freshwater fishes15 415.86t2019
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
Numerous minerals are to be found under the nation’s soil, principally nickel and cobalt (in the region of Atsinanana), graphite (Atsinanana), chromite (Boeny), ilmenite (around Toliara), mica (Tôlañaro), rare earths. Gold and other precious stones (beryl, zirconia, tourmaline, jasper, amethyst, garnet and sapphire) are also mined.
The main industry is the food-processing industry. There are sugar refineries (at Ambilobe, Analaiva and Namakia) and oil-processing plants and breweries (in Toliara). There are also textile factories (at Antsirabe, Mahajanga and Toliara), which work for foreign companies, as well as wood, paper, tobacco, chemical and cement plants (at Ambohimanambola, Ibity and Mahajanga).
The country imports raw materials, fuel, machinery, industrial equip­ment and chemical products. It exports primary-sector goods (coffee, spices, wood, prawns), minerals and dresses.

Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beryllium0.0011000 t2020
chromite76.11000 t2019
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
graphite47$1000 t2020
mica30$1000 t2020
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite4.21000 t2016
granite3.11000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold2 000kg2018
ornamental stones13 150 000kg2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1 268.06M kWh2018
- hydro958.32M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal4961000 kW2018
- hydro1641000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation2 275.88M kWh2018
total installed capacity693.381000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cobalt2.91000 t2019
nickel33.21000 t2018
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol176.31000 t2005
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics20$M m²2002
cotton yarn0.751000 t2006
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear568 000pairs2001
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1551000 t2018
coconut oil6.3871000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes8.5M units2006
tobacco3.6t2006
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp0.31000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp0.71000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2101000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production14.9M US$2006
food, beverages and tobacco production3.5M US$2006
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products36.49% of goods exports2019
manufactures27.509% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
France453M US$2020
United States440M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China818M US$2020
India276M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20201 987M US$ -
20192 696M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20203 224M US$ -
20193 942M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures319M US$2019
Number of arrivals384 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown11 300 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried544.51000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers1.036per 1000 pop.2018
Computers5.8per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling10.174years2018
Graduates29 763units2018
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level4 860 888units2018
Students, secondary level1 548 208units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending0.3% of total expenses2011
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.2per 1000 pop.2010
Physicians0.18per 1000 pop.2014
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.3% of adults2019
HIV, total0.1%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.013% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking0.9%2019
Access to electricity26.907%2019
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