Form of Government: Republic
Area: 77 589 sq km
Population: 6 945 235 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 89.51 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 46° - 42° N; long. 19° - 23° E
Capital: Belgrade=Beograd (capital) 1 378 682 inhab. (2017); Belgrado=Beograd 1 690 193 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Serbian dinar (100 para)
Human development index: 0.799 (rank: 63)
President: Aleksandar Vučić (SNS), since 31 May 2017
Prime Minister: Ana Brnabić (SNS), since 29 June 2017
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 21 June 2020: Serbian Progressive Party-SNS (populist conservative), 158; Socialist Party of Serbia-SPS, 23; Serbian Patriotic Alliance (centre-right), 11; Social Democratic Party of Serbia-SDP, 9; United Pensioners, 9; Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians, 9; United Serbia (conservative), 7; minor parties (SNS coalition), 12; others, 12
Internet: www.stat.gov.rs (Statistical Office)
Member of CEFTA, Council of Europe, EBRD, OAS observer, OSCE, UN, WTO observer

Serbia

Srbija, Republika Srbija
Useful information

International license plate code SRB
International dialling code 00381
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .rs

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Belgrade 11.9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Belgrade 0/22.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Belgrade 9/2
Annual average precipitation (mm) Belgrade 695
Days of rainfall (annual average) Belgrade 88

Politics and current affairs

The general elections scheduled to take place on 26 April 2020, already boycotted by the opposition, were postponed due to the COVID-19 emergency. On 21 June 2020, the coalition led by President Aleksandar Vučić (SNS) won a landslide victory, with 63% of the vote and 188 seats, despite the fact that the election had been hotly disputed. The elections were followed by mass protests against Vučić and government policies.

Geography.
Serbia is bordered to the north by Hungary, to the north-east by Romania, to the east by Bulgaria, to the south by North Macedonia and Kosovo, to the west by Montenegro and Bosnia-Herzegovina and to the north-west by Croatia. The country mostly consists of plains in the north and is mountainous in the south. It is crossed by the Danube which is joined by the Tisza, Morava and Sava rivers.
In the south-east there are the western foothills of the Balkans, to the south-west the Albanian Alps. The climate is typified by cold winters, hot summers and heavy rainfall.

Government


The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (which became the Confederation of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003) came into being on 27 April 1992 after the dissolution of Yugoslavia (which included Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Macedonia, apart from Serbia and Montenegro).
Serbia adopted its current borders following the proclamation of independence of Montenegro (3 June 2006), which had been seeking secession since 2000, approved by an agreement of 2002. Kosovo’s current situation is different, however: having proclaimed its independence on 17 February 2008, it has been recognized by the USA and many other nations but not by the UN. With EU mediation, an agreement was signed between Kosovo and Serbia on 19 April 2013, which – it is hoped – will lead to normalised relations. In 2012, Serbia was granted the candidate country status for EU membership, but the signing of a legally binding agreement with Kosovo remains a necessary condition: negotiations between the parties, interrupted in 2018, resumed in 2020.
The President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for five years. The Prime Minister has to have the support of the National Assembly, which is made up of 250 members elected by direct suffrage for a four-year term.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force18.1%2015
Army47.1%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 368.3per 100 000 pop.2018
Homicides1.4per 100 000 pop.2018
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Belgrade=Beograd1 378 682inhab.2017
Novi Sad291 706inhab.2017
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Belgrado=Beograd1 690 193inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate9.32019
Death rate14.62019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Serb83.3%2011
other6.2%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Orthodox84.6%2011
Catholic5%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Albanian
Serbian (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years14.4%2018
15-29 years17.4%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
After two years of 4% growth, the Serbian economy was impacted by the COVID-19 lockdown measures, including a curfew, and is expected to shrink by 4% in 2020. It is, however, expected to bounce back in 2021 (+6%). Kosovo removed restrictions on importing Serbian goods.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)105.03index2016
Balance of trade-7 101M US$2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population3 236 600units2019
Active population, Females44.6%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate10.5%2019
Unemployment rate, Females47.6%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses2 289 671.9M LCU2019
Revenues2 278 558.4M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture15.6%2019
industry27.4%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture7.4%2019
industry30.9%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation208.119BN LCU2019
International reserves14 994.7M US$2019
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The most important cereal crops are maize and wheat. Fruit trees are widely grown, in particular plums. Wine production is also widespread. Amongst industrial-scale products it is worth mentioning tobacco, hempseed, sunflower seeds and linseed. Livestock farming mainly concerns pig farming, followed in order of importance by sheep, cattle and poultry. Beekeeping is also fairly important.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land31.78%2015
forests31.1%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley410.1381000 t2018
cereals, total10 550.2041000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes487.9091000 t2018
roots and tubers, total494.7041000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages209.3531000 t2018
carrots and turnips22.2031000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry11.141000 t2018
beans, green26.6221000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes149.4741000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed135.4221000 t2018
soybeans645.6071000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed2.361000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.0281000 t2018
sugar beet2 325.3031000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples460.4041000 t2018
apricots25.4141000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts5.4281000 t2018
walnuts9.7721000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms5.41000 t2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley105.741000 ha2018
maize901.7531000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes28.2321000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages8.2511000 ha2018
carrots and turnips1.3851000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry9.1121000 ha2018
beans, green16.1441000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape20.3331000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed45.6281000 ha2018
soybeans196.4721000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed2.9191000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.021000 ha2018
sugar beet48.1251000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples25.9171000 ha2018
apricots5.861000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts4.3631000 ha2018
walnuts2.7981000 ha2018
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber7 959 0002018
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle878.3361000 heads2018
cattle and buffaloes878.3361000 heads2018
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs2 782.2821000 heads2018
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep1 711.6771000 heads2018
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats195.9321000 heads2018
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total14.9731000 heads2018
horses14.9731000 heads2018
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds16 1331000 heads2018
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey11.4271000 t2018
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter3.9151000 t2014
cheese37.51000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes7 537.57t2018
total catch9 420.7t2018
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Minerals


Secondary sector.
Coal extraction and use remain central, but in 2019 an announcement was made regarding the conclusion of work on the Serbian section of the TurkStream gas pipeline from Russia, a source of considerable investment. Oil refineries (mostly imported from Russia) are based in Pančevo and Novi Sad. There are hydroelectric power stations in the Iron Gates dam (Đerdap), on the Danube, managed with Romania, while a wind farm was opened in Alibunar. An agreement has also been signed with Russia regarding nuclear energy for civic purposes. A new combined cycle thermal power station is being constructed in Pančevo.
Metal-working plants produce both refined and foundry copper, lead, zinc and nickel. The chemical industry is based at Šabac and Bor (sulfuric acid). In the manufacturing industry, the automobile sector is important (production at the FCA plant in Kragujevac), as is the production of machinery for agriculture and factories, machine tools and oil and mining equipment. Niš is the centre of the electronics industry. The textiles industry is still important, while timber is an old and well-established sector. The milling industry is mainly located in Vojvodina; there are also facilities for sugar production and refining.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total38 956.31000 t2019
lignite38 956.31000 t2019
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper41.31000 t2016
lead2.41000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
feldspar3.51000 t2011
gypsum451000 t2011
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin2531000 t2016
marble - t1311000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
palladium38kg2018
platinum2kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal24 947M kWh2018
- hydro10 527M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal4 3681000 kW2017
- hydro2 4241000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation35 537M kWh2018
total installed capacity7 4541000 kW2017
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium361000 t2016
copper61.31000 t2016
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes110 124no.2016
cars34 985no.2019
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
computers48 178no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen7071000 t2018
petrol6321000 t2018
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia601000 t2017
fertilizers675.91000 t2018
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets5 3931000 m²2018
cotton fabrics1.83M m²2018
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear6 454 000pairs2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley522.91000 t2014
maize oil0.61000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes34 577M units2018
cigars and cigarettes34 577M units2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
newsprint1501000 t2018
other paper4071000 t2018
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2 0931000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production626.9M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production1 793.9M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector.

Serbia mainly imports raw materials (crude oil), machinery, electrical products and appliances, consumer goods and foodstuffs. In the pre-COVID period, export has grown thanks also to the contribution of the automotive industry (FCA), but the country continues to show a trade deficit.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) electrical and electronic equipment 2 132, iron and steel 1 221, machinery and home appliances 1 137, cars 1 058, plastics 839, fruit and vegetables 773, apparel and accessories 668, tyres 611

International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany2 477M US$2019
Italy1 983M US$2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany3 448M US$2019
Russia2 584M US$2019
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201919 630M US$ -
201819 227M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201926 730M US$ -
201825 883M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 837M US$2018
Number of arrivals1 711 000units2018
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown19 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried2 262.71000 units2018
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers176.326per 1000 pop.2018
Computers258.5per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.7years2018
Graduates45 406units2018
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level18 664units2018
Teachers, secondary level67 217units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending37.5% of total expenses2012
Social protection spending19.4% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds5.82per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians2.85per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2018
Tuberculosis17per 100 000 pop.2018
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Archaeological sites119units2004
Museums149units2018
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.92% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking76.41%2016
Access to electricity100%2018
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.2%2018
education1.3%2018
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