Form of Government: Republic
Area: 64 573 sq km
Population: 1 919 968 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 29.73 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 58° - 55° N; long. 21° - 28° E
Capital: Rīga (capital) 632 614 inhab. (2019);
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.847 (rank: 41)
President: Egils Levits (independent), since 8 July 2019
Prime Minister: Arturs Krišjānis Kariņš (Unity), since 23 January 2019
Parliament: seats based on the elections of 6 October 2018: Social Democratic Party “Harmony” (pro-Russian), 23; KPV LV (“Who Owns the State?”, populist), 16; JKP (New Conservative Party), 16; AP! (“Development/For!”, liberal), 13; NA (National Alliance, conservative), 13; ZZS (Union of Greens and Farmers), 11; Unity (liberal-conservative coalition), 8
Internet: www.csb.gov.lv (Central Statistical Bureau)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Latvia

Latvija, Latvijas Republika
Useful information

International license plate code LV
International dialling code 00371
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 220/230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .lv

GMT  +2
DST  +3
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Rīga 6
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Rīga -5/17
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Rīga 10/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Rīga 635
Days of rainfall (annual average) Rīga 121

Politics and current affairs

The elections on 6 October 2018 resulted in a fragmented Parliament, in which the pro-Russian Harmony came out on top with 19.8% of the votes, though the party was excluded from negotiations for a coalition. On 23 January 2019, the government led by Kariņš took office, supported by five parties, two of which (KPV LV and AP!) are new to Parliament.

Geography.
Latvia is bordered by Estonia to the north-east, Russia to the east, Belarus to the south-east and Lithuania to the south. The Baltic Sea lies off its west coast. The country, which is flat in the centre and corrugated in the west (Courland) and east (Livonia), is crossed by the River Daugava (Western Dvina). There are many lakes.
It has a temperate, rainy climate.

Government


Having been independent since 1918, Latvia was annexed by the USSR in 1940. It regained its independence on 21 August 1991 and the 1922 Constitution was reinstated on 6 July 1993. On 1 May 2004, the country joined the EU. The Parliament (100 members elected by direct suffrage for four years) elects the President of the Republic with a four-year mandate.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force5.8%2015
Army23.5%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes2 236.4per 100 000 pop.2018
Homicides4per 100 000 pop.2018
TOP

Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Rīga632 614inhab.2019
Daugavpils82 604inhab.2019
TOP

Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

After independence, Latvian citizenship was only granted to those who had been Latvian in 1940 and their descendants, effectively excluding those who had arrived during the Soviet regime (who were mostly Russian). Since 1995 it has been possible to acquire citizenship by naturalization (for which there are various requirements, including being able to speak the Latvian language): since then, more than 150 000 persons have been naturalized, mostly of Russian origin.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate102018
Death rate152018
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total272 531units2018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Latvian62.2%2018
Russian25.2%2018


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lutheran40.3%2011
Catholic25.1%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Latvian (official)
Lithuanian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years15.2%2018
15-29 years16.1%2018


TOP

Economy


Growth peaked at 4.8% in 2018. The reduction of EU funds in 2019-20 should cause a slowdown. Unemployment is stable at around 7%. The country must recover credibility following the scandals for corruption and money laundering: a banking reform was approved in 2019 that will strengthen checks. On 1 January 2014, the country adopted the euro. Cooperation with Estonia and Finland has improved to reduce energy dependence on Russia.
In addition to agriculture and livestock farming, fishing has also become important.
Key industrial sectors include the chemical and petrochemical (at Ventspils) and construction segments, the production of railway rolling stock and cars (at Jelgava), and some of the hi-tech sectors (pharmaceuticals, electro-technical and telecommunications equipment).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)139.21index2016
Balance of trade-3 614.1M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population982 200units2018
Active population, Females50.1%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate7.4%2018
Unemployment rate, Females43.8%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses6 845.7M LCU2018
Revenues6 526M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture7%2018
industry23.6%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture3.8%2018
industry23.2%2018
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation4.61BN LCU2018
International reserves4 370.7M US$2018
TOP

Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land19.89%2015
forests53.97%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley240.91000 t2017
cereals, total2 692.51000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes408.31000 t2017
roots and tubers, total408.31000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages65.9781000 t2017
carrots and turnips31.1051000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry140.71000 t2017
peas, dry29.51000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed326.21000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet01000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.2271000 t2017
linseed0.31000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples7.4641000 t2017
blueberries0.3531000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.0661000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley70.31000 ha2017
oats541000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes21.51000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1.8621000 ha2017
carrots and turnips1.371000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry38.21000 ha2017
peas, dry9.61000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed112.21000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet01000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.1011000 ha2017
linseed0.31000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples3.3311000 ha2017
blueberries0.2361000 ha2017
TOP

Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber12 896 1492017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle412.3141000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes412.3141000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs336.3861000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep106.6291000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats13.1591000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total9.2781000 heads2017
horses9.2781000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds2 1891000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey1.7041000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter6.931000 t2014
cheese35.161000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs0t2017
freshwater fishes837.44t2017
TOP

Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
peat1 7001000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum2301000 t2012
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite615.81000 t2016
sand and gravel - t9 1241000 t2016
TOP

Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 767.36M kWh2016
- hydro2 523M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro1 5691000 kW2016
- thermal1 1491000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation6 240.96M kWh2016
total installed capacity2 931.71000 kW2016
TOP

Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude2001000 t2015
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ships1 513G.T.2005
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
computers4 100no.2006
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soap31000 t2016
synthetic yarn11.81000 t2004
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics25.1M m²2004
cotton yarn1.11000 t2008
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear134 600pairs2008
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley97.81000 t2014
fish, frozen20.71000 t2016
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper161000 t2017
paper161000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 1001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production67.8M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production595.9M US$2016
TOP

Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures60.504% of goods exports2018
food products18.633% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lithuania2 344M US$2018
Estonia1 682M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lithuania3 201M US$2018
Germany1 936M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201815 643M US$ -
201714 013M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201819 257M US$ -
201716 881M US$ -
TOP

Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures814M US$2017
Number of arrivals1 949 000units2017
TOP

Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown12 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried3 4411000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers269.624per 1000 pop.2017
Computers327per 1000 pop.2008
TOP

Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.2years2017
Gradautes, percentage33.9%2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level10 619units2016
Teachers, secondary level14 369units2016
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending32.4% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending16.2% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds5.7per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians3.2per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.7% of adults2016
HIV, total0.2%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums152units2018
Museums, visitors3 774 000units2018
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.51% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking95.28%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5%2017
education1.7%2017
TOP