Form of Government: Republic
Area: 64 594 sq km
Population: 1 893 223 inhab. (estimate 2021)
Density: 29.31 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 58° - 55° N; long. 21° - 28° E
Capital: Rīga (capital) 614 618 inhab. (2021);
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.866 (rank: 37)
President: Egils Levits (independent), since 8 July 2019
Prime Minister: Arturs Krišjānis Kariņš (Unity), since 23 January 2019
Parliament: seats (July 2021 update): Social Democratic Party “Harmony” (pro-Russian), 19; JKP (New Conservative Party), 14; AP! (“Development/For!”, liberal), 12; NA (National Alliance, conservative), 12; ZZS (Union of Greens and Farmers), 10; Unity (liberal-conservative coalition), 8; PCL (“For a Humane Latvia”, populist), 6; others, 19
Internet: www.csb.gov.lv (Central Statistical Bureau)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Latvia

Latvija, Latvijas Republika
Useful information

International license plate code LV
International dialling code 00371
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 220/230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .lv

GMT  +2
DST  +3
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Rīga 6
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Rīga -5/17
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Rīga 10/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Rīga 635
Days of rainfall (annual average) Rīga 121

Politics and current affairs

In 2021, Latvia was at the centre of diplomatic spats with Belarus following the hijacking of Ryanair flight 4978, which culminated in the expulsion of diplomatic staff from both countries. Relations with Russia remain tense.

Geography.
Latvia is bordered by Estonia to the north-east, Russia to the east, Belarus to the south-east and Lithuania to the south. The Baltic Sea lies off its west coast. The country, which is flat in the centre and corrugated in the west (Courland) and east (Livonia), is crossed by the River Daugava (Western Dvina). There are many lakes.
It has a temperate, rainy climate.

Government


Having been independent since 1918, Latvia was annexed by the USSR in 1940. It regained its independence on 21 August 1991 and the 1922 Constitution was reinstated on 6 July 1993. On 1 May 2004, the country joined the EU. The Parliament (100 members elected by direct suffrage for four years) elects the President of the Republic with a four-year mandate.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force5.8%2015
Army23.5%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes2 032.2per 100 000 pop.2020
Homicides4.1per 100 000 pop.2020
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Rīga614 618inhab.2021
Daugavpils80 627inhab.2021
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

After independence, Latvian citizenship was only granted to those who had been Latvian in 1940 and their descendants, effectively excluding those who had arrived during the Soviet regime (who were mostly Russian). Since 1995, about 150 000 persons have been naturalized, mostly of Russian origin.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate9.22020
Death rate15.22020
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total260 405units2020
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Latvian62.7%2021
Russian24.5%2021


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lutheran37$%2019
nonreligious/atheist31$%2019


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Latvian (official)
Lithuanian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years15.3%2020
15-29 years15$%2020


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Economy


The economy fell by 3.6% in 2020 due to the effects of the pandemic. The GDP is expected to gain ground in 2021. The unemployment rate is improving in the first half of 2021. The economy is expected to accelerate in 2022 (+5.2%) due to the Recovery and Resilience Plan.
The investments in the Real Baltica rail project with Finland, Estonia, Lithuania and Poland are important. Cooperation with neighbouring countries deepens to reduce the nation’s energy dependence on Russia.
Agriculture, livestock farming and fishing are well developed. Key industrial sectors include the chemical and petrochemical (at Ventspils) and construction segments, the production of railway rolling stock and cars (at Jelgava), and some of the hi-tech sectors (pharmaceuticals, electro-technical and telecommunications equipment).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)139.21index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)104.26index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population971 700units2020
Active population, Females49.9%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate8.1%2020
Unemployment rate, Females43$%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses7 986.3M LCU2020
Revenues6 565.6M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture7.2%2020
industry23.583%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture4.343%2020
industry22.06%2020
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation5.222BN LCU2020
International reserves5 289.64M US$2020
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land20.986%2018
forests54.808%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley305.41000 t2019
cereals, total3 163.21000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes223.71000 t2019
roots and tubers, total223.71000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages23.11000 t2019
carrots and turnips13.951000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry80.51000 t2018
broad beans, dry73.51000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed408.31000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet0$1000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.21000 t2018
linseed0.11000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples10.391000 t2019
blueberries0.471000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.0661000 t2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley86.81000 ha2019
oats83.21000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes10$1000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.671000 ha2019
carrots and turnips0.511000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry39.71000 ha2018
broad beans, dry24.91000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed139.41000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet5.7821000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.1581000 ha2018
linseed0.11000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste0.21000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples3.441000 ha2019
blueberries0.511000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber12 942 1702019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle395.321000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes395.321000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs314.21000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep99.821000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats11.691000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total8.41000 heads2019
horses8.41000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds2 3391000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey2.1521000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter3.11000 t2018
cheese58.051000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs1 319t2019
freshwater fishes1 502.21t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
peat1 9001000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum2301000 t2012
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite305.31000 t2018
sand and gravel - t12 681.31000 t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal3 051.24M kWh2019
- hydro2 086.92M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro1 5651000 kW2019
- thermal1 2701000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation6 221.23M kWh2019
total installed capacity3 0491000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude5$1000 t2018
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ships1 513G.T.2005
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
computers4 100no.2006
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soap3$1000 t2016
synthetic yarn11.81000 t2004
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics25.1M m²2004
cotton yarn1.11000 t2008
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear134 600pairs2008
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley130.4471000 t2018
fish, frozen20.71000 t2016
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper16$1000 t2019
paper16$1000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 0001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production83.358M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production635.274M US$2018
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures59.092% of goods exports2019
food products20.821% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lithuania2 344M US$2018
Estonia1 682M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lithuania3 201M US$2018
Germany1 936M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202016 178M US$ -
201915 705M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202018 292M US$ -
201918 959M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures745M US$2019
Number of arrivals1 935 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown12 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried4 976.41000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers266.892per 1000 pop.2019
Computers327per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.231years2018
Gradautes, percentage35.708%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level121 674units2018
Students, secondary level117 326units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending31.467% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending16.436% of GDP2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds5.5per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians3.3per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.5% of adults2019
HIV, total0.2%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums153units2019
Museums, visitors3 708 000units2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.64% of GDP2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.8%2019
education1.6%2019
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