Form of Government: Republic
Area: 10 452 sq km
Population: 5 463 514 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 522.72 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 35° - 33° N; long. 35° - 37° E
Capital: Beirut=Bayrūt (capital) 417 900 inhab. (2013); Beirut 2 385 271 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Lebanese pound (100 piastres)
Human development index: 0.744 (rank: 92)
President: Michel Aoun (Free Patriotic Movement), since 31 October 2016
Prime Minister: Najīb Mīqātī (Azm Movement)
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 6 May 2018: Free Patriotic Movement (Christian liberal), 18; Hope Movement (pro-Syrian), 13; Future Movement (anti-Syrian, liberal), 13; Hezbollah (pro-Syrian), 12; Lebanese Forces (Christian nationalist), 12; Progressive Socialist Party, 9; others, 51
Internet: www.cas.gov.lb (Central Administration for Statistics)
Member of Arab League, EBRD, OAS observer, OIC, UN, WTO observer

Lebanon

Lubnān, Al-Jumhūrīyah al-Lubnānīyah
Useful information

International license plate code RL
International dialling code 00961
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 110/220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .lb

GMT  +2
DST  +3
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Beirut 19.6
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Beirut 13/25
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Beirut 12/5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Beirut 736
Days of rainfall (annual average) Beirut 68

Politics and current affairs

On 22 October 2020, Sa’ad Ḥarīrī (Future Movement) was tasked with forming a coalition government to bring the country out of a serious political and economic crisis, but divisions between the parties halted the formation of the new executive. On 15 July Ḥarīrī resigned his post, which was entrusted on 26 July to Najīb Mīqātī, already twice prime minister in the past.

Geography.
Lebanon is bordered by Syria to the north and east, Israel to the south, and the Mediterranean Sea lies off its west coast. The Lebanon Mountains march across the country from the north-east to the south-west (Mt Qurnat as-Sawdā’, 3083 m). The Bekaa Valley is the continuation of the valley of the Dead Sea and the River Jordan. Finally, the Anti-Lebanon Mountains run down the Syrian border to the east. It has a Mediterranean climate.

Government


Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire, Lebanon became a French mandate in 1920 and obtained independence on 26 November 1941. In 1943, an unwritten National Pact required that the public seats of office must be divided up between the various faiths, in a way that gave Christians the advantage. Having been defeated in the first Arab-Israeli conflict (1948-49), in 1958, Lebanon was plunged into a civil war between the pro-Western Christians and the pro-Egyptian Muslims. Another civil war broke out in 1975, with strong intervention on the part of Syrian and Israeli troops. Not until 1989 was a new peace agreement (the Taif Agreement) signed by the two sides, giving Muslims the advantage. In 1990, Israeli troops withdrew from Lebanon (however they maintained control over a 10-km-wide security zone). In 1991, a treaty with Syria established a sort of Syrian “protectorate” in the country. In 2004, the UN Security Council ordered Syrian troops, who had been deployed there since 1975, to withdraw. Parliament’s decision to reject the UN resolution led to the resignation of Prime Minister Rafīq al-Ḥarīrī, around whom a strong anti-Syrian movement had accumulated. The murder of al-Ḥarīrī in a bomb attack in Beirut (on 14 February 2005) and the massive popular protest that followed persuaded Syria to withdraw its troops. Since then the difficulty of finding an agreement between the pro- and anti-Syrian parties has turned into a chronic political crisis. In 2006, Israel invaded the south of Lebanon in order to strike Hezbollah militia, encountering strong resistance. A UN resolution led to a ceasefire and the deployment of a peace force (UNIFIL) along the southern border. The Syrian civil war exacerbated the tensions between the communities and external interference, especially for the Iranian support for Hezbollah. According to the 1926 Constitution (revised several times) and the National Pact, the President of the Republic, who is elected by Parliament for six years, must be a Maronite Christian. He shares executive power with the Cabinet, which is presided over by a Sunni Muslim. Legislative power lies in the hands of the National Assembly, made up of 128 members, half of whom are Muslim (Sunni, Shi‘ite, Druze and Alawite) and half Christian (Maronites, Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic, Armenian Orthodox and Catholic, and Protestants), elected for four years. The Speaker of the National Assembly must be a Shi’ite Muslim. The right to vote is acquired at the age of 21.


Defence and justice.
There is a UN peace-keeping contingent in the country (UNIFIL). The judicial system is based on a series of principles from various origins (from Ottoman Law to the Napoleonic Code).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force2.7%2015
Army94.3%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes145.7per 100 000 pop.2013
Homicides4$per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Beirut=Bayrūt417 900inhab.2013
Tripoli=Ṭarābulus213 000inhab.2003
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Beirut2 385 271inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

In the country there are approximately 300 000 Palestinian refugees, in addition to about 1 million Syrian refugees fleeing the civil war.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate17.3772019
Death rate4.4572019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Arab84.5%2000
Armenian6.8%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Christian (mostly Maronite Catholic)36.2%2017
Muslim (Sunni)28.7%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
Armenian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years20.7%2020
15-29 years22.9%2020


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Economy


The Lebanese economy is subject to political instability, as well as the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the explosion in the port of Beirut on August 4, 2020. Chronic deficit compounds significant national debt. The Lebanese pound, formally pegged to the US dollar, has been devalued on the black market since 2020, leading to a sharp rise in prices and a shortage of some consumer goods such as fuels. This, together with high unemployment, especially among the young, has caused an increase in poverty, exacerbating social tensions. The main crops are vegetables (potatoes, tomatoes, onions), fruit (cucurbits, apples, bananas, citrus fruits, grape-vines) and oil-seed crops (peanuts and olives). The forests of the Cedars of Lebanon, once a source of national pride, are now found only in the mountainous areas. Underground resources are limited to salt, gypsum and limestone, which fuel the cement industry (Chekka, Iqlīm Al-Kharrūb).
Chemistry is discreetly developed (especially for the production of phosphate fertilizers and sulfuric acid in Selaata).
The textile plants are concentrated in Tripoli and in the suburban area of Beirut. Other brisk sectors include food and farming, timber and paper (Bikfaya and Chekka). The balance of trade is negative. A free-trade agreement with the EU is in place. The Banque du Liban acts as the central bank.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)89.06index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)100.65index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 317 665units2020
Active population, Females24.5%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate6.6%2020
Unemployment rate, Females38.8%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses25 479 000M LCU2019
Revenues16 680 000M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture13.6%2019
industry22.5%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture5.628%2019
industry13.646%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation11 661.3BN LCU2018
International reserves42 440.403M US$2020
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land25.22%2018
forests13.893%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley32$1000 t2019
cereals, total165.4431000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes572.1091000 t2019
roots and tubers, total572.8471000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.61000 t2019
cabbages59.9271000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry2.8781000 t2019
beans, green16.5331000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes62.0141000 t2019
raisins5$1000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives134.51000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts6.2971000 t2019
sesame seed0.181000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet4.5421000 t2019
sugar cane0.0911000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples216.8611000 t2019
apricots31.051000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds30.8871000 t2019
walnuts3.6461000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits309.0431000 t2019
grapefruits8.2951000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados17.2071000 t2019
bananas78.2531000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley14$1000 ha2019
maize1$1000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes21.0091000 ha2019
taro0.0491000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.0821000 ha2019
cabbages1.551000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.9511000 ha2019
beans, green1.8861000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape7.031000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive61.971000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1.2481000 ha2019
sesame seed0.0511000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet0.1771000 ha2019
sugar cane0.0041000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples13.5061000 ha2019
apricots3.7681000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds5.0861000 ha2019
walnuts2.0571000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits11.8061000 ha2019
grapefruits0.5541000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados1.4541000 ha2019
bananas2.0461000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber25 7272019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle85.8631000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes85.8631000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs6.2511000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep455.841000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats521.2221000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses14.1091000 heads2019
asses and mules18.7711000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels0.1291000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds73 2031000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey1.4331000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cheese27.1771000 t2018
condensed milk6 934t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs44$t2019
freshwater fishes25$t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum1101000 t2013
salt1$1000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone7 0001000 t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal19 565.16M kWh2018
- hydro344.52M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal3 4091000 kW2018
- hydro2531000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation19 983.68M kWh2018
total installed capacity3 730.371000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold, metal8 100kg2018
lead6$1000 t2018
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
phosphate fertilizers1101000 t2019
phosphoric acid1001000 t2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley23$1000 t2018
cottonseed oil0.1471000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes - t6.2661000 t2019
tobacco169.8t2019
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper1031000 t2019
paper1031000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement3 203.41000 t2019
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production129M US$2007
food, beverages and tobacco production1 172.021M US$2014
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) cars 606, gold 401, electrical and electronic equipment 166, diamonds and jewels 147, machinery and home appliances 138, plastics 134, iron and steel 125, perfumes and cosmetics 117

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures56.852% of goods exports2018
food products21.573% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Switzerland1 058M US$2020
United Arab Emirates552M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States934M US$2020
Greece862M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20204 022M US$ -
20194 829M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202011 355M US$ -
201919 641M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures6 824M US$2019
Number of arrivals1 936 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown21 600 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried3 164.41000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers61.263per 1000 pop.2019
Computers102per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling11.3years2017
Graduates54 205units2013
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level516 514units2019
Students, secondary level406 169units2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.73per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians2.1per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2019
Tuberculosis13$per 100 000 pop.2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to electricity100%2019
Access to improved drinking-water source92.6%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5.4%2012
education5.9%2012
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