Form of Government: Republic
Area: 2 724 900 sq km
Population: 18 395 700 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 6.75 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 55° - 41° N; long. 47° - 87° E
Capital: Nursultan (capital) 1 078 400 inhab. (2019);
Currency: tenge (100 tiyns)
Human development index: 0.8 (rank: 58)
President: Qasym-Jomart Toqaev (Nur Otan), since 10 March 2019, elected 9 June 2019
Prime Minister: Asqar Mamın (Nur Otan), since 25 February 2019
Chamber of Deputies: seats based on the elections of 20 March 2016: Nur Otan ("Radiant Fatherland", pro-presidential party), 84; Ak Zhol Democratic Party ("Bright Path"), 7; Communist People's Party of Kazakhstan, 7
Internet: www.stat.gov.kz (Agency of Statistics)
Member of CIS, EAEU, EBRD, OAS observer, OIC, OSCE, SCO, UN, WTO

Kazakhstan

Qazaqstan, Kazakhstan, Qazaqstan Respūblīkasy, Respublika Kazakhstan
Useful information

International license plate code KZ
International dialling code 007
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .kz

GMT Astana +5; Almaty +6; Atyrau +4
DST Astana not applied; Almaty not applied; Atyrau not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Astana 2.7; Almaty 7.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Astana -17/22; Almaty -8.8/22
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Astana 11/3; Almaty 9.5/3.5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Astana 317; Almaty 640
Days of rainfall (annual average) Astana 64; Almaty 82

Politics and current affairs

On 19 March 2019, President Nursultan Nazarbayev resigned, in power since 1990. He was replaced by Chairman of the Senate Q.-J. Toqaev, whose appointment was later upheld in the elections on 9 June. Control over the country nonetheless remains in the hands of Nazarbayev, who still serves as the Chairman of the Security Council.

Geography.
Kazakhstan is bordered by Russia to the north and north-west, by China to the east, by Kyrgyzstan to the south-east, Uzbekistan to the south and by Turkmenistan to the south-west. The Caspian Sea lies off its west coast. Its territory stretches from the lower reaches of the River Volga to the Altay Mountains and comprises the Turan Lowland in the west which is linked through the Turgai valley to the West Siberian Plain. In the east lie the Altay Mountains and the Tien Shan range. The country has a continental climate, with very hot summers and very cold winters.

Government


Formerly a federal republic of the USSR, Kazakhstan proclaimed its independence on 16 December 1991 and, on 21 December 1991, became part of the CIS. Power has always remained in the hands of Nursultan Nazarbayev, formerly First Secretary of the Kazakh Communist Party. He has been president since independence and has been re-elected several times. In 1997, the capital was moved from Almaty, which was regarded as being too far from the centre, to Aqmola, renamed Astana (meaning “capital”) and then Nursultan (from the name of former president N. Nazarbayev). In 1998, an agreement with China resolved the border dispute in eastern Kazakhstan and the Almaty region. The borders with Russia were established in two phases. In 1998 the territorial waters of the Caspian Sea were defined and, in 2005, another agreement established the 7500 km of land borders. On 29 April 2014, the country signed the treaty with Russia and Belarus, instituting the Eurasian Economic Union, with the aim of combining the economies of three countries in a single market. According to the Constitution of 30 August 1995, amended several times, the President is elected by direct suffrage for five years. The two-chamber Parliament comprises the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan of 107 members (98 of whom are elected directly for five years, and nine of whom represent ethnic minorities) and the Senate of 47 members (with 32 elected for six-year terms by local assemblies and 15 appointed by the President).


Defence and justice.
Kazakhstan signed the Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty in 1993, entrusting the dismantling of its nuclear arsenal to the Russian Federation. In 1994, Kazakhstan signed a military co-operation treaty with the Russian Federation.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force30.8%2015
Army51.3%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 609.8per 100 000 pop.2018
Homicides4.8per 100 000 pop.2015
TOP

Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Almaty1 854 600inhab.2019
Nursultan1 078 400inhab.2019
TOP

Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

There have been important migratory flows on the part of Russians and Germans returning home. At the same time, the government has encouraged the repatriation of about three million Kazakhs who lived in the other former Soviet republics of Central Asia, in Russia, Mongolia, Iran and China. Unlike other former Soviet republics of Central Asia, the Russian population is not scattered across the country but is concentrated in the northern region of loose steppe, on the border with Russia.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate21.62017
Death rate7.22017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Kazakh65.5%2014
Russian21.5%2014


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim70.2%2009
Christian26.2%2009


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Kazakh (official)
Russian (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years26.1%2018
15-29 years22.3%2018


TOP

Economy


Economic situation.
The country relies heavily on the international oil products market. In order to encourage diversification in the productive sector, the government has introduced incentives for segments of the manufacturing industry not associated with oil products. The role played by Chinese investments is very important.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)139.23index2016
Balance of trade28 422.7M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population9 253 298units2018
Active population, Females48.5%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.9%2018
Unemployment rate, Females55.9%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses10 950 855M LCU2018
Revenues11 389 730M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture15%2018
industry21.3%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture4.7%2017
industry34.1%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation2 618.9BN LCU2018
International reserves30 976.6M US$2018
TOP

Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and livestock.
The main crops are cereals but most of the farmland is given over to grazing. In the north, cattle predominate, while sheep and goats are more common in the south. The pelt of karakul lambs is prized for its wool known as astrakhan.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land10.94%2015
forests1.23%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley3 305.2241000 t2017
cereals, total20 129.0181000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes3 551.1141000 t2017
roots and tubers, total3 551.1141000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.5841000 t2017
cabbages505.0591000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry456.0441000 t2017
beans, green2.9231000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes81.2231000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.0411000 t2017
rapeseed278.9751000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed15.1211000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet463.1971000 t2017
tobacco1.1431000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton330.4911000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed683.3381000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples181.0571000 t2017
apricots17.1071000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.151000 t2017
walnuts1.3961000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.9631000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes0.9631000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.511000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley2 068.7661000 ha2017
maize136.6771000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes182.8951000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.0371000 ha2017
cabbages19.181000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry448.8391000 ha2017
beans, green1.2611000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape14.7421000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.0281000 ha2017
rapeseed251.0921000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed22.3221000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet16.8791000 ha2017
tobacco0.3321000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton135.4771000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed858.6571000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples32.9551000 ha2017
apricots3.2821000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.1381000 ha2017
walnuts1.4151000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.0621000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes0.0621000 ha2017
TOP

Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber340 0002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle6 764.2121000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes6 774.5941000 heads2017
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes10.3821000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs815.1211000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep16 049.8071000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats2 279.1651000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses29.3641000 heads2017
asses and mules29.3641000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels193.1241000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds40 1101000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey1.9341000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter17.31000 t2018
cheese22.5861000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes30 917t2017
total catch32 720t2017
TOP

Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Kazakhstan is extremely rich in underground resources. There are reserves of crude oil at Qarashyghanaq, Zhangaözen (on the Mangghystaū Peninsula), Tengiz (in the province of Atyraū), as well as the Kashagan offshore field (in the Caspian Sea), one of the largest in the world, which entered in production in 2013; natural gas at Qarashyghanaq; coal (in the valleys of Qaraghandy, Turgai, Ekibastuz and Maykuben). Kazakhstan is the world’s largest producer of uranium, with fields mainly concentrated in the provinces of Southern Kazakhstan (Sozaq district) and Qyzylorda (Shīeli and Zhangaqorghan districts). An oil pipeline connects the field of Tengiz to the port of Novorossijsk, on the Black Sea (in the Russian Federation). There is another oil pipeline between Atyraū and Xinjiang in China. Pipeline plans to convey crude oil from the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean pass through Russia and Iran. There are considerable reserves of iron (at Rūdnyy, Qostanay and Atasū), manganese (at Zhezdy, Zhayrem and Atasuysky), chromite (at Donskoy), copper (at Zhezqazghan) lead and zinc (in the Altay mountains, at Qarataū and in the Zhongghar Alataūy), phosphates (at Qarataū and at Aqtöbe), asbestos and tungsten (in Qaraghandy) and bauxite (at Qostanay).
Energy and industry.
Kazakhstan’s electrical energy is produced at coal-fired thermal power plants and at hydro-electric power plants located on the River Ertis. The only nuclear power plant (at Aqtaū) has been inactive since 1999. Heavy industry predominates, especially metalworking (cast iron and steel at Temirtaū, in Qaraghandy, Rūdnyy, Aqsū and Aqtöbe; lead and zinc at Ridder, Öskemen, Shymkent and Zyryanovsk; copper at Balqash, Zhezqazghan and Ertis; aluminium at Pavlodar; beryllium, tantalum and uranium at Öskemen), and chemicals (at Aqtöbe, Zhambyl, Temirtaū, Shymkent, Atyraū and Aqtaū). There are oil refineries at Atyraū, Pavlodar and Shymkent. The engineering industry is based at Pavlodar (tractors), Qaraghandy and Öskemen (machinery for the mining industry), Petropavlovsk and Astana (agricultural machinery and railway rolling stock). The electronics industry is based at Almaty. Other major segments include the food industry (at Aqsū) and textiles (at Qostanay, Zhezqazghan, Ridder and Aqtöbe).

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal97 323.91000 t2016
coal, total117 789.31000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony0.71000 t2018
bauxite5 0001000 t2017
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asbestos2201000 t2018
barite6201000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silicates951000 t2008
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold85 000kg2018
silver1 200 000kg2017
Mineral resources - Other minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arsenic1.51000 t2010
TOP

Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal88 963.48M kWh2016
- hydro11 505M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal17 2951000 kW2016
- hydro2 7001000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation100 832.48M kWh2016
total installed capacity20 150.41000 kW2016
TOP

Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina1 5001000 t2017
aluminium1 755.21000 t2018
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes100 000no.2016
cars30 016no.2018
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
computers20 119no.2016
fridges34 945no.2013
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen6041000 t2016
petrol3 969.21000 t2018
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
caustic soda35.71000 t2016
nitrogen fertilizers363.21000 t2018
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets2 751.71000 m²2016
cotton fabrics25.4M m²2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear1 943 700pairs2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley4901000 t2014
cottonseed oil13.21000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes18 144.2M units2018
cigars and cigarettes18 144.2M units2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
newsprint0.131000 t2017
other paper220.1161000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement9 912.81000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production1 014M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production3 863.2M US$2016
TOP

Trade


Tertiary sector.

The banking system is fragile and suffers from lack of liquidity. Many of the leading banks have foreign shareholders. The trend of the balance of trade is positive.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017)
crude oil and petroleum products 27 812, iron and steel 4 393, refined copper 2 527, natural gas 2 263, chemicals 2 213, copper ores 1 080, refined zinc 838, wheat 661, silver 538, aluminium 533, iron ores 510, coal and its products 485, wheat flour 469, oil seeds 279, metal ores 273, sulfur 268, refined lead 257, machinery 241, zinc ores 239

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels70.101% of goods exports2018
manufactures13.163% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Italy11 735M US$2018
China6 273M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Russia12 392M US$2018
China5 384M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201860 956M US$ -
201748 503M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201832 534M US$ -
201729 600M US$ -
TOP

Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 886M US$2017
Number of arrivals7 701 000units2017
TOP

Communications


Transport.
The cosmodrome at Bayqongyr, active since 1955, has been leased to the Russian Federation until 2050. It is the largest space launch facility in the world. Every year, rockets are launched from here to send satellites from many countries into orbit, as well as Russian shuttles to the ISS (International Space Station).

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown21 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried5 653.21000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers141.366per 1000 pop.2017
Internet users764.267per 1000 pop.2017
TOP

Social and welfare


Education and culture.
Primary education (lasting four years) and secondary education (lasting seven years) is compulsory and provided by the state. There is a special programme to encourage high-performers in higher education.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.3years2018
Graduates238 529units2018
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level71 641units2018
Teachers, secondary level264 826units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending22.4% of total expenses2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds5.6per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians4.2per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.2% of adults2017
Tuberculosis66per 100 000 pop.2017
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums240units2017
Museums, visitors6 450 200units2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.1% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking95.34%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
foodstuff43.1%2014
nonfood28.1%2014
TOP