Form of Government: Republic
Area: 610 000 sq km
Population: 45 847 857 inhab. (estimate 2016)
Density: 75.16 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 5° N - 5° S; long. 34° - 42° E
Capital: Nairobi (capital) 3 250 000 inhab. (2010);
Currency: Kenyan shilling (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.555 (rank: 146)
President and head of government: Uhuru Kenyatta (TNA), elected 4 March 2013, in office since 9 April 2013, reconfirmed 26 October 2017
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 8 August 2017: JP (Jubilee Party), 171; ODM (Orange Democratic Movement), 76; WDM-K (Wiper Democratic Movement-Kenya), 23; ANC (Amani National Congress), 14; independents, 14; others, 50; vacant, 1
Internet: www.knbs.or.ke (National Bureau of Statistics)
Member of AU, COMESA, Commonwealth, EAC, UN, WTO

Kenya

Kenya, Jamhuri ya Kenya
Useful information

International license plate code EAK
International dialling code 00254
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended for some areas; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 240
Driving side left
Internet code .ke

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Nairobi 17.6; Mombasa 26.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Nairobi 18/15; Mombasa 27.5/24
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Nairobi 6/8; Mombasa 7/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Nairobi 1072; Mombasa 1195
Days of rainfall (annual average) Nairobi 121; Mombasa 132

Politics and current affairs

On 26 October 2017, the presidential election was held again after the one on 8 August was annulled by the Supreme Court. President U. Kenyatta was re-elected, but the vote was boycotted by the opposition and violent clashes between protesters and police forces were recorded.

Geography.
Kenya is bordered by Southern Sudan and Ethiopia to the north, Somalia to the east, Uganda to the west and the Indian Ocean to the south-east. The country has a vast low and fertile coastal strip over 400 km long, a steppe-like desert plateau between Lake Turkana and Somalia, a south-western plateau with isolated mountains (Chepkotet, 3370 m), a northern plateau dissected by the deep trough of Lake Turkana, which further south continues as the Great Rift Valley dotted with numerous lakes. The highest mountain is Mount Kenya (5199 m).
The climate is hot and humid in the lowlands, becoming milder and drier inland according to the altitude.

Government


A former British Colony, Kenya became independent on 12 December 1963, and exactly one year later it was declared a republic (proclaimed on 12 December 1964).
The first president was Jomo Kenyatta, leader of the Kenyan African National Union (KANU). Upon his death in 1978, Daniel arap Moi came to power, but by 1982 he had installed an authoritarian regime with KANU as the sole political party. A multi-party system was reintroduced in 1991. The 2013 and 2017 (these last were then annulled) presidential elections were won by Uhuru Kenyatta, son of Jomo.
The country has been victim to serious terrorist attacks by Islamic fundamentalist movement ash-Shabāb, as a reprisal for its involvement in the war in Somalia.
The 2010 Constitution gave extensive powers to the counties; the head of executive power is the President of the Republic, who is elected directly for five years just like the National Assembly (337 members are elected directly, with 47 seats reserved for women, plus 12 members chosen by the Assembly and one ex officio) and the Senate (67 members).


Defence.
Military service is voluntary and the country receives military assistance from both the USA and the United Kingdom.


Justice.
The justice system is based on British Common Law, with tribal and Islamic influences.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force10.4%2015
Army83%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes167.9per 100 000 pop.2016
Homicides6per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Nairobi3 250 000inhab.2010
Mombasa917 800inhab.2010
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate31.32016
Death rate5.72016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Kikuyu17.2%2009
other15.6%2009


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant47.7%2009
Catholic23.5%2009


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Swahili (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years40%2017
15-29 years27.5%2017


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Economy


Economic situation.
Growth in the service and building industries, supported by foreign investments, is stimulating the economy.
Since 2014, the country has been able to finance itself by also issuing state bonds in the international market.
The chronic budget deficit compromises development plans. Fluctuation in prices, which rose in 2017 due to the drought, decreased in 2018. Unemployment is high.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)125.8index2016
Balance of trade-10 939M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population19 352 327units2017
Active population, Females48.5%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate11.5%2017
Unemployment rate, Females64.6%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses2 152 083M LCU2017
Revenues1 524 210M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture38%2017
industry14.3%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture34.5%2016
industry18.5%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation279.2BN LCU2017
International reserves7 353.4M US$2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The main crops grown for exportation are coffee and tea, cultivated in the highlands around Mount Kenya, in the Kericho district and in the Aberdare zone. Other crops grown in the highlands include maize, sugar cane, potatoes, bananas and pyrethrum (in Nakuru), of which Kenya is the world’s foremost supplier.
Cut flowers are produced in large numbers for exportation. Typical of the Kenyan coastal strip are agave, sisals, coconut palms and pineapples (at Thika).
Western Kenya, at heights between 2000 m and 2700 m, is rich in cedar trees and Podocarpus, while at higher altitudes bamboo is widespread. Valuable timbers include muhuhu, mvule, mviti and mbambakofi.
Livestock farming is practised in the Rift Valley, especially in Laikipia district; nomads raise sheep and goats.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land11.12%2015
forests7.75%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley56.0841000 t2016
cereals, total3 910.2921000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava571.8481000 t2016
potatoes1 335.8831000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.0161000 t2016
asparagus0.4021000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry728.161000 t2016
beans, green35.6591000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed31000 t2016
groundnuts32.9551000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts91.6271000 t2016
copra10.21000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cloves2.0771000 t2016
coffee46.11000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane7 094.6191000 t2016
tobacco9.6191000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton15.81000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.9491000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal23.391000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.6231000 t2016
apricots0.0771000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts24.9541000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits206.641000 t2016
citrus fruits, nes90.3991000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados176.0451000 t2016
bananas1 288.5881000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley14.8321000 ha2016
maize2 337.5861000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava46.5351000 ha2016
potatoes145.9671000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.0041000 ha2016
cabbages26.9311000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1 171.711000 ha2016
beans, green3.291000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed131000 ha2016
groundnuts13.4421000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts47.4011000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cloves2.1011000 ha2016
coffee1141000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane86.8761000 ha2016
tobacco12.3111000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton28.71000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.9611000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal26.3621000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.0821000 ha2016
apricots0.0161000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts29.831000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits22.8791000 ha2016
citrus fruits, nes12.6641000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados10.3051000 ha2016
bananas63.2991000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber27 432 0002016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle20 529.191000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes20 529.191000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs504.3951000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep18 983.761000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats26 745.9161000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total2.0881000 heads2016
horses2.0881000 heads2016
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels3 222.5931000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds43 7961000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey8.251000 t2013
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter15.551000 t2014
cheese0.321000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs2 994t2016
freshwater fishes169 545t2016
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Fluorspar is mined (at Kerio’s valley), gold (at Lolgorien and Kilimapesa), cyanite (at Murka), soda (at Lake Magadi), asbestos (at Makinyambo), niobium (at Mrima Hill), wollastonite (at Kajiado) and kaolin.
There are also vast salt flats and saltworks in Malindi.
Energy and industry.
Most of the electricity produced comes from power plants on the River Tana. Geothermal plants are active in the Olkaria volcanic area. The main industries are petrol refining (at Mombasa), fertilizer production (at Turbo and Nakuru) and metal working (at Nairobi, Thika and Mombasa). There are also cement factories (at Athi River and Bamburi). Other industries include paper mills (at Eldoret and Webuye), tobacco plants (at Nairobi), food processing (pineapple canning at Thika), breweries (at Mombasa and Nairobi) and sugar refining (at Muhoroni, Chemelil, Miwani and Ramisi). Research in information technology is very active in Nairobi.

Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ilmenite3751000 t2017
iron ore70.51000 t2012
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite0.111000 t2015
fluorspar431000 t2017
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite11000 t2015
kaolin1.61000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold300kg2015
precious stones - kg74 920kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- other renew.4 686M kWh2015
- hydro3 749M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro8201000 kW2015
- other renew.7471000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation9 567.7M kWh2015
total installed capacity2 3011000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium, secondary151000 t2015
iron, sheets256.91000 t2015
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
commercial vehicles3 000no.2014
motor vehicles3 000no.2014
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen271000 t2012
petrol199.11000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
caustic soda355.41000 t2004
soap225.51000 t2015
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics11 023.7M m²2013
cotton fabrics - m11.7M m2015
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear24 226 900pairs2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley4301000 t2014
coconut oil4.31000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes27 206.1M units2015
cigars and cigarettes27 206.1M units2015
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement6 338.21000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production404M US$2013
food, beverages and tobacco production2 337.9M US$2013
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.

Kenya is one of the world’s foremost sources of tea and cut flowers.
Imports are mostly made up of oil, industrial products and machinery.
Free trade agreements have been signed with the other counties in the region.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) 
tea 1 424, plants and flowers 596, fruit and vegetables 390, petroleum products 350, apparel and accessories 313, coffee 230, metal ores 177, iron and steel 151, cigarettes and tobacco 134, chemicals 132, plastics 129, pharmaceuticals 124, fruit & vegetable juices and preserves 110, animal & vegetable fats and oils 96, soap and detergents 83, food preparations 70, machinery 68, electrical and electronic equipment 59


Finance and banking.
The Central Bank of Kenya carries out all central banking functions. The stock exchange is in Nairobi.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products46.222% of goods exports2013
manufactures36.855% of goods exports2013
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Pakistan620M US$2017
Uganda598M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China3 778M US$2017
India1 648M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20175 747.515M US$ -
20165 694.931M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201716 686.949M US$ -
201614 107.190M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Tourist presence has rapidly recovered after dropping in the wake of the terrorist attacks in 2013. The principal attractions are the coastal resorts (including as Malindi) and the national parks (Nairobi, Amboseli, Masai Mara and Tsavo).

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures145M US$2016
Number of arrivals1 268 000units2016
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Communications


Transport.
There are road links between Nairobi and Addis Abeba (Ethiopia) and between Kitale and Juba (South Sudan). The port at Mombasa also serves as a sea terminal for neighbouring countries (Tanzania, Uganda, South Sudan). In 2017, the railway between the capital and Mombasa was inaugurated.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown42 900 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried4 892.71000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers5.800per 1000 pop.2017
Computers13.7per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education.
Primary education is compulsory and lasts eight years. Secondary and university education is carried out in English.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling11years2009
Graduates38 683units2001
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level266 511units2015
Teachers, secondary level198 752units2015
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.4per 1000 pop.2010
Physicians0.2per 1000 pop.2014
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV5.4% of adults2016
HIV, total10.2%2002
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.79% of GDP2010
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking13.42%2016
Access to electricity56%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear3%2005
food, non-alcoholic beverages44%2005
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