Form of Government: Republic
Area: 236 800 sq km
Population: 6 901 000 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 29.14 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 23° - 14° N; long. 100° - 108° E
Capital: Vientiane=Viangchan (capital) 886 000 inhab. (2017);
Currency: new kip (100 at)
Human development index: 0.601 (rank: 139)
President: Bougnang Vorachit (LPRP), elected 20 April 2016
Prime Minister: Thongloun Sisoulit (LPRP), since 20 April 2016
Internet: www.lsb.gov.la (Lao Statistics Bureau)
Member of ASEAN, UN, WTO

Laos

Lao, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxôn Lao
Useful information

International license plate code LAO
International dialling code 00856
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .la

GMT  +7
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Vientiane 25.6
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Vientiane 21/27
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Vientiane 5/8
Annual average precipitation (mm) Vientiane 1686
Days of rainfall (annual average) Vientiane 109

Geography.
Laos is bordered by China to the north, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south, Thailand to the west and Myanmar (Burma) to the north-west. The north and east of the country is very mountainous. The south-west of the country, along the border marked by the River Mekong, is flat. It has a tropical climate with a monsoon season.

Government


Formerly a French protectorate, Laos became independent under the Geneva Accords (20 July 1954), which put an end to the French colonization of Indo-China. After many years of armed struggle between Nationalist Marxist guerrillas and government forces, (supported by the USA), in 1975, the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party (LPRP) seized power, forced the king to abdicate and installed a socialist regime supported by Vietnam. In the north-west the pro-independence movement of the Hmong-mien is active.
According to the Constitution of 1991, Laos is formally a parliamentary republic but is actually a one-party regime. Legislative power lies in the hands of the National Assembly (149 members elected for five years) which elects the President of the Republic.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force12%2017
Army88%2017
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides7per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Vientiane=Viangchan886 000inhab.2017
Savannakhét91 684inhab.2015
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate242017
Death rate7.52017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lao53.2%2015
other20.1%2015


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Buddhist64.7%2015
nonreligious/atheist31.4%2015


Languages
DESCRIPTION
French
Lao (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years32.2%2018
15-29 years30.3%2018


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Economy


Rapid economic growth is fuelled by the export of hydroelectric energy and by the construction and manufacturing sectors, helped also by measures aimed at encouraging foreign investment and credit for business enterprises.
Most of the work-force is still employed in agriculture. Rice, the main crop, is grown on 60% of the farmland. The cultivation of commercial crops (such as coffee, maize, fruit, cotton and sesame) is relevant. The forests are widely exploited for various kinds of prized timber, especially teak.
The country’s underground resources (especially iron, gold, copper and tin, as well as gypsum, coal, silver and zinc) are being exploited thanks to foreign capital.
Electrical energy production (exported to Thailand) is on the increase and comes from numerous hydroelectric power plants on the Mekong tributaries. Key industrial sectors include engineering (vehicle and motorcycle assembly), electronic components and the processing of timber, tobacco and cement. Craft-making activities are also practised on a wide scale (ceramics and earthenware). Tourism is increasing. The public accounts deficit is high and the trade budget is in the red: it imports consumer goods, machinery and crude oil; it exports coffee, timber, tin, copper, gold and electric energy. Its main trading partner is Thailand.
The Banque d’État de la RDP Lao acts as the central bank. Several foreign commercial banks operate in the country. There is a stock exchange in Vientiane (since 2011).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)219.25index2016
Balance of trade-1 080M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population3 673 664units2018
Active population, Females49.7%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate0.6%2018
Unemployment rate, Females45.5%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses30 167 100M LCU2017
Revenues22 615 500M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture68%2018
industry9.1%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture18.3%2017
industry34.9%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation3 715.3BN LCU2008
International reserves980.4M US$2018
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land7.34%2015
forests81.29%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total5 232.3041000 t2017
maize1 192.5251000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava2 277.051000 t2017
potatoes1.5851000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chillies and peppers17.0731000 t2017
muskmelons18.541000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry4.4751000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts49.1051000 t2017
sesame seed16.2551000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee150.7951000 t2017
nutmeg3.0131000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane1 764.391000 t2017
tobacco35.6151000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton2.2351000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total732.1991000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits101.9341000 t2017
grapefruits6.1331000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas946.821000 t2017
mangoes4.9881000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize207.191000 ha2017
rice956.1341000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava70.931000 ha2017
potatoes0.071000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chillies and peppers10.4011000 ha2017
muskmelons1.3751000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry2.521000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts18.8871000 ha2017
sesame seed13.041000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee80.891000 ha2017
nutmeg8.5761000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane29.091000 ha2017
tobacco4.581000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton1.8451000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits12.4051000 ha2017
grapefruits1.0891000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas22.6051000 ha2017
mangoes0.6021000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber9 740 8062017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 9841000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes3 1731000 heads2017
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes1 1891000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs3 8691000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats5881000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total32.551000 heads2017
horses32.551000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds40 6351000 heads2017
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs15.41000 t2017
hides and skins5.9011000 t2013
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes174 850t2017
total catch174 900t2017
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal178.51000 t2016
coal, total4 836.11000 t2016
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony0.31000 t2018
copper78.41000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite801000 t2016
clay1 7001000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone2 6231000 t2017
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold6 764kg2016
sapphire - ct1 2001000 ct2011
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro17 900M kWh2016
- thermal11 830M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro4 9801000 kW2016
- thermal1 9181000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation29 736M kWh2016
total installed capacity6 9401000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bismuth21000 t2018
copper89.21000 t2015
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
paints7.81000 t2014
plastics13.51000 t2014
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fabrics - m2 8561000 metres2014
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear2 367 460pairs2017
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley47.71000 t2014
cottonseed oil0.71000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes, packs2 385M units2017
tobacco7 085t2014
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement3 9381000 t2017
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production1 333.2M US$2018
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ores and metals38.557% of goods exports2016
food products30.590% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Thailand470M US$2007
Vietnam167M US$2006
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Thailand1 314M US$2007
China178M US$2007
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20185 260M US$ -
20174 823M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20186 340M US$ -
20175 636M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures989M US$2017
Number of arrivals3 257 000units2017
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Communications


A train line between Kunming (China) and Vientiane is under construction, as well as another one connecting with Vietnam. The River Mekong and its tributaries are used extensively as a vital means of communication.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown3 100 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried1 1961000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers3.968per 1000 pop.2017
Computers17per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling11.1years2017
Graduates32 968units2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level36 204units2017
Teachers, secondary level37 360units2017
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.6per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians0.5per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.3% of adults2017
HIV, total0.02%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums24units2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking5.62%2016
Access to electricity93.6%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear1.9%2008
food, non-alcoholic beverages50.1%2008
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