Form of Government: Republic
Area: 2 724 900 sq km
Population: 18 877 500 inhab. (estimate 2021)
Density: 6.93 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 55° - 41° N; long. 47° - 87° E
Capital: Nursultan (capital) 1 184 500 inhab. (2021);
Currency: tenge (100 tiyns)
Human development index: 0.825 (rank: 51)
President: Qasym-Jomart Toqaev (Nur Otan), since 10 March 2019, elected 9 June 2019
Prime Minister: Asqar Mamın (Nur Otan), since 25 February 2019
Chamber of Deputies: seats based on the elections of 10 January 2021: Nur Otan ("Radiant Fatherland", pro-presidential party), 76; Ak Zhol Democratic Party ("Bright Path"), 12; Communist People's Party of Kazakhstan, 10
Internet: www.stat.gov.kz (Agency of Statistics)
Member of CIS, EAEU, EBRD, OAS observer, OIC, OSCE, SCO, UN, WTO

Kazakhstan

Qazaqstan, Kazakhstan, Qazaqstan Respūblīkasy, Respublika Kazakhstan
Useful information

International license plate code KZ
International dialling code 007
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .kz

GMT Astana +5; Almaty +6; Atyrau +4
DST Astana not applied; Almaty not applied; Atyrau not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Astana 2.7; Almaty 7.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Astana -17/22; Almaty -8.8/22
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Astana 11/3; Almaty 9.5/3.5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Astana 317; Almaty 640
Days of rainfall (annual average) Astana 64; Almaty 82

Politics and current affairs

The government party, Nur Otan, won the legislative elections held on 10 January 2021; no opposition groups were allowed to stand.

Geography.
Kazakhstan is bordered by Russia to the north and north-west, by China to the east, by Kyrgyzstan to the south-east, Uzbekistan to the south and by Turkmenistan to the south-west. The Caspian Sea lies off its west coast. Its territory stretches from the lower reaches of the River Volga to the Altay Mountains and comprises the Turan Lowland in the west which is linked through the Turgai valley to the West Siberian Plain. In the east lie the Altay Mountains and the Tien Shan range. The country has a continental climate, with very hot summers and very cold winters.

Government


Formerly a federal republic of the USSR, Kazakhstan proclaimed its independence on 16 December 1991 and, on 21 December 1991, became part of the CIS. Power has always remained in the hands of Nursultan Nazarbayev, formerly First Secretary of the Kazakh Communist Party. Having served as President since independence, he stepped down in 2019, though retains state control as head of the national security council. In 1997, the capital was moved from Almaty, which was regarded as being too far from the centre, to Aqmola, renamed Astana (meaning “capital”) and then Nursultan (from the name of former president N. Nazarbayev). In 1998, an agreement with China resolved the border dispute in eastern Kazakhstan and the Almaty region. The borders with Russia were established in two phases. In 1998 the territorial waters of the Caspian Sea were defined and, in 2005, another agreement established the 7500 km of land borders. On 29 April 2014, the country signed the treaty with Russia and Belarus, instituting the Eurasian Economic Union, with the aim of combining the economies of three countries in a single market. According to the Constitution of 30 August 1995, amended several times, the President is elected by direct suffrage for five years. The two-chamber Parliament comprises the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan of 107 members (98 of whom are elected directly for five years, and nine of whom represent ethnic minorities) and the Senate of 47 members (with 32 elected for six-year terms by local assemblies and 15 appointed by the President).


Defence and justice.
Kazakhstan signed the Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty in 1993, entrusting the dismantling of its nuclear arsenal to the Russian Federation. In 1994, Kazakhstan signed a military co-operation treaty with the Russian Federation.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force30.8%2015
Army51.3%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes873.7per 100 000 pop.2020
Homicides4.8per 100 000 pop.2015
TOP

Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Almaty1 977 000inhab.2021
Nursultan1 184 500inhab.2021
TOP

Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

There have been important migratory flows on the part of Russians and Germans returning home. At the same time, the government has encouraged the repatriation of about three million Kazakhs who lived in the other former Soviet republics of Central Asia, in Russia, Mongolia, Iran and China. Unlike other former Soviet republics of Central Asia, the Russian population is not scattered across the country but is concentrated in the northern region of loose steppe, on the border with Russia.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate21.72019
Death rate7.22019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Kazakh65.5%2014
Russian21.5%2014


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim70.2%2009
Christian26.2%2009


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Kazakh (official)
Russian (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years26.1%2020
15-29 years21.1%2020


TOP

Economy


Economic situation.
The country relies on the export of oil products and has suffered from the decline due to the COVID-19 pandemic, partially offset by the fiscal stimuli introduced by the government. In order to encourage diversification in the productive sector, incentives have been introduced for the manufacturing industry not associated with oil products. The role played by Chinese investments is very important.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)139.23index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)111.29index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population8 768 143units2020
Active population, Females48$%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate6.1%2020
Unemployment rate, Females54.6%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses9 777 446.3M LCU2018
Revenues11 567 999.7M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture11.965%2020
industry22.18%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture4.801%2019
industry35.506%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation3 250.372BN LCU2020
International reserves35 638.097M US$2020
TOP

Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and livestock.
The main crops are cereals but most of the farmland is given over to grazing. In the north, cattle predominate, while sheep and goats are more common in the south. The pelt of karakul lambs is prized for its wool known as astrakhan.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land11.068%2018
forests1.258%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley3 830.0691000 t2019
cereals, total17 355.8851000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes3 912.1031000 t2019
roots and tubers, total3 912.1031000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.6621000 t2019
cabbages581.2221000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry196.3881000 t2019
beans, green3.0161000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes90.4051000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.0461000 t2019
rapeseed240.7931000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed12.8291000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet485.4991000 t2019
tobacco1.1791000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton344.3641000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed1 007.2441000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples216.541000 t2019
apricots22.0891000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.0851000 t2019
walnuts3.8141000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits1.0821000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes1.0821000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.5161000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley2 976.8431000 ha2019
maize156.281000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes192.3281000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.041000 ha2019
cabbages21.6291000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry210.8041000 ha2019
beans, green1.3471000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape14.5871000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.0331000 ha2019
rapeseed269.0931000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed39.861000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet14.9611000 ha2019
tobacco0.3491000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton131.2081000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed1 245.0381000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples35.1711000 ha2019
apricots4.1931000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.1061000 ha2019
walnuts0.9281000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.0641000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes0.0641000 ha2019
TOP

Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber423 0002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle7 436.4071000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes7 446.9141000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes10.5071000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs813.2691000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep16 912.9451000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats2 242.7251000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses28.9921000 heads2019
asses and mules28.9921000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels216.3581000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds45 3341000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey2.9321000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter17.2861000 t2018
cheese29.51000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes47 320.302t2019
marine fishes3 589.3t2019
TOP

Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Kazakhstan is extremely rich in underground resources. There are reserves of crude oil at Qarashyghanaq, Zhangaözen (on the Mangghystaū Peninsula), Tengiz (in the province of Atyraū), as well as the Kashagan offshore field (in the Caspian Sea), one of the largest in the world, which entered in production in 2013; natural gas at Qarashyghanaq; coal (in the valleys of Qaraghandy, Turgai, Ekibastuz and Maykuben). Kazakhstan is the world’s largest producer of uranium, with fields mainly concentrated in the provinces of Southern Kazakhstan (Sozaq district) and Qyzylorda (Shīeli and Zhangaqorghan districts). An oil pipeline connects the field of Tengiz to the port of Novorossijsk (Russian Federation), on the Black Sea. There is another oil pipeline between Atyraū and Xinjiang in China. Pipeline plans to convey crude oil from the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean pass through Russia and Iran. There are considerable reserves of iron (at Rūdnyy, Qostanay and Atasū), manganese (at Zhezdy, Zhayrem and Atasuysky), chromite (at Donskoy), copper (at Zhezqazghan) lead and zinc (in the Altay mountains, at Qarataū and in the Zhongghar Alataūy), phosphates (at Qarataū and at Aqtöbe), asbestos and tungsten (in Qaraghandy) and bauxite (at Qostanay).
Energy and industry.
Kazakhstan’s electrical energy is produced at coal-fired thermal power plants and at hydro-electric power plants located on the River Ertis. The only nuclear power plant (at Aqtaū) has been inactive since 1999. Heavy industry predominates, especially metalworking (cast iron and steel at Temirtaū, in Qaraghandy, Rūdnyy, Aqsū and Aqtöbe; lead and zinc at Ridder, Öskemen, Shymkent and Zyryanovsk; copper at Balqash, Zhezqazghan and Ertis; aluminium at Pavlodar; beryllium, tantalum and uranium at Öskemen), and chemicals (at Aqtöbe, Zhambyl, Temirtaū, Shymkent, Atyraū and Aqtaū). There are oil refineries at Atyraū, Pavlodar and Shymkent. The engineering industry is based at Pavlodar (tractors), Qaraghandy and Öskemen (machinery for the mining industry), Petropavlovsk and Astana (agricultural machinery and railway rolling stock). The electronics industry is based at Almaty. Other major segments include the food industry (at Aqsū) and textiles (at Qostanay, Zhezqazghan, Ridder and Aqtöbe).

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal107 261.91000 t2018
coal, total113 174.81000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony0.31000 t2020
bauxite5 8001000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asbestos2101000 t2020
barite6001000 t2020
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silicates95$1000 t2008
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold100 000kg2020
silver400 000kg2018
Mineral resources - Other minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arsenic1.51000 t2010
TOP

Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal90 923.38M kWh2019
- hydro9 842.58M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal19 4461000 kW2018
- hydro2 7561000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation101 551.96M kWh2019
total installed capacity22 533.231000 kW2018
TOP

Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina1 5001000 t2020
aluminium1 668.51000 t2019
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes100 000no.2016
cars64 790no.2020
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
computers20 119no.2016
fridges34 945no.2013
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen925.61000 t2018
petrol4 539.91000 t2019
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
caustic soda35.71000 t2016
nitrogen fertilizers3781000 t2019
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets2 751.71000 m²2016
cotton fabrics25.4M m²2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear2 192 300pairs2019
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley598.3221000 t2018
cottonseed oil20.61000 t2019
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes17 404.6M units2019
cigars and cigarettes17 404.6M units2019
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper271.7741000 t2019
paper271.7741000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement9 922.81000 t2019
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production1 304.834M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production4 711.384M US$2018
TOP

Trade


Tertiary sector

The banking system is fragile and suffers from lack of liquidity. Many of the leading banks have foreign shareholders. The trend of the balance of trade is positive.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017)
crude oil and petroleum products 27 812, iron and steel 4 393, refined copper 2 527, natural gas 2 263, chemicals 2 213, copper ores 1 080, refined zinc 838, wheat 661, silver 538, aluminium 533, iron ores 510, coal and its products 485, wheat flour 469, oil seeds 279, metal ores 273, sulfur 268, refined lead 257, machinery 241, zinc ores 239

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels67.074% of goods exports2019
ores and metals13.869% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China9 004M US$2020
Italy6 645M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Russia13 300M US$2020
China6 346M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202046 447M US$ -
201957 309M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202037 222M US$ -
201937 757M US$ -
TOP

Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures2 955M US$2019
Number of arrivals8 515 000units2019
TOP

Communications


Transport.
The cosmodrome at Bayqongyr, active since 1955, has been leased to the Russian Federation until 2050. It is the largest space launch facility in the world. Every year, rockets are launched from here to send satellites from many countries into orbit, as well as Russian shuttles to the ISS (International Space Station).

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown21 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried6 800.11000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers135.359per 1000 pop.2019
Internet users818.776per 1000 pop.2019
TOP

Social and welfare


Education and culture.
Primary education (lasting four years) and secondary education (lasting seven years) is compulsory and provided by the state. There is a special programme to encourage high-performers in higher education.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.765years2020
Graduates234 798units2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level1 513 077units2020
Students, secondary level2 024 274units2020
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending30.237% of total expenses2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds5.2per 1000 pop.2019
Physicians4$per 1000 pop.2019
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.3% of adults2019
Tuberculosis68$per 100 000 pop.2019
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums250units2019
Museums, visitors6 829 300units2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.117% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking97.6%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
foodstuff43.1%2014
nonfood28.1%2014
TOP