Form of Government: Republic
Area: 610 000 sq km
Population: 47 564 296 inhab. (census 2019)
Density: 77.97 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 5° N - 5° S; long. 34° - 42° E
Capital: Nairobi (capital) 4 397 073 inhab. (2019);
Currency: Kenyan shilling (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.601 (rank: 143)
President and head of government: Uhuru Kenyatta (TNA), elected 4 March 2013, in office since 9 April 2013, reconfirmed 26 October 2017
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 8 August 2017: JP (Jubilee Party), 171; ODM (Orange Democratic Movement), 76; WDM-K (Wiper Democratic Movement-Kenya), 23; ANC (Amani National Congress), 14; independents, 14; others, 50; vacant, 1
Internet: www.knbs.or.ke (National Bureau of Statistics)
Member of AU, COMESA, Commonwealth, EAC, UN, WTO

Kenya

Kenya, Jamhuri ya Kenya
Useful information

International license plate code EAK
International dialling code 00254
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended for some areas; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 240
Driving side left
Internet code .ke

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Nairobi 17.6; Mombasa 26.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Nairobi 18/15; Mombasa 27.5/24
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Nairobi 6/8; Mombasa 7/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Nairobi 1072; Mombasa 1195
Days of rainfall (annual average) Nairobi 121; Mombasa 132

Geography.
Kenya is bordered by Southern Sudan and Ethiopia to the north, Somalia to the east, Uganda to the west and the Indian Ocean to the south-east. The country has a vast low and fertile coastal strip over 400 km long, a steppe-like desert plateau between Lake Turkana and Somalia, a south-western plateau with isolated mountains (Chepkotet, 3370 m), a northern plateau dissected by the deep trough of Lake Turkana, which further south continues as the Great Rift Valley dotted with numerous lakes. The highest mountain is Mount Kenya (5199 m).
The climate is hot and humid in the lowlands, becoming milder and drier inland according to the altitude.

Government


A former British Colony, Kenya became independent on 12 December 1963, and exactly one year later it was declared a republic (proclaimed on 12 December 1964).
The first president was Jomo Kenyatta, leader of the Kenyan African National Union (KANU). Upon his death in 1978, Daniel arap Moi came to power, but by 1982 he had installed an authoritarian regime with KANU as the sole political party. A multi-party system was reintroduced in 1991. The 2013 and 2017 (these last repeat) presidential elections were won by Uhuru Kenyatta, son of Jomo.
The country has been victim to serious terrorist attacks by Islamic fundamentalist movement ash-Shabāb, as a reprisal for its involvement in the war in Somalia.
The 2010 Constitution gave extensive powers to the counties; the head of executive power is the President of the Republic, who is elected directly for five years just like the National Assembly (337 members are elected directly, with 47 seats reserved for women, plus 12 members chosen by the Assembly and one ex officio) and the Senate (67 members).


Defence.
Military service is voluntary and the country receives military assistance from both the USA and the United Kingdom.


Justice.
The justice system is based on British Common Law, with tribal and Islamic influences.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force10.4%2015
Army83$%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes165.9per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides5.9per 100 000 pop.2017
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Nairobi4 397 073inhab.2019
Mombasa1 208 333inhab.2019
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate28.2982019
Death rate5.3932019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Kikuyu17.2%2009
other15.6%2009


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant33.4%2019
Catholic20.6%2019


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Swahili (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years38.7%2020
15-29 years28$%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
Solid recovery in 2021 followed the recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, even if there are significant differences in the various sectors (tourism continues to struggle). In recent years, development had been sustained by an increase in domestic consumption and upward trends in the services and construction sectors, which benefit from foreign investments.
Since 2014, the country has been able to finance itself by also issuing state bonds in the international market. The chronic budget deficit compromises development plans. Unemployment is high.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)125.8index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)110.99index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population23 738 797units2020
Active population, Females49$%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate3$%2020
Unemployment rate, Females52$%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses2 223 927.2M LCU2018-19
Revenues1 746 300.3M LCU2018-19
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture54.4%2019
industry7.3%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture36.517%2019
industry17.266%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation290.544BN LCU2020
International reserves8 297.264M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The main crops grown for exportation are coffee and tea, cultivated in the highlands around Mount Kenya, in the Kericho district and in the Aberdare zone. Other crops grown in the highlands include maize, sugar cane, potatoes, bananas and pyrethrum (in Nakuru), of which Kenya is the world’s foremost supplier.
Cut flowers are produced in large numbers for exportation. Typical of the Kenyan coastal strip are agave, sisals, coconut palms and pineapples (at Thika). Western Kenya, at heights between 2000 m and 2700 m, is rich in cedar trees and Podocarpus, while at higher altitudes bamboo is widespread. Valuable timbers include muhuhu, mvule, mviti and mbambakofi. Livestock farming is practised in the Rift Valley, especially in Laikipia district; nomads raise sheep and goats. Fishing is mainly practised in Lake Victoria.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land11.122%2018
forests6.345%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley85.7811000 t2019
cereals, total4 936.1661000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava970.5871000 t2019
potatoes2 0001000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.0191000 t2019
asparagus0.2691000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry7471000 t2019
beans, green40.4161000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed4$1000 t2019
groundnuts15.4631000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts109.8891000 t2019
copra10.21000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cloves2.3871000 t2019
coffee44.51000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane4 606.11000 t2019
tobacco8.5361000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton6.0771000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.9681000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal21.0091000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.7021000 t2019
apricots0.0821000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts12.8021000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits191.2511000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes82.381000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados364.9351000 t2019
bananas1 715.771000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley22.0161000 ha2019
maize2 196.1361000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava69.6211000 ha2019
potatoes212.9761000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.0041000 ha2019
cabbages25.7331000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1 167.5431000 ha2019
beans, green3.1791000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed14$1000 ha2019
groundnuts15.9651000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts86.8431000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cloves2.1011000 ha2019
coffee116.21000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane71.91000 ha2019
tobacco16.7331000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton13.7811000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.9631000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal24.1611000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.1081000 ha2019
apricots0.0191000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts22.6861000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits25.8781000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes12.0671000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados23.2981000 ha2019
bananas76.9121000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber27 432 0002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle20 898.7691000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes20 898.7691000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs596.4141000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep27 440.9451000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats35 172.7491000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total2.1371000 heads2019
horses2.1371000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels4 721.91000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds56 6591000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey13.8771000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter16.1421000 t2018
cheese0.331000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs2 830t2019
freshwater fishes115 800t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Fluorspar is mined (at Kerio’s valley), gold (at Lolgorien and Kilimapesa), cyanite (at Murka), soda (at Lake Magadi), asbestos (at Makinyambo), niobium (at Mrima Hill), wollastonite (at Kajiado) and kaolin.
There are also vast salt flats and saltworks in Malindi.
Energy & industry.

Much of the electricity generated comes from geothermal (Rift Valley) and hydroelectric (River Tana) power stations. Geothermal plants are active in the Olkaria volcanic area. The main industries are fertilizer production (at Turbo and Nakuru) and metal working (at Nairobi, Thika and Mombasa). The oil refining plant in Mombasa ceased operations in 2013 to be converted into a storage depot. There are also cement factories (at Athi River, Bondora, Merrueshi and Mombasa). Other industries include paper mills (at Eldoret and Webuye), tobacco plants (at Nairobi), food processing (pineapple canning at Thika), breweries (at Mombasa and Nairobi) and sugar refining (at Muhoroni, Chemelil, Miwani and Ramisi). Research in information technology is very active in Nairobi.

Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ilmenite1901000 t2020
iron ore70.51000 t2012
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite0.141000 t2019
fluorspar6.91000 t2017
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite2$1000 t2019
kaolin1.81000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold394.9kg2019
precious stones - kg403 700kg2019
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- other renew.5 705.55M kWh2018
- hydro3 173M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- other renew.1 347.081000 kW2019
- hydro8281000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation11 104.55M kWh2018
total installed capacity2 782.731000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium, secondary12$1000 t2016
iron, sheets274.41000 t2019
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
commercial vehicles3 000no.2014
motor vehicles3 000no.2014
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen27$1000 t2012
petrol199.11000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
caustic soda355.41000 t2004
soap254.21000 t2019
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics11 023.7M m²2013
cotton fabrics - m12.6M m2019
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear23 853 700pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley5001000 t2018
coconut oil3.4121000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes22 757.9M units2016
cigars and cigarettes22 757.9M units2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement5 9671000 t2019
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production603.452M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production2 790.23M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.

Kenya is one of the world’s foremost sources of tea and cut flowers.
Imports are mostly made up of oil, industrial products and machinery. Free trade agreements have been signed with the other counties in the region.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) tea 1 424, plants and flowers 596, fruit and vegetables 390, petroleum products 350, apparel and accessories 313, coffee 230, metal ores 177, iron and steel 151, cigarettes and tobacco 134, chemicals 132, plastics 129, pharmaceuticals 124, fruit & vegetable juices and preserves 110, animal & vegetable fats and oils 96, soap and detergents 83, food preparations 70, machinery 68, electrical and electronic equipment 59


Finance and banking.
The Central Bank of Kenya carries out all central banking functions.
The stock exchange is in Nairobi. The role of savings and credit cooperatives is very important.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products43.722% of goods exports2019
manufactures30.771% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Uganda673M US$2020
Pakistan513M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China3 394M US$2020
India1 771M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20206 034M US$ -
20195 839M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202015 435M US$ -
201917 655M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The main travel destinations are the seaside resorts on the coast (including as Malindi) and the national parks (Nairobi, Amboseli, Masai Mara and Tsavo).

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures196M US$2019
Number of arrivals2 049 000units2019
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Communications


Transport.
There are road links between Nairobi and Addis Abeba (Ethiopia) and between Kitale and Juba (South Sudan). The port at Mombasa also serves as a sea terminal for neighbouring countries (Tanzania, Uganda, South Sudan). In 2017, the railway between the capital and Mombasa was inaugurated.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown42 900 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried6 417.51000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers9.343per 1000 pop.2019
Computers13.7per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education.
Primary education is compulsory and lasts eight years. Secondary and university education is carried out in English.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling11$years2009
Graduates217 329units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level10 542 500units2018
Students, secondary level2 942 700units2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.2per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians0.24per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV4.5% of adults2019
HIV, total10.2%2002
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.79% of GDP2010
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking17$%2019
Access to electricity69.7%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear3$%2005
food, non-alcoholic beverages44$%2005
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