Form of Government: Republic
Area: 25 713 sq km
Population: 2 068 808 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 80.46 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 42° - 41° N; long. 20° - 23° E
Capital: Skopje (capital) 584 208 inhab. (2018);
Currency: denar (100 deni)
Human development index: 0.774 (rank: 82)
President: Stevo Pendarovski (SDSM), elected 5 May 2019
Prime Minister: Zoran Zaev (SDSM), since 30 August 2020
Assembly: seats based on the elections of 15 July 2020: “We Can”-SDSM (coalition led by the Social Democratic Union of Macedonia), 46; VMRO-DPMNE (Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity, conservative), 44; DUI (Democratic Union for Integration, Albanian minority), 15; Alliance for Albanians (Albanian minority), 12; The Left, 2; Democratic Party of Albanians, 1
Internet: www.stat.gov.mk (State Statistical Office)
Member of CEFTA, Council of Europe, EBRD, NATO, OAS observer, OSCE, UN, WTO

North Macedonia

Severna Makedonija, Republika Severna Makedonija
Useful information

International license plate code MK
International dialling code 00389
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .mk

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Skopje 12.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Skopje 1/23
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Skopje 9/2
Annual average precipitation (mm) Skopje 505
Days of rainfall (annual average) Skopje 66

Politics and current affairs

After the name change and agreement with Greece, in March 2020, the EU agreed to start accession talks with North Macedonia. The process was interrupted in the autumn of the same year due to a veto by Bulgaria. The Bulgarian government requested that the Macedonian language be officially recognized as an idiom of “Bulgarian origin” and not as an autonomous language. The petition was rejected and the rift has not yet been repaired.

Geography.
It is bordered by Kosovo and Serbia to the north, Bulgaria to the east, Greece to the south and Albania to the west. Although predominantly mountainous (Mount Korab, 2754 m), the central area of the Vardar Valley is flat. Lake Ohrid and Lake Prespa are situated on the border with Albania. It has very cold winters and hot summers.

Government


The country was recognised by the UN on 8 April 1993 with the name Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). The name was intended to appease Greece’s reservations, fearing irredentist reprisals in the Greek region of the same name. Following the agreement on 17 June 2018, the official name of the country became the “Republic of North Macedonia”. Within the EU, its status as a candidate was recognized in 2005. On 27 March 2020, the country officially became a member of NATO.
In 2001, armed conflict broke out between ethnic Kosovar Albanian insurgents of the UCK and government forces, which ended with new constitutional guarantees being granted to the Albanian minority. On 17 December 2005, the EU Council accorded the country the status as a candidate for joining the EU. According to the Constitution of 17 November 1991, the President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for five years. The Assembly (between 120 and 140 members elected for four years) chooses the Prime Minister and the members of the government.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Military expenditure1.2% of GDP2019
Military personnel8 000units2018
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 451.7per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides1.2per 100 000 pop.2017
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Skopje584 208inhab.2018
Kumanovo73 590inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate9.22020
Death rate12.42020
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Macedonian64.2%2002
Albanian25.2%2002


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Orthodox58.9%2010
Muslim39.3%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Albanian
Macedonian (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years16.2%2020
15-29 years19.9%2020


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Economy


GDP shrank by 4.5% in 2020 due to the global economic slowdown. The economy is expected to grow by 3.8% in 2021. The main crops are cereals (wheat, barley and maize), sugar beet and tobacco, which is an important export commodity. The lignite reserves in Pelagonia guarantee the country a significant share of the energy mix. The extension of the Turkstream gas pipeline on the national territory and the construction of a new connection with Greece are being proposed. There are copper, lead and zinc reserves. Much of the heavy industry is obsolete (chemical and mechanical plants). In Skopje there is an oil refinery. Other important sectors are textiles, tobacco-processing, cement, paper and sugar. A tax-free industrial zone is active near Skopje (electronics and automotive components). Air connections between Skopje and Athens resumed.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)123.17index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)95.52index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population950 800units2020
Active population, Females40.5%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate16.4%2020
Unemployment rate, Females39.1%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses217 542M LCU2019
Revenues203 911M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture12.014%2020
industry30.859%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture10.252%2020
industry25.497%2020
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation50.04BN LCU2020
International reserves4 126.254M US$2020
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land18.2%2018
forests39.71%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley138.4531000 t2019
cereals, total563.1171000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes190.5271000 t2019
roots and tubers, total190.5271000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus0.8231000 t2019
cabbages173.6721000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry5.2691000 t2019
beans, green10.821000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes258.961000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives12.0881000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed0.1241000 t2019
sesame seed0.0391000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet2.8841000 t2019
tobacco26.2341000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.0061000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples88.7011000 t2019
apricots6.071000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.5681000 t2019
walnuts5.0141000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms2.9481000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley43.9411000 ha2019
maize34.6721000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes13.2691000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages5.9021000 ha2019
carrots and turnips0.3881000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry4.9641000 ha2019
beans, green13.0151000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape23.9961000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive5.7131000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed0.0391000 ha2019
sesame seed0.0391000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet0.0971000 ha2019
tobacco16.6791000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.0031000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples9.7441000 ha2019
apricots0.6431000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.3721000 ha2019
walnuts8.51000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber759 0002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle217.791000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes218.4231000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes0.6331000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs135.771000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep684.5581000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats87.5811000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total8.9521000 heads2019
horses8.9521000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds1 5621000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.9531000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter6.1771000 t2018
cheese11.21000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes714t2019
total catch2 346t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total5 477.51000 t2019
lignite5 477.51000 t2019
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper31.21000 t2019
lead62.51000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite2.91000 t2018
feldspar30.81000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite109.61000 t2015
marble - t102.11000 t2019
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal4 254.44M kWh2019
- hydro1 152.36M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1 1111000 kW2018
- hydro6741000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation5 586.8M kWh2019
total installed capacity1 851.21000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ferroalloys17.71000 t2020
steel, crude1801000 t2020
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes1 549no.2014
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol1.21000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fertilizers0.1831000 t2015
paints0.941000 t2015
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets0.141000 m²2015
cotton fabrics5.878M m²2019
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear2 915 000pairs2019
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley69.5041000 t2018
margarine2.1011000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes3 264M units2019
cigars and cigarettes3 264M units2019
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper28$1000 t2019
paper28$1000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement8961000 t2019
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production115.937M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production383.162M US$2018
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures83.245% of goods exports2019
food products9.371% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Serbia652M US$2009
Germany450M US$2009
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany517M US$2009
Russia495M US$2009
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20206 635M US$ -
20197 189M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20208 710M US$ -
20199 471M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures302M US$2019
Number of arrivals758 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown3 100 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried122.61000 units2010
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers218.051per 1000 pop.2019
Computers368per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling13.507years2018
Graduates10 731units2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level109 818units2018
Students, secondary level155 815units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending14.5% of GDP2017
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds4.3per 1000 pop.2019
Physicians3.1per 1000 pop.2019
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2018
HIV, total0.004%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums26$units2018
Museums, visitors427 000units2018
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.37% of GDP2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking76$%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5.1%2019
education0.4%2019
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