Form of Government: Provisional government
Area: 1 676 198 sq km
Population: 6 374 616 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 3.80 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 33° - 20° N; long. 10° - 25° E
Capital: Tripoli 1 157 746 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Libyan dinar (1000 dirham)
Human development index: 0.706 (rank: 108)
Chairman of the Presidential Council and Prime Minister: Fayez al-Sarraj (independent), since 30 March 2016
Internet: www.cbl.gov.ly (Central Bank of Libya)
Member of Arab League, AU, COMESA, OIC, OPEC, UN, WTO observer

Libya

Lībiyā, Dawlat Lībiyā
Useful information

International license plate code LAR
International dialling code 00218
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 127/230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ly

GMT  +2
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Tripoli 19.6; Al Kufrah 23
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Tripoli 12.5/25.5; Al Kufrah 13/30.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Tripoli 10/5; Al Kufrah 11/8
Annual average precipitation (mm) Tripoli 284; Al Kufrah 2
Days of rainfall (annual average) Tripoli 37; Al Kufrah 0

Politics and current affairs

After strengthening control in the eastern part of the country (2017-18), especially regarding the oil terminals in Sidra and Ra’s Lānūf, in early 2019, the National Liberation Army (NLA), led by General K. Haftar, took control of Fezzan and its important oil plants. On 4 April 2019, the army then attacked the capital, but it was blocked because of the resistance of militias loyal to the government in Tripoli. Haftar is primarily supported by Saudi Arabia and Egypt, though he also has backing from Russia and, indirectly, some Western countries, such as France and the USA, which see him as a potential source of stability.

Geography.
Libya is bordered by Egypt to the east, by Sudan to the south-east, by Chad and Niger to the south, by Algeria to the west and by Tunisia to the north-west.
To the north the country faces out onto the Mediterranean. The flat coastline slopes quickly upwards towards Tripoli and more gradually towards Sirtica and Cyrenaica. The inland area is a huge plateau, going as far as the Tassili-n-Ajjer mountains in the west and the Libyan Desert in the east. The climate is Mediterranean along the coast with mild winters and hot summers, while further inland there is hardly any rainfall.

Government


Libya became independent on 24 December 1951 after decades of Italian colonialism and a period of Franco-British occupation from 1943-51.
On 1 September 1969, Colonel Muammar Gaddafi succeeded in overthrowing King Mohammed Idris-al-Senussi and proclaimed a republic. Even without assigning himself a clear political role, Gaddafi assumed control of the country as “Guide of the Revolution”, and abolished elections and political parties.
With the constitutional reform on 2 March 1977, the country adopted the name Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (Republic), which remained in forced until the fall of the Gaddafi regime (killed on 23 October, 2011), the final act of the first civil war that broke out in February 2011 following widespread protests.
The country was then governed by the National Transitional Council, the interim government body in charge of leading the first stage of the transition to democracy until the elections held on 7 July, 2012, which appointed the General People’s Congress of 200 members, then replaced by a 200-member House of Representatives after the elections held on 25 June 2014. Following the outbreak the second civil war, the country is divided on an institutional level: the extremist militia siding with the Justice and Reconstruction party and the Muslim Brotherhood attacked the capital Tripoli and reinstated the general national congress; the national forces of Zintān and other armed groups uphold the House of Representatives, which are more liberal and federal in orientation, and which has been transferred to Tobruk, where General Khalīfa Ḥaftar has strong influence, he himself being backed by Egypt, United Arab Emirates and Russia, and who does not recognize the government in Tripoli. On 30 March 2016, the Presidential Council was established in Tripoli, led by Fayez al-Sarraj, though he was unable to reunify the country. The chaotic situation encourages activities by criminal groups who exploit the migrant flows coming from Sub-Saharan Africa and heading toward Europe and the penetration along the southern border of armed militias from nearby countries.


Defence and justice.
The legal codes (civil, penal and commercial) bring together elements of the Italian and the French legal systems as well as Islamic law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force23.7%2010
Army65.8%2010
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides2.5per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tripoli=Ṭarābulus1 157 746inhab.2018
Benghazi=Banghāzī736 000inhab.2014
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tripoli1 157 746inhab.2018
Bengasi1 110 000inhab.2011
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

In the last 30 years the population has doubled in size due to the high birthrate and high levels of immigration.
The arid regions are populated by nomadic and semi-nomadic Berber tribes, such as the Tuareg. Libya is a popular departure point for emigrants trying to get to the southern Italian coasts.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate19.12017
Death rate5.22017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Libyan57%2000
other21%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Sunni)97%2014
other3%2014


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years25.5%2018
15-29 years25.6%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
The civil war has seriously affected the country’s manufacturing industry, both as a result of damage caused directly by the war, and on account of the discontinuity in exports of oil and natural gas. The instability of the political framework and clashes between factions make recovery tough. The shortage of many goods has led to a sharp rise in prices.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)116.72index2016
Balance of trade8 760.1M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 445 052units2018
Active population, Females24.5%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate17.3%2018
Unemployment rate, Females34.9%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses39 286M LCU2018
Revenues35 911M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture7.9%2018
industry26.6%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture0.9%2017
industry67.1%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation108.91BN LCU2018
International reserves85 335.6M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
Agriculture is carried out only in oases and in the regions of Benghazi and Tripoli, and most food is imported. The main products are potatoes, watermelons, tomatoes, onions, and dates. Olives are found all over the country, especially in Tripolitania. Some plants growing wild in the country are harvested, including alfalfa and esparto grass, especially in the Er Regina area in Cyrenaica and the An-Nuqāṭ al-Khams area in Tripolitania, which are used for cellulose, ropes and mats.
One of the major constructions commenced by the former regime, a large water network covering approximately 3500 km (“The Great Man-Made River”) pipes the water pumped from the desert subsoil to the coastal areas of Benghazi and Sirte (the infrastructure however suffered damage caused by the bombardments in July 2011).
Livestock and fishing.
In the arid regions, livestock farming of goats and sheep by nomads is still of importance. Along the Cyrenaica coast, sponge diving is practiced.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land1.17%2015
forests0.12%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley16.8181000 t2017
cereals, total178.9221000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes349.4781000 t2017
roots and tubers, total349.4781000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages4.7131000 t2017
carrots and turnips28.1391000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1.1761000 t2017
broad beans, dry0.2971000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes32.0971000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives189.0051000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts15.4341000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco0.9581000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples15.1061000 t2017
apricots25.4331000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds34.4041000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits82.2971000 t2017
grapefruits01000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates174.5831000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley32.5251000 ha2017
maize1.51000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes17.791000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.3271000 ha2017
carrots and turnips6.7581000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.3451000 ha2017
broad beans, dry0.1751000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape8.1861000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive302.9651000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts8.8221000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco0.4661000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.3521000 ha2017
apricots4.6011000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds58.1111000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits8.0871000 ha2017
lemons2.0921000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates32.621000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber1 147 4562017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle124.9411000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes124.9411000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep7 400.4871000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats2 628.3661000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses26.9821000 heads2017
asses and mules26.9821000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels64.4691000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds36 9281000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.8151000 t2013
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs72.951000 t2017
hides and skins10.9151000 t2013
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs2 305t2017
freshwater fishes10t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The main oil reserves are found at Mabrūk, Al Ḥufrah, Zalṭan, Ar Rāqūbah, Al-Bayḍā’, ‘Awrā’, Samāḥ, Waha, Jālū, Āmāl, Sarīr, Awjilah and Magid. The pipeline network is very long. A 175 km pipeline connects the wells at Zalṭan to the terminal at Marsá al-Burayqah on the Gulf of Sirte.
Another 137 km pipeline transports oil from Al Ḥufrah to Sidra/As Sidrah. A 200 km pipeline takes oil extracted from Ar Rāqūbah into the Zalṭan-Marsá al-Burayqah pipeline.
The Ra’s Lānūf pipeline terminal is fed from Al Ḥufrah and ‘Awrā’ oilfields, and is also linked to the reserves in Al-Bayḍā’, Samāḥ, Waha and Jālū. More pipelines connect Āmāl to the Ra’s Lānūf terminal, Sarīr to the Marsá al-Ḥarīqah terminal, near Tobruk, and Awjilah to the Az Zuwaytīnah terminal. The subsoil also contains natural gas (since 2004 Libya and Italy have been connected by a pipeline between Mellitah and Gela), soda (from lakes to the east of Awbārī in Fezzan) and iron ore (also in Fezzan).
Industry.
Oil refineries operate at Az-Zāwiyah, Ra’s Lānūf, Sarīr, Tobruk and Marsá al-Burayqah (where there is also a natural gas liquefaction plant). Miṣrātah has a steelworks, while Rabtas, Tarhūnah and Marsá al-Burayqah have chemical plants.
Other industries include cement factories (near Tripoli, Homs, Benghazi and Darnah), tanning plants in Tripoli and Benghazi and tobacco plants, also in Tripoli. Artisans produce rugs and embroidery in silk and silver.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas9 098M m³2017
oil, crude51 818.41000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum1501000 t2016
salt301000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold800kg2010
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal34 236.68M kWh2016
non-renewable electricity generation99.976%2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal9 4551000 kW2016
- other renew.51000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation34 244.68M kWh2016
total installed capacity9 4601000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude3901000 t2018
sulfur, rec.1401000 t2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen211000 t2016
petrol946.71000 t2017
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia2191000 t2016
nitrogen fertilizers206.91000 t2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley0.41000 t2012
olive oil151000 t2014
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper61000 t2017
paper61000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement4 2501000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production3 879.2M US$2008
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.

Almost 80% of the country’s export income comes from oil, while imports are mostly foodstuffs, manufactured products and technology.
Tripoli has a stock exchange.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) 
crude oil 15 662, natural gas 1 000, petroleum products 576, iron and steel 153, refined copper 88, chemicals 77, aluminium 69, gold and silver 48, fish 40, fertilizers 34, sulfur 14, electrical and electronic equipment 8, hides and skins 7, machinery 6, refined lead 5, wheat 4, wool 3

International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Italy10 682M US$2013
Germany6 183M US$2013
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Italy3 783M US$2013
China2 822M US$2013
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201821 253M US$ -
201718 379M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201812 493M US$ -
201711 357M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Prior to the recent conflict, tourism was extremely active in the desert (Akākus, Murzuq) and in archaeological sites (Leptis Magna, Ṣabrātha).

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures813M US$2016
Number of arrivals34 000units2008
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Communications


Transport.
The road networks is concentrated in the north where the national coast road (1822 km) goes from the Egyptian border to the Tunisian border, linking Tripoli and Benghazi. There is no rail network, but air travel is increasing.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown8 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried1 186.41000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers26.841per 1000 pop.2016
Computers21.9per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education.
Education is compulsory from 6 to 15 years, after which there are another three years of secondary schooling.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.5years2003
Gross enrolment ratio, primary - Female108index2006
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level148 476units2006
Teachers, secondary level152 338units2006
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.7per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians2.1per 1000 pop.2014
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV, total0.1%2001
Tuberculosis40per 100 000 pop.2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to electricity70.148%2017
Access to improved drinking-water source54%2000
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