Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy
Area: 2 586 sq km
Population: 634 730 inhab. (estimate 2021)
Density: 245.45 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 50° - 49° N; long. 6° - 7° E
Capital: Luxembourg (capital) 124 509 inhab. (2021); Lussemburgo 177 200 inhab. (2021), urban agglomeration
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.916 (rank: 23)
Sovereign: Grand Duke Henri of Nassau, since 7 October 2000
Prime Minister: Xavier Bettel (DP), since 4 December 2013, re-elected 14 October 2018
Chamber of Deputies: seats based on the elections of 14 October 2018: CSV (Christian Social People's Party), 21; DP (Democratic Party), 12; LSAP (Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party), 10; The Greens, 9; ADR (Alternative Democratic Reform Party, conservative), 4; Pirate Party (libertarian), 2; The Left (left-wing), 2
Internet: www.statec.public.lu (Service Central de la Statistique)
Member of Benelux, Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Luxembourg

Lëtzebuerg, Luxembourg, Luxemburg, Groussherzogtom Lëtzebuerg, Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, Großherzogtum Luxemburg
Useful information

International license plate code L
International dialling code 00352
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 220/230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .lu

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Luxembourg 9.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Luxembourg 1/18
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Luxembourg 7/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Luxembourg 750
Days of rainfall (annual average) Luxembourg 122

Geography.
Luxembourg is bordered by Belgium to the north and west, Germany to the east and France to the south. Most of the country is mountainous, with the hilly Ardennes mountains in the north. It has a transitional continental climate.

Government


Luxembourg is a hereditary constitutional monarchy. In 1921 it signed a joint customs and trading agreement with Belgium (UEBL), which was then extended to the Netherlands (Benelux). In 1957, it was one of the founder members of the EEC. According to the Constitution of 17 October 1868, which has been revised many times, the Grand Duke holds executive power, which he delegates to the Government. He is responsible to the Chamber of Deputies (60 members who are elected directly for five years by direct suffrage), which exerts legislative power.
Luxembourg has a voluntary army (about 450 strong) and a police corps (about 1900 strong).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Army100%2018
Military expenditure0.6% of GDP2019
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes6 315.9per 100 000 pop.2019
Homicides0.5per 100 000 pop.2018
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Luxembourg124 509inhab.2021
Esch-sur-Alzette36 228inhab.2021
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lussemburgo177 200inhab.2021
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

More than 45% of the population is foreign.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate10.32020
Death rate7.32020
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total296 500units2020
Portuguese95 100units2020
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Luxembourger52.6%2020
other15.7%2020


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic56$%2019
nonreligious/atheist26$%2019


Languages
DESCRIPTION
French
German
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years16.7%2020
15-29 years18.9%2020


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Economy


GDP fell slightly in 2020 (-1.3%). The economy should return to grow considerably in 2021 (+ 3.9%).
The main agricultural crops are cereals (wheat and barley). Other commonly grown crops are potatoes and grapevines (along the River Moselle). Livestock farming is highly specialized (especially cattle and pigs). Forests cover about one third of the land. The iron and steel industry has been downsized on a vast scale, although the production of high-quality steel is still significant. Luxembourg’s main imports are energy minerals, transport vehicles, metals and machinery; it exports, metals, machinery and plastic materials and rubber. The financial sector drives the economy, which could benefit from the effects of Brexit through the influx of new businesses. There is a high concentration of lending institutions and investment banks, who are attracted to the country by legislation regarding secrecy and banking. The Luxembourg stock exchange plays a key role in the trading of Eurobonds. Due to its fiscal legislation, which is beneficial to foreign capital and companies, the country is controlled by the EU and the OECD. The European Commission continues to apply pressure for measures to combat money laundering and tax evasion. On 31 July 2021, the Luxembourg data protection authority (CNPD) fined Amazon for 746 million euros for not complying with the EU General Data Protection Regulation.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)102.83index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)110.54index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population313 600units2020
Active population, Females46.6%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate6.8%2020
Unemployment rate, Females47.6%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses22 276.2M LCU2020
Revenues18 937.9M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture0.718%2020
industry9.747%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture0.238%2020
industry11.775%2020
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation4.662BN LCU2020
International reserves1 188.259M US$2020
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land26.223%2018
forests36.529%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley36.051000 t2019
cereals, total163.591000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes15.331000 t2019
roots and tubers, total15.331000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus0.041000 t2019
cabbages0.871000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0$1000 t2017
beans, green0.031000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes10.161000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed10.061000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples1.931000 t2019
cherries0.011000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
walnuts0.031000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.0011000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley6.061000 ha2019
maize0.141000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes0.61000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.011000 ha2019
carrots and turnips0.031000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0$1000 ha2017
beans, green0.0011000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape1.241000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed2.881000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.271000 ha2019
cherries0.0021000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
walnuts0.011000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0$1000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber447 9002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle192.11000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes192.11000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs84.041000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep8.6811000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats5.3511000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total4.6691000 heads2019
horses4.6691000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds1321000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.1511000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.7531000 t2018
condensed milk18 301t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- other renew.689.35M kWh2019
- thermal166.38M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- other renew.3311000 kW2019
- thermal89.41000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total installed capacity1 718.41000 kW2018
total net generation961.66M kWh2019
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude1 8861000 t2020
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley29.11000 t2018
sesame oil0.051000 t2014
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper21.021000 t2016
paper21.021000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 1001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production86.67M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production325.294M US$2018
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures82.309% of goods exports2019
food products8.994% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany3 925M US$2010
France2 241M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany5 198M US$2010
Belgium4 926M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202013 799M US$ -
201916 464M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202020 814M US$ -
201924 246M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures3 685M US$2019
Number of arrivals1 041 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown78 300 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried2 114.41000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers373.703per 1000 pop.2019
Computers672.8per 1000 pop.2006
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.315years2018
Gradautes, percentage51.643%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level38 173units2018
Students, secondary level48 749units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending42.689% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending21.637% of GDP2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds4.26per 1000 pop.2019
Physicians2.98per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.3% of adults2018
Tuberculosis9$per 100 000 pop.2019
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums3$units2019
Museums, visitors263 431units2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.19% of GDP2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5$%2019
education0.9%2019
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