Form of Government: Republic
Area: 77 589 sq km
Population: 6 982 604 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 90.00 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 46° - 42° N; long. 19° - 23° E
Capital: Belgrade=Beograd (capital) 1 374 445 inhab. (2016); Belgrado=Beograd 1 687 132 inhab. (2017), urban agglomeration
Currency: Serbian dinar (100 para)
Human development index: 0.787 (rank: 67)
President: Aleksandar Vučić (SNS), since 31 May 2017
Prime Minister: Ana Brnabić (SNS), since 29 June 2017
National Assembly: seats (June 2019 update): Serbian Progressive Party-SNS (populist conservative), 105; Socialist Party of Serbia-SPS, 22; SRS (Serbian Radical Party, anti-European), 22; Democratic Party-DS (centre-left), 15; Social Democratic Party of Serbia-SDP, 10; Liberal Democratic Party-LDP, 9; United Pensioners, 9; Dveri (nationalist), 6; United Serbia (conservative), 6; others, 46
Internet: www.stat.gov.rs (Statistical Office)
Member of CEFTA, Council of Europe, EBRD, OAS observer, OSCE, UN, WTO observer

Serbia

Srbija, Republika Srbija
Useful information

International license plate code SRB
International dialling code 00381
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .rs

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Belgrade 11.9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Belgrade 0/22.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Belgrade 9/2
Annual average precipitation (mm) Belgrade 695
Days of rainfall (annual average) Belgrade 88

Politics and current affairs

President Aleksander Vučić, whose Serbian Progressive Party leads the government of Ana Brnabić, must face the massive street protests begun in December 2018. The main issues are freedom of press and controversial negotiations with Kosovo to stabilize bilateral rapports. Serbia continues to balance its rapports with the EU, USA and Russia.

Geography.
Serbia is bordered to the north by Hungary, to the north-east by Romania, to the east by Bulgaria, to the south by North Macedonia and Kosovo, to the west by Montenegro and Bosnia-Herzegovina and to the north-west by Croatia. The country mostly consists of plains in the north and is mountainous in the south. It is crossed by the Danube which is joined by the Tisza, Morava and Sava rivers.
In the south-east there are the western foothills of the Balkans, to the south-west the Albanian Alps. The climate is typified by cold winters, hot summers and heavy rainfall.

Government


The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (which became the Confederation of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003) came into being on 27 April 1992 after the dissolution of Yugoslavia (which included Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Macedonia, apart from Serbia and Montenegro).
Serbia adopted its current borders following the proclamation of independence of Montenegro (3 June 2006), which had been seeking secession since 2000, approved by an agreement of 2002. Kosovo’s current situation is different, however: having proclaimed its independence on 17 February 2008, it has been recognized by the USA and many other nations but not by the UN. With EU mediation, an agreement was signed between Kosovo and Serbia on 19 April 2013, which – it is hoped – will lead to normalised relations. In 2012, Serbia was granted the candidate country status for EU membership, but the signing of a legally binding agreement with Kosovo remains a necessary condition.
The President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for five years. The Prime Minister has to have the support of the National Assembly, which is made up of 250 members elected by direct suffrage for a four-year term.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force18.1%2015
Army47.1%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 336.2per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides1.3per 100 000 pop.2017
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Belgrade=Beograd1 374 445inhab.2016
Novi Sad289 128inhab.2016
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Belgrado=Beograd1 687 132inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate9.22018
Death rate14.62018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Serb83.3%2011
other6.2%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Orthodox84.6%2011
Catholic5%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Albanian
Serbian (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years14.4%2018
15-29 years17.4%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
After growing 4% for the first time in 10 years, the economy remains strong despite slowing down slightly, owing in part to the 100% tariffs imposed by Kosovo on Serbian exports. Domestic consumption remains strong, while public spending has increased.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)105.03index2016
Balance of trade-6 656M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population3 245 100units2018
Active population, Females44.4%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate13.5%2018
Unemployment rate, Females47.9%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses2 073 041.8M LCU2018
Revenues2 105 266.9M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture15.9%2018
industry26.9%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture7.5%2018
industry31.1%2018
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation231.13BN LCU2018
International reserves12 874.4M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The most important cereal crops are maize and wheat. Fruit trees are widely grown, in particular plums. Wine production is also widespread. Amongst industrial-scale products it is worth mentioning tobacco, hempseed, sunflower seeds and linseed. Livestock farming mainly concerns pig farming, followed in order of importance by sheep, cattle and poultry. Beekeeping is also fairly important.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land31.78%2015
forests31.1%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley305.4931000 t2017
cereals, total6 814.5341000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes589.2411000 t2017
roots and tubers, total595.6881000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages262.5461000 t2017
carrots and turnips31.3951000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry13.0341000 t2017
beans, green31.3731000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes165.5681000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed48.741000 t2017
soybeans461.2721000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed2.3241000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.0391000 t2017
sugar beet2 513.4951000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples378.6441000 t2017
apricots41.321000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts4.1961000 t2017
walnuts12.2761000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms5.41000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley84.6871000 ha2017
maize1 002.3191000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes38.4721000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages10.2131000 ha2017
carrots and turnips1.9321000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry13.1811000 ha2017
beans, green18.7861000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape21.2011000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed19.3761000 ha2017
soybeans201.7121000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed2.8521000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.0291000 ha2017
sugar beet53.8571000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples25.1341000 ha2017
apricots5.7071000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts3.2181000 ha2017
walnuts3.3071000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber7 789 0002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle898.651000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes898.651000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs2 910.5251000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep1 704.1921000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats182.5581000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total16.561000 heads2017
horses16.561000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds16 6891000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey4.3831000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter3.9151000 t2014
cheese36.121000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes6 350.87t2017
total catch7 278.65t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector.
Coal extraction and consumption remain central in terms of energy, but in 2019, work began on the Serbian stretch of the TurkStream gas pipeline by Gastrans, which 51% of is controlled by Gazprom. Oil refineries (mostly imported from Russia) are based in Pančevo and Novi Sad. There are hydroelectric power stations in the Iron Gates dam (Đerdap), on the Danube, managed with Romania, while a wind farm was opened in Alibunar. An agreement has also been signed with Russia regarding nuclear energy for civic purposes. A new combined cycle thermal power station is being constructed in Pančevo.
Metal-working plants produce both refined and foundry copper, lead, zinc and nickel. The chemical industry is based at Šabac and Bor (sulfuric acid). In the manufacturing industry, the automobile sector is important (production at the FCA plant in Kragujevac), as is the production of machinery for agriculture and factories, machine tools and oil and mining equipment. Niš is the centre of the electronics industry, while the textiles industry is important at Vranje, Prokuplje, Pirot, Paraćin, Loznica and Leskovac. Timber is an old and well-established industry in Serbia. The milling industry is important, with the most mills being found in Vojvodina; there are also sugar production and refining facilities.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total37 675.51000 t2018
lignite37 675.51000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper41.31000 t2016
lead91000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
feldspar3.51000 t2011
gypsum451000 t2011
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin2531000 t2016
marble - t1311000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
palladium31kg2016
platinum4kg2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal26 080.3M kWh2016
- hydro10 684M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal4 3681000 kW2016
- hydro2 3221000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation36 540.3M kWh2016
total installed capacity7 3421000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium361000 t2016
copper61.31000 t2016
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes110 124no.2016
cars56 303no.2018
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
computers48 178no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen613.71000 t2017
petrol658.91000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia731000 t2016
fertilizers629.51000 t2017
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets6 0011000 m²2017
cotton fabrics1.806M m²2017
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear3 885 000pairs2017
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley522.91000 t2014
maize oil0.61000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes37 512M units2017
cigars and cigarettes37 512M units2017
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
newsprint1491000 t2017
other paper4041000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 9081000 t2017
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production434M US$2014
food, beverages and tobacco production1 905.8M US$2014
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Trade


Tertiary sector.

Serbia mainly imports raw materials (crude oil), machinery, electrical products and appliances, consumer goods and foodstuffs. Export has grown thanks also to the contribution of the automotive industry (FCA), but the country continues to show less than favourable commercial growth.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) electrical and electronic equipment 2 132, iron and steel 1 221, machinery and home appliances 1 137, cars 1 058, plastics 839, fruit and vegetables 773, apparel and accessories 668, tyres 611, refined copper 579, furniture and accessories 526, paper 428

International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Italy2 356M US$2018
Germany2 297M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany3 474M US$2018
Italy2 423M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201819 227M US$ -
201716 996M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201825 883M US$ -
201721 947M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 548M US$2017
Number of arrivals1 497 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown19 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried2 442.71000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers212.116per 1000 pop.2017
Computers258.5per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.8years2017
Graduates51 596units2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level18 829units2017
Teachers, secondary level66 600units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending37.5% of total expenses2012
Social protection spending20.3% of GDP2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds5.6per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians2.8per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2017
Tuberculosis19per 100 000 pop.2017
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Archaeological sites119units2004
Museums144units2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.87% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking76.41%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.1%2017
education1.3%2017
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