Form of Government: Republic
Area: 10 452 sq km
Population: 5 416 225 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 518.20 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 35° - 33° N; long. 35° - 37° E
Capital: Beirut=Bayrūt (capital) 417 900 inhab. (2013); Beirut 2 385 271 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Lebanese pound (100 piastres)
Human development index: 0.757 (rank: 80)
President: Michel Aoun (Free Patriotic Movement), since 31 October 2016
Prime Minister: Saad Hariri (Future Movement), since 18 December 2016
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 6 May 2018: Free Patriotic Movement (Christian liberal), 18; Hope Movement (pro-Syrian), 13; Future Movement (anti-Syrian, liberal), 13; Hezbollah (pro-Syrian), 12; Lebanese Forces (Christian nationalist), 12; Progressive Socialist Party, 9; others, 51
Internet: www.cas.gov.lb (Central Administration for Statistics)
Member of Arab League, EBRD, OAS observer, OIC, UN, WTO observer

Lebanon

Lubnān, Al-Jumhūrīyah al-Lubnānīyah
Useful information

International license plate code RL
International dialling code 00961
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 110/220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .lb

GMT  +2
DST  +3
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Beirut 19.6
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Beirut 13/25
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Beirut 12/5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Beirut 736
Days of rainfall (annual average) Beirut 68

Politics and current affairs

Over eight months after the elections, on 31 January 2019, the new government began its mandate, formed by all of the country’s major political parties.

Geography.
Lebanon is bordered by Syria to the north and east, Israel to the south, and the Mediterranean Sea lies off its west coast. The Lebanon Mountains march across the country from the north-east to the south-west (Mt Qurnat as-Sawdā’, 3083 m). The Bekaa Valley is the continuation of the valley of the Dead Sea and the River Jordan. Finally, the Anti-Lebanon Mountains run down the Syrian border to the east. It has a Mediterranean climate.

Government


Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire, Lebanon became a French mandate in 1920 and obtained independence on 26 November 1941. In 1943, an unwritten National Pact required that the public seats of office must be divided up between the various faiths, in a way that gave Christians the advantage. Having been defeated in the first Arab-Israeli conflict (1948-49), in 1958, Lebanon was plunged into a civil war between the pro-Western Christians and the pro-Egyptian Muslims. Another civil war broke out in 1975, with strong intervention on the part of Syrian and Israeli troops. Not until 1989 was a new peace agreement (the Taif Agreement) signed by the two sides, giving Muslims the advantage. In 1990, Israeli troops withdrew from Lebanon (however they maintained control over a 10-km-wide security zone). In 1991, a treaty with Syria established a sort of Syrian “protectorate” in the country.
In 2004, the UN Security Council ordered Syrian troops, who had been deployed there since 1975, to withdraw. Parliament’s decision to reject the UN resolution led to the resignation of Prime Minister Rafīq al-Ḥarīrī, around whom a strong anti-Syrian movement had accumulated. The murder of al-Ḥarīrī in a bomb attack in Beirut (on 14 February 2005) and the massive popular protest that followed persuaded Syria to withdraw its troops. Since then the difficulty of finding an agreement between the pro- and anti-Syrian parties has turned into a chronic political crisis. In 2006, Israel invaded the south of Lebanon in order to strike Hezbollah militia, encountering strong resistance. A UN resolution led to a ceasefire and the deployment of a peace force (UNIFIL) along the southern border. The Syrian civil war exacerbated the tensions among the various communities, leading to frequent clashes and harsh attacks. According to the 1926 Constitution (revised several times) and the National Pact, the President of the Republic, who is elected by Parliament for six years, must be a Maronite Christian. He shares executive power with the Cabinet, which is presided over by a Sunni Muslim. Legislative power lies in the hands of the National Assembly, made up of 128 members, half of whom are Muslim (Sunni, Shi‘ite, Druze and Alawite) and half Christian (Maronites, Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic, Armenian Orthodox and Catholic, and Protestants), elected for four years. The Speaker of the National Assembly must be a Shi’ite Muslim.


Defence.
There is a UN peace-keeping contingent in the country (UNIFIL).


Justice.
The judicial system is based on a series of principles from various origins (from Ottoman Law to the Napoleonic Code).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force2.7%2015
Army94.3%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes145.7per 100 000 pop.2013
Homicides4per 100 000 pop.2016
TOP

Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Beirut=Bayrūt417 900inhab.2013
Tripoli=Ṭarābulus213 000inhab.2003
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Beirut2 385 271inhab.2018
TOP

Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

In the country there are approximately 300 000 Palestinian refugees, in addition to about 1 million Syrian refugees fleeing the civil war.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate15.52017
Death rate4.72017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Arab84.5%2000
Armenian6.8%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Christian (mostly Maronite Catholic)36.2%2017
Muslim (Sunni)28.7%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
Armenian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years23.3%2018
15-29 years24.5%2018


TOP

Economy


The economy is negatively influenced by political instability, as well as the effects of the civil war in Syria. The chronic deficit fuels sizeable public debt. Unemployment is high, especially among young people, increased by the influx of Syrian refugees. The main crops are vegetables (potatoes, tomatoes, onions), fruit (cucurbits, apples, bananas, citrus fruits, grape-vines) and oil-seed crops (peanuts and olives). The forests of the Cedars of Lebanon, once a source of national pride, are now found only in the mountainous areas. Underground resources are limited to salt, gypsum and limestone, which fuel the cement industry (Chekka, Iqlīm Al-Kharrūb). Chemistry is discreetly developed (especially for the production of phosphate fertilizers and sulfuric acid in Selaata). The textile plants are concentrated in Tripoli and in the suburban area of Beirut. Other brisk sectors include food and farming, timber and paper (Bikfaya and Chekka). The balance of trade is negative. A free-trade agreement with the EU is in place. The Banque du Liban acts as the central bank.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)89.06index2016
Balance of trade-16 566.2M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 230 294units2018
Active population, Females24.8%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate6.2%2018
Unemployment rate, Females39.6%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses26 821 000M LCU2018
Revenues17 405 000M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture12.1%2018
industry22%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture3.1%2017
industry15.7%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation11 661.3BN LCU2018
International reserves52 380.6M US$2018
TOP

Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land25.22%2015
forests13.42%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley301000 t2017
cereals, total163.5951000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes384.2591000 t2017
roots and tubers, total384.9621000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.681000 t2017
cabbages63.2371000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.7881000 t2017
beans, green26.5151000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes74.141000 t2017
raisins51000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives116.9111000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts4.2811000 t2017
sesame seed0.1871000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet5.6911000 t2017
sugar cane0.0851000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples123.771000 t2017
apricots23.8981000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds30.3811000 t2017
walnuts1.671000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits306.9241000 t2017
grapefruits8.2811000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados8.9461000 t2017
bananas62.3521000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley13.8611000 ha2017
maize0.8651000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes15.2461000 ha2017
taro0.0431000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.0761000 ha2017
cabbages1.3871000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.4131000 ha2017
beans, green2.9421000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape8.4931000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive62.2631000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1.0421000 ha2017
sesame seed0.0551000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet0.191000 ha2017
sugar cane0.0031000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples9.8291000 ha2017
apricots5.241000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds5.7031000 ha2017
walnuts1.11000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits12.7131000 ha2017
grapefruits0.3511000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.681000 ha2017
bananas1.9651000 ha2017
TOP

Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber25 7912017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle81.2621000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes81.2621000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs6.2931000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep458.1121000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats516.8031000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses14.3541000 heads2017
asses and mules19.0191000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels0.1921000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds67 8491000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey1.621000 t2013
Livestock - Silk farming
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silk, raw01000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cheese28.591000 t2014
condensed milk7 401t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs66t2017
freshwater fishes35t2017
TOP

Minerals

Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum1101000 t2013
salt101000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone7 5001000 t2016
TOP

Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal17 209.52M kWh2016
- hydro378M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 0381000 kW2016
- hydro2851000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation17 593.52M kWh2016
total installed capacity2 3461000 kW2016
TOP

Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold, metal9 000kg2016
lead101000 t2016
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
phosphate fertilizers2001000 t2016
phosphoric acid1501000 t2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley31.91000 t2014
cottonseed oil0.61000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes - t1.951000 t2013
tobacco164t2013
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper1031000 t2017
paper1031000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement5 4011000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production129M US$2007
food, beverages and tobacco production463.3M US$2007
TOP

Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) 
cars 606, gold 401, electrical and electronic equipment 166, diamonds and jewels 147, machinery and home appliances 138, plastics 134, iron and steel 125, perfumes and cosmetics 117, fruit and vegetables 115

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products53.000% of goods exports2017
manufactures41.438% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United Arab Emirates457M US$2018
Saudi Arabia212M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China2 049M US$2018
Greece1 708M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20183 830M US$ -
20174 026M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201820 396M US$ -
201719 911M US$ -
TOP

Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures5 705M US$2017
Number of arrivals1 857 000units2017
TOP

Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown21 600 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried2 869.31000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers216.426per 1000 pop.2016
Computers102per 1000 pop.2008
TOP

Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling11.3years2017
Graduates54 205units2013
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level40 256units2017
Teachers, secondary level50 867units2017
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.9per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians2.4per 1000 pop.2014
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2017
Tuberculosis12per 100 000 pop.2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to electricity100%2017
Access to improved drinking-water source99%2015
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5.4%2012
education5.9%2012
TOP