Form of Government: Republic
Area: 610 000 sq km
Population: 47 006 641 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 77.06 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 5° N - 5° S; long. 34° - 42° E
Capital: Nairobi (capital) 4 385 853 inhab. (2018);
Currency: Kenyan shilling (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.59 (rank: 142)
President and head of government: Uhuru Kenyatta (TNA), elected 4 March 2013, in office since 9 April 2013, reconfirmed 26 October 2017
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 8 August 2017: JP (Jubilee Party), 171; ODM (Orange Democratic Movement), 76; WDM-K (Wiper Democratic Movement-Kenya), 23; ANC (Amani National Congress), 14; independents, 14; others, 50; vacant, 1
Internet: www.knbs.or.ke (National Bureau of Statistics)
Member of AU, COMESA, Commonwealth, EAC, UN, WTO

Kenya

Kenya, Jamhuri ya Kenya
Useful information

International license plate code EAK
International dialling code 00254
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended for some areas; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 240
Driving side left
Internet code .ke

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Nairobi 17.6; Mombasa 26.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Nairobi 18/15; Mombasa 27.5/24
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Nairobi 6/8; Mombasa 7/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Nairobi 1072; Mombasa 1195
Days of rainfall (annual average) Nairobi 121; Mombasa 132

Politics and current affairs

On 15/16 January 2019, the terrorist attack by Islamic extremists on a hotel and office complex in Nairobi caused 21 deaths.

Geography.
Kenya is bordered by Southern Sudan and Ethiopia to the north, Somalia to the east, Uganda to the west and the Indian Ocean to the south-east. The country has a vast low and fertile coastal strip over 400 km long, a steppe-like desert plateau between Lake Turkana and Somalia, a south-western plateau with isolated mountains (Chepkotet, 3370 m), a northern plateau dissected by the deep trough of Lake Turkana, which further south continues as the Great Rift Valley dotted with numerous lakes. The highest mountain is Mount Kenya (5199 m).
The climate is hot and humid in the lowlands, becoming milder and drier inland according to the altitude.

Government


A former British Colony, Kenya became independent on 12 December 1963, and exactly one year later it was declared a republic (proclaimed on 12 December 1964).
The first president was Jomo Kenyatta, leader of the Kenyan African National Union (KANU). Upon his death in 1978, Daniel arap Moi came to power, but by 1982 he had installed an authoritarian regime with KANU as the sole political party. A multi-party system was reintroduced in 1991. The 2013 and 2017 (these last were then annulled) presidential elections were won by Uhuru Kenyatta, son of Jomo.
The country has been victim to serious terrorist attacks by Islamic fundamentalist movement ash-Shabāb, as a reprisal for its involvement in the war in Somalia.
The 2010 Constitution gave extensive powers to the counties; the head of executive power is the President of the Republic, who is elected directly for five years just like the National Assembly (337 members are elected directly, with 47 seats reserved for women, plus 12 members chosen by the Assembly and one ex officio) and the Senate (67 members).


Defence.
Military service is voluntary and the country receives military assistance from both the USA and the United Kingdom.


Justice.
The justice system is based on British Common Law, with tribal and Islamic influences.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force10.4%2015
Army83%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes165.9per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides5.9per 100 000 pop.2017
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Nairobi4 385 853inhab.2018
Mombasa917 800inhab.2010
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate30.92017
Death rate5.72017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Kikuyu17.2%2009
other15.6%2009


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant47.7%2009
Catholic23.5%2009


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Swahili (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years39%2018
15-29 years27.8%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
Growth in the service and building industries, supported by foreign investments, is stimulating the economy. Inflation dropped in 2018-19, but it remains influenced by the harvest trends.
Since 2014, the country has been able to finance itself by also issuing state bonds in the international market. The chronic budget deficit compromises development plans. Unemployment is high.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)125.8index2016
Balance of trade-11 173.9M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population20 248 989units2018
Active population, Females48.7%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate9.3%2018
Unemployment rate, Females48.3%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses2 364 199M LCU2018
Revenues1 710 235M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture57.5%2018
industry7.6%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture33.4%2017
industry18.5%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation288.3BN LCU2018
International reserves8 196.1M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The main crops grown for exportation are coffee and tea, cultivated in the highlands around Mount Kenya, in the Kericho district and in the Aberdare zone. Other crops grown in the highlands include maize, sugar cane, potatoes, bananas and pyrethrum (in Nakuru), of which Kenya is the world’s foremost supplier.
Cut flowers are produced in large numbers for exportation. Typical of the Kenyan coastal strip are agave, sisals, coconut palms and pineapples (at Thika).
Western Kenya, at heights between 2000 m and 2700 m, is rich in cedar trees and Podocarpus, while at higher altitudes bamboo is widespread. Valuable timbers include muhuhu, mvule, mviti and mbambakofi. Livestock farming is practised in the Rift Valley, especially in Laikipia district; nomads raise sheep and goats.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land11.12%2015
forests7.75%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley771000 t2017
cereals, total3 711.0481000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava1 1121000 t2017
potatoes1 519.871000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.021000 t2017
asparagus0.3261000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry8461000 t2017
beans, green38.8471000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed31000 t2017
groundnuts19.2731000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts124.3821000 t2017
copra10.21000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cloves2.1331000 t2017
coffee40.81000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane4 751.6091000 t2017
tobacco8.9651000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton131000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.9491000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal23.5551000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.6741000 t2017
apricots0.0781000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts25.6251000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits192.6651000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes84.7541000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados194.2791000 t2017
bananas7421000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley21.0531000 ha2017
maize2 092.4591000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava90.3941000 ha2017
potatoes192.3411000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.0041000 ha2017
cabbages23.2311000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1 180.7841000 ha2017
beans, green3.6961000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed141000 ha2017
groundnuts81000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts59.191000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cloves2.1041000 ha2017
coffee114.71000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane67.7081000 ha2017
tobacco13.3831000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton25.981000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.9611000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal26.1991000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.0971000 ha2017
apricots0.0171000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts28.8291000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits21.8311000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes13.1781000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados11.6051000 ha2017
bananas35.1191000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber27 432 0002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle18 338.8091000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes18 338.8091000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs554.3011000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep18 759.0721000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats24 684.4891000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total2.0951000 heads2017
horses2.0951000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels3 338.7571000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds48 1251000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey8.251000 t2013
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter15.551000 t2014
cheese0.321000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs2 673t2017
freshwater fishes110 317t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Fluorspar is mined (at Kerio’s valley), gold (at Lolgorien and Kilimapesa), cyanite (at Murka), soda (at Lake Magadi), asbestos (at Makinyambo), niobium (at Mrima Hill), wollastonite (at Kajiado) and kaolin.
There are also vast salt flats and saltworks in Malindi.
Energy and industry.
Most of the electricity produced comes from power plants on the River Tana. Geothermal plants are active in the Olkaria volcanic area.
The main industries are petrol refining (at Mombasa), fertilizer production (at Turbo and Nakuru) and metal working (at Nairobi, Thika and Mombasa).
There are also cement factories (at Athi River, Bondora, Merrueshi and Mombasa).
Other industries include paper mills (at Eldoret and Webuye), tobacco plants (at Nairobi), food processing (pineapple canning at Thika), breweries (at Mombasa and Nairobi) and sugar refining (at Muhoroni, Chemelil, Miwani and Ramisi). Research in information technology is very active in Nairobi.

Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ilmenite2801000 t2018
iron ore70.51000 t2012
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite0.131000 t2016
fluorspar42.71000 t2017
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite1.31000 t2017
kaolin1.81000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold503kg2017
precious stones - kg74 920kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- other renew.4 427M kWh2016
- hydro3 308M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro8231000 kW2016
- other renew.7921000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation9 633.8M kWh2016
total installed capacity2 4011000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium, secondary151000 t2015
iron, sheets270.41000 t2018
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
commercial vehicles3 000no.2014
motor vehicles3 000no.2014
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen271000 t2012
petrol199.11000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
caustic soda355.41000 t2004
soap242.61000 t2017
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics11 023.7M m²2013
cotton fabrics - m12.3M m2017
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear23 853 700pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley4301000 t2014
coconut oil4.31000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes22 757.9M units2016
cigars and cigarettes22 757.9M units2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement6 069.91000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production587.6M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production2 513.9M US$2016
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.

Kenya is one of the world’s foremost sources of tea and cut flowers.
Imports are mostly made up of oil, industrial products and machinery.
Free trade agreements have been signed with the other counties in the region.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) 
tea 1 424, plants and flowers 596, fruit and vegetables 390, 
petroleum products 350, apparel and accessories 313, coffee 230, 
metal ores 177, iron and steel 151, cigarettes and tobacco 134, 
chemicals 132, plastics 129, pharmaceuticals 124, fruit & vegetable juices and preserves 110, animal & vegetable fats and oils 96, 
soap and detergents 83, food preparations 70, machinery 68, 
electrical and electronic equipment 59


Finance and banking.
The Central Bank of Kenya carries out all central banking functions. The stock exchange is in Nairobi.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products51.321% of goods exports2017
manufactures28.349% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Uganda611M US$2018
Pakistan586M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China3 661M US$2018
India1 829M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20186 087M US$ -
20175 747M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201817 260M US$ -
201716 687M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The main travel destinations are the seaside resorts on the coast (including as Malindi) and the national parks (Nairobi, Amboseli, Masai Mara and Tsavo).

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures262M US$2017
Number of arrivals1 364 000units2017
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Communications


Transport.
There are road links between Nairobi and Addis Abeba (Ethiopia) and between Kitale and Juba (South Sudan). The port at Mombasa also serves as a sea terminal for neighbouring countries (Tanzania, Uganda, South Sudan). In 2017, the railway between the capital and Mombasa was inaugurated.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown42 900 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried4 892.71000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers5.800per 1000 pop.2017
Computers13.7per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education.
Primary education is compulsory and lasts eight years. Secondary and university education is carried out in English.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling11years2009
Graduates217 329units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level266 511units2015
Teachers, secondary level198 752units2015
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.2per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians0.24per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV4.8% of adults2017
HIV, total10.2%2002
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.79% of GDP2010
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking13.42%2016
Access to electricity63.811%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear3%2005
food, non-alcoholic beverages44%2005
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