Form of Government: Provisional government
Area: 1 676 198 sq km
Population: 6 931 061 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 4.14 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 33° - 20° N; long. 10° - 25° E
Capital: Tripoli 1 157 746 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Libyan dinar (1000 dirham)
Human development index: 0.724 (rank: 105)
Chairman of the Presidential Council: Mohamed al-Menfi, since 5 February 2021
Prime Minister: Abdul Hamid Dbeibeh, since 15 March 2021
Internet: www.cbl.gov.ly (Central Bank of Libya)
Member of Arab League, AU, COMESA, EBRD, OIC, OPEC, UN, WTO observer

Libya

Lībiyā, Dawlat Lībiyā
Useful information

International license plate code LAR
International dialling code 00218
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 127/230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ly

GMT  +2
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Tripoli 19.6; Al Kufrah 23
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Tripoli 12.5/25.5; Al Kufrah 13/30.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Tripoli 10/5; Al Kufrah 11/8
Annual average precipitation (mm) Tripoli 284; Al Kufrah 2
Days of rainfall (annual average) Tripoli 37; Al Kufrah 0

Politics and current affairs

With UN mediation, a ceasefire was signed between fighting factions in Geneva on 23 October 2020. Between 7 and 15 November, the Libyan Political Dialogue Forum brought together 75 delegates in Tunis, who agreed to create a unitary government that resulted in elections on 24 December 2021. The new executive entered office on 15 March 2021.

Geography.
Libya is bordered by Egypt to the east, by Sudan to the south-east, by Chad and Niger to the south, by Algeria to the west and by Tunisia to the north-west.
To the north the country faces out onto the Mediterranean. The flat coastline slopes quickly upwards towards Tripoli and more gradually towards Sirtica and Cyrenaica.
The inland area is a huge plateau, going as far as the Tassili-n-Ajjer mountains in the west and the Libyan Desert in the east. The climate is Mediterranean along the coast with mild winters and hot summers, while further inland there is hardly any rainfall.

Government


Libya became independent on 24 December 1951 after decades of Italian colonialism and a period of Franco-British occupation from 1943-51. On 1 September 1969, Colonel Muammar Gaddafi succeeded in overthrowing King Mohammed Idris-al-Senussi and proclaimed a republic. Even without assigning himself a clear political role, Gaddafi assumed control of the country as “Guide of the Revolution”, and abolished elections and political parties.
With the constitutional reform on 2 March 1977, the country adopted the name Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (Republic), which remained in forced until the fall of the Gaddafi regime (killed on 23 October, 2011), the final act of the first civil war that broke out in February 2011 following widespread protests.
The country was then governed by the National Transitional Council, the interim government body in charge of leading the first stage of the transition to democracy until the elections held on 7 July, 2012, which appointed the General People’s Congress of 200 members, then replaced by a 200-member House of Representatives after the elections held on 25 June 2014.
Following the outbreak of the second civil war, Libya finds itself divided on an institutional level. Extremist militia, siding with the Muslim Brotherhood and the Justice and Reconstruction party, attacked the capital Tripoli and reinstated the general national congress. The national forces of Zintān and other armed groups uphold the more liberal and federal House of Representatives, which has been transferred to Tobruk: here the strongest influence is that of General Khalifa Haftar, who is supported by Egypt, the United Arab Emirates and Russia, and indirectly by other nations, such as France and the USA. On 4 April 2019, Haftar launched an assault on the capital, where Fayez al-Sarraj’s Presidential Council had been installed three years earlier, on 30 March 2016; in 2020, however, he had to face a counteroffensive from forces loyal to Tripoli, which could count on Turkish reinforcements and weapons.
The chaotic situation encourages activities by criminal groups who exploit the migrant flows coming from Sub-Saharan Africa and heading toward Europe and the penetration along the southern border of armed militias from nearby countries.


Defence and justice.
The legal codes (civil, penal and commercial) bring together elements of the Italian and the French legal systems as well as Islamic law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force23.7%2010
Army65.8%2010
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides2.5per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tripoli=Ṭarābulus1 157 746inhab.2018
Benghazi=Banghāzī736 000inhab.2014
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tripoli1 157 746inhab.2018
Bengasi1 110 000inhab.2011
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The arid regions are populated by nomadic and semi-nomadic Berber tribes, such as the Tuareg. Libya is a popular departure point for emigrants trying to get to the southern Italian coasts.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate18.32019
Death rate5.1012019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Libyan57$%2000
other21$%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Sunni)97$%2014
other3$%2014


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years33.7%2020
15-29 years22.3%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
The civil war has seriously affected the country’s manufacturing industry, both as a result of damage caused directly by the war, and on account of the discontinuity in exports of oil and natural gas (the block caused by military operations in 2020 compromised the entire Libyan economy.)
The improved stability of the political scene in 2021 facilitated a nevertheless arduous recovery. The shortage of many goods has led to a sharp rise in prices.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)116.72index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)101.8index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 389 203units2020
Active population, Females34$%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate19.4%2020
Unemployment rate, Females45.1%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses45 813M LCU2019
Revenues57 365.2M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture18.9%2019
industry21.9%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture0.898%2019
industry67.107%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation105.38BN LCU2019
International reserves84 663.6M US$2019
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
Agriculture is carried out only in oases and in the regions of Benghazi and Tripoli, and most food is imported. The main products are potatoes, watermelons, tomatoes, onions, and dates. Olives are found all over the country, especially in Tripolitania. Some plants growing wild in the country are harvested, including alfalfa and esparto grass, especially in the Er Regina area in Cyrenaica and the An-Nuqāṭ al-Khams area in Tripolitania, which are used for cellulose, ropes and mats.
One of the major constructions commenced by the former regime, a large water network covering approximately 3500 km (“The Great Man-Made River”) pipes the water pumped from the desert subsoil to the coastal areas of Benghazi and Sirte (the infrastructure, however, has suffered considerable damage due to the ongoing conflict).
Livestock and fishing.
In the arid regions, livestock farming of goats and sheep by nomads is still of importance. Along the Cyrenaica coast, sponge diving is practiced.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land1.165%2018
forests0.123%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley70$1000 t2019
cereals, total219.6131000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes359.4571000 t2019
roots and tubers, total359.4571000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages4.7421000 t2019
carrots and turnips33.661000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1.2671000 t2019
broad beans, dry0.1971000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes31.4091000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives140.1751000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts13.0651000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco1.1941000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples8.4281000 t2019
apricots28.8271000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds38.4211000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits85.0831000 t2019
grapefruits0$1000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates174.851000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley136.2471000 ha2019
maize1.5791000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes18.1471000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.321000 ha2019
carrots and turnips7.681000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.3661000 ha2019
broad beans, dry0.1141000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape8.0021000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive205.941000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts8.7461000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco0.5751000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.2011000 ha2019
apricots5.0021000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds64.1321000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits8.3821000 ha2019
lemons2.1591000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates32.4041000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber1 167 6412019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle229.891000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes229.891000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep7 562.221000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats2 663.8011000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses30$1000 heads2019
asses and mules30$1000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels66.6671000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds36 5531000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.81000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs71.8471000 t2019
hides and skins9.0471000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs2 305t2019
freshwater fishes10$t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The main oil reserves are found at Mabrūk, Al Ḥufrah, Zalṭan, Ar Rāqūbah, Al-Bayḍā’, ‘Awrā’, Samāḥ, Waha, Jālū, Āmāl, Sarīr, Awjilah and Magid. The pipeline network is very long. A 175 km pipeline connects the wells at Zalṭan to the terminal at Marsā al-Burayqah on the Gulf of Sirte.
Another 137 km pipeline transports oil from Al Ḥufrah to Sidra/As Sidrah. A 200 km pipeline takes oil extracted from Ar Rāqūbah into the Zalṭan-Marsā al-Burayqah pipeline.
The Ra’s Lānūf pipeline terminal is fed from Al Ḥufrah and ‘Awrā’ oilfields, and is also linked to the reserves in Al-Bayḍā’, Samāḥ, Waha and Jālū. More pipelines connect Āmāl to the Ra’s Lānūf terminal, Sarīr to the Marsā al-Ḥarīqah terminal, near Tobruk, and Awjilah to the Az Zuwaytīnah terminal. The subsoil also contains natural gas (since 2004 Libya and Italy have been connected by a pipeline between Mellitah and Gela), soda (from lakes to the east of Awbārī in Fezzan) and iron ore (also in Fezzan).
Industry.
Oil refineries operate at Az-Zāwiyah, Marsā al-Burayqah, Ra’s Lānūf, Sarīr and Tobruk. Miṣrātah has a steelworks, while Rabtas, Tarhūnah and Marsā al-Burayqah have chemical plants.
Other industries include cement factories (near Tripoli, Homs, Benghazi and Darnah), tanning plants in Tripoli and Benghazi and tobacco plants, also in Tripoli. Artisans produce rugs and embroidery in silk and silver.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas13 306M m³2020
oil, crude20 352.81000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum2101000 t2019
salt50$1000 t2018
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold800kg2010
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal32 113.22M kWh2018
non-renewable electricity generation99.975%2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal10 5111000 kW2018
- other renew.5$1000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation32 121.22M kWh2018
total installed capacity10 5161000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude4951000 t2020
sulfur, rec.1351000 t2018
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen29$1000 t2018
petrol1 051.11000 t2018
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia2001000 t2018
nitrogen fertilizers1211000 t2019
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley0.41000 t2012
olive oil17.31000 t2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper6$1000 t2019
paper6$1000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement6 2001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production3 879.2M US$2008
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.

Almost 80% of the country’s export income comes from oil, while imports are mostly foodstuffs, manufactured products and technology.
Tripoli has a stock exchange.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) 
crude oil 15 662, natural gas 1 000, petroleum products 576, iron and steel 153, refined copper 88, chemicals 77, aluminium 69, gold and silver 48, fish 40, fertilizers 34, sulfur 14, electrical and electronic equipment 8, hides and skins 7, machinery 6, refined lead 5, wheat 4, wool 3

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels95.397% of goods exports2018
manufactures0.981% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Italy10 682M US$2013
Germany6 183M US$2013
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Italy3 783M US$2013
China2 822M US$2013
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20207 769M US$ -
201925 732M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202013 361M US$ -
201916 543M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Prior to the recent conflict, tourism was extremely active in the desert (Akākus, Murzuq) and in archaeological sites (Leptis Magna, Ṣabrātha).

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures2 042M US$2018
Number of arrivals34 000units2008
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Communications


Transport.
The road networks is concentrated in the north where the national coast road (1822 km) goes from the Egyptian border to the Tunisian border, linking Tripoli and Benghazi. There is no rail network, but air travel is increasing.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown8 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried1 367.51000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers48.323per 1000 pop.2017
Computers21.9per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education.
Education is compulsory from 6 to 15 years, after which there are another three years of secondary schooling.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.5years2003
Gross enrolment ratio, primary - Female108index2006
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level755 338units2006
Students, secondary level732 614units2006
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.2per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians2.1per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.2% of adults2019
HIV, total0.1%2001
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to electricity68.532%2019
Access to improved drinking-water source98.529%2017
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