Form of Government: Republic
Area: 20 919 sq km
Population: 9 326 000 inhab. (estimate 2021)
Density: 445.82 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 33° - 29° N; long. 34° - 36° E
Capital: Jerusalem=Yerushalayim (capital) 936 400 inhab. (2019); Gerusalemme 1 345 300 inhab. (2019), urban agglomeration
Currency: new Israeli shekel (100 agorot)
Human development index: 0.919 (rank: 19)
President: Isaac Herzog (Labor Party), elected 2 June 2021, in office since 7 July 2021
Prime Minister: Naftali Bennett (New Right), since 13 June 2021
National Assembly (Knesset): seats based on the elections of 23 March 2021: Likud (The Consolidation, right-wing), 30; Yesh Atid (There Is a Future, liberal), 17; Shas (Sephardic, ultra-orthodox), 9; Blue and White (centre coalition), 8; Yamina (Rightwards, alliance formed by the New Right), 7; Labor Party, 7; United Torah Judaism (ultra-orthodox coalition), 7; Yisrael Beiteinu (Israel is Our Home, right-wing), 7; Religious Zionist Party, 6; Joint List (Arab coalition), 6; New Hope, 6; Meretz (Vigour), 6; United Arab List, 4
Internet: www.cbs.gov.il (Central Bureau of Statistics)
Member of Council of Europe observer, EBRD, OAS observer, OECD, UN, WTO

Israel

Yisra’el, Medinat Yisra’el
Useful information

International license plate code IL
International dialling code 00972
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .il

GMT  +2
DST  +3
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Jerusalem 17.6
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Jerusalem 9/24
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Jerusalem 14/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Jerusalem 534
Days of rainfall (annual average) Jerusalem 43

Politics and current affairs

Discord between Prime Minister Netanyahu (Likud), on trial for abuse of office, corruption and fraud, and Benny Gantz (Blue and White) resulted in the fall (23 December 2020) of the national unity government and the fourth legislative elections (23 March 2021) in less than two years. Likud gained a relative majority, but Netanyahu was unable to form a new government, which came about on 13 June due to a wide-ranging agreement between the left and right opposition.
Repressed protests against the eviction of Palestinian families in Jerusalem were followed on 10 May 2021 by missile launches from the Gaza Strip, controlled by Hamas. Israel responded by bombing the area, resulting in hundreds of deaths. A ceasefire came into effect on 21 May.

Geography.
Israel is bordered to the north by Lebanon, to the north-east by Syria, to the east by Jordan and the West Bank and to the south-west by Egypt and Gaza Strip. Its north-west coast lies on the Mediterranean Sea, and to the south is the Gulf of Aqaba. The country consists of the high plains of Galilee, Samaria and Judea. Towards the east there is a deep depression following the course of the river Jordan (partly occupied by the Dead Sea) which reaches a depth of -422 m. Along the Mediterranean coast lie the fertile plains of Sharon and Shephelah. The southern part of Israel consists of the Negev desert. The climate is Mediterranean.

Government


The state of Israel was proclaimed on 14 May 1948 based on a UN resolution of November 1947 which divided Palestine into two states, one Arab and one Jewish one. The resolution was rejected by all the Arab states, which went to war with Israel in 1948. Another three wars broke out in 1956, 1967, and 1973, all of them won by Israel. In 1967 Israel occupied some parts of Egypt (Sinai and Gaza), Jordan (the West Bank) and Syria (the Golan Heights). In 1978, with the USA as mediator, Israel signed a peace treaty with Egypt which included the provision that Israel would return all of the lands occupied in Sinai, the recognition of the legitimate rights of Palestinians and an undertaking to respect their autonomy. In 1982, with the aim of attacking Palestinian bases there, Israel occupied the southern part of Lebanon (it withdrew in 2000).
In 1987 the Intifada (“revolt of the stones”) surfaced among the Palestinian population in the territories of Gaza and the West Bank, and was bitterly repressed by the army. It was only in 1992, after the victory of the Labour Party, that the government abandoned its hard line, and with a series of agreements (1993-95) the PNA (the Palestinian National Authority) led by Yasser Arafat was officially recognized. The main architect of these agreements, the Labour leader Yitzhak Rabin, was assassinated on 4 November 1995 by a right wing Israeli extremist. New terrorist atrocities by Palestinians and the election of Likud in the 1996 elections slowed down the peace process, which only picked up again, with some difficulty, after the Sharm el Sheik agreements (4 September 1999). The agreements still did not, however, resolve the question of what to do with the capital, Jerusalem. A new Intifada broke out in 2000 and produced several bloody attacks by the Palestinians and repression from the Israelis which made any agreement impossible. The following government, led by Ariel Sharon (Likud), initially supported military intervention, and built a wall to separate Israelis and Palestinians in the occupied territories. Put forward by the right wing, the Sharon plan for an Israeli withdrawal was supported by the Labour Party and was passed by the Knesset (2004). Having founded a new party (Kadima) in 2005, Sharon suffered a stroke (2006); the party’s leadership passed to Ehud Olmert, who won the early elections in 2006 as the head of a fragile centre coalition. In June 2006, Israeli armed forces invaded southern Lebanon to fight the Hezbollah militia, withdrawing in August following a ceasefire. From December 2008 to January 2009, in response to rocket fire, a quick yet violent offensive was carried out against the Gaza Strip. After the 2009 elections a government of the right was formed, led by Likud and headed by Netanyahu, who continued to lead the country until 2021. Following the news of the collaboration between ANP and Hamas, Israel announced on 24 May 2014 they would suspend the peace talks, which had started again in 2013.
Israel does not have a written constitution. Following the basis of the founding laws of the country, the President of the Republic is elected for a five-year term by the Knesset which has 120 deputies who are elected for four-year terms. The Prime Minister must have the approval of Parliament.


Defence and justice.
Military service includes a complex system of compulsory conscription for both sexes, but limited to Jews and Druze, and longer-term postings in the reserves. The country possesses nuclear weapons (although it has never officially admitted it) and it has never signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.
The legal system is based on British Common law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force19.3%2015
Army75.3%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes3 775.6per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides1.4per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Jerusalem=Yerushalayim936 400inhab.2019
Tel Aviv-Jaffa=Tel Aviv-Yafo460 600inhab.2019
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tel Aviv-Jaffa4 052 200inhab.2019
Gerusalemme1 345 300inhab.2019
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Together with the first traditional, immigrants coming from central and eastern Europe (Ashkenazi Jews) and from North Africa (Sephardi Jews), over a million Russian Jews have joined them since the break-up of the USSR.
More than a fifth of the population are Arabs who remained in Israel after 1948.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate20.12019
Death rate5.12019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Jewish74.1%2019
Arab21$%2019


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Jewish74.1%2019
Muslim17.9%2019


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic
Hebrew (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years26.8%2020
15-29 years22.7%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
In 2021, the recession due to the COVID-19 pandemic was overcome, which had interrupted a long period of healthy, constant growth, driven mostly by domestic demand. The rapid rise in unemployment, however, has not yet been reabsorbed. Wealth disparity is significant, though, and the high prices of houses and everyday goods make things difficult for the less affluent classes.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)108.82index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)95.36index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population4 090 400units2020
Active population, Females48$%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.3%2020
Unemployment rate, Females45.7%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses585 853.6M LCU2020
Revenues423 967.6M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture0.966%2020
industry15.952%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture1.161%2019
industry20.9%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation87.178BN LCU2019
International reserves173 292.121M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The most widely grown crops are fruit and vegetables; vines are also found in the plains of Judea and Sharon. In Western Galilee olives are widely grown. Citrus fruits, mostly for export, are typical in the irrigated strip of land near the coast, especially in the region of Haifa (Petaẖ Tikva).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land22.334%2018
forests6.47%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley5$1000 t2019
cereals, total178.2791000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes524.3941000 t2019
roots and tubers, total559.4261000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes2.2921000 t2019
asparagus0.1071000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green9.3141000 t2019
broad beans, dry12.61000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes57.11000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives1081000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts14.1821000 t2019
sesame seed0.0451000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet0$1000 t2017
tobacco0.0031000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton21.81000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples1041000 t2019
apricots7.0051000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds10.0061000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits519.6491000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes9.2751000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados138.7661000 t2019
bananas1441000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms12.51000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley4.741000 ha2019
maize3.351000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes13.9731000 ha2019
sweet potatoes2.4171000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.4911000 ha2019
cabbages3.5321000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.6111000 ha2019
broad beans, dry0.11000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape7.4321000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive33.71000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts2.671000 ha2019
sesame seed0.0221000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet0$1000 ha2017
tobacco0.0091000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton8.6241000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples2.7751000 ha2019
apricots0.581000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.4731000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits21.2231000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes3.0841000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados10.521000 ha2019
bananas3.0151000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber27 0002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle552.641000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes552.641000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs166.0581000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep518.951000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats107.381000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses5$1000 heads2019
asses and mules6.61000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels5.5521000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds53 0201000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey3.81000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter6.6171000 t2018
cheese148.9621000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs155t2019
freshwater fishes11 591t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Crude oil is extracted from deposits in H̱eleẕ and Kokhav (in northern Negev), and in Rosh Ha‘Ayin and Kefar Sava (in the central district). An oil pipeline (425 km) transports imported crude from Elat (on the Gulf of Aqaba) to Beersheba and Haifa; another one (260 km) connects Elat to Ashqelon. In 2012, natural gas began to be extracted from the vast underwater deposit of Tamar, and in 2019 from the even richer Leviathan field. Other productive gas fields are located at Kidod and Rosh Zohar; a pipeline (29 km) carries the gas to chemical plants at Sedom, on the Dead Sea. In 2012, the agreement with Egypt was revoked for the gas supply via the undersea pipeline from Al-‘Arīsh to Ashqelon, target of numerous acts of terrorism. Potassium salts are also found (at Sedom), as well as bromide and magnesium (from the waters of the Dead Sea), and natural phosphates (at Oron and Arad, in northern Negev).
Energy and industry.
Most of the energy is produced by gas-fired and coal-fired thermal power plants. The Ashalim solar power station in the Negev desert has been active since 2019. Industrial activity is concentrated in the plain of Haifa (metal-working, chemicals and cement) and at Tel Aviv-Jaffa (light industry, textiles and foodstuffs). Two refineries are active at Ashod and Haifa. High-tech businesses are found at Tel Aviv, Ramat Gan, Herzliyya and Haifa (telecommunications and information technology); there are important technology parks at Jerusalem, Karmi’el and Nesher. The large, highly-skilled workforce and the lenient tax system have encouraged several multinationals into the area. The main diamond works are at Netanya and Tel Aviv. There are also paper, cigarette and tyre factories.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas9 209M m³2019
oil, crude15$1000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
magnesite98$1000 t2009
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum76$1000 t2019
phosphate rock2 8001000 t2020
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
marble - t76$1000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds2001000 ct2013
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal64 545.1M kWh2019
- other renew.1 808.68M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal16 593.671000 kW2018
- other renew.1 4961000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation64 768.2M kWh2018
total installed capacity17 736.671000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
lead28.71000 t2018
magnesium20$1000 t2020
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen3081000 t2018
petrol4 348.61000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nitrogen fertilizers31.71000 t2019
phosphate fertilizers398.21000 t2019
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1301000 t2018
cottonseed oil2.61000 t2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper4031000 t2019
paper4031000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement6 5001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production7 225.7M US$2010
food, beverages and tobacco production5 102.058M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
The trend of the balance of trade is negative. Imports include mainly vehicles, energy and mining resources.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) 
diamonds 11 186, electrical and electronic equipment 6 812, pharmaceuticals 6 361, chemicals 4 450, machinery 4 434, technical and electro-medical appliances 4 408


Finance & banking.
The Bank of Israel acts as the central bank.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures93.027% of goods exports2019
food products3.17% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States13 106M US$2020
China4 113M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China11 689M US$2020
United States9 521M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202049 627M US$ -
201958 507M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202069 901M US$ -
201976 591M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures10 389M US$2019
Number of arrivals4 552 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown98 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried6 659.81000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers291.219per 1000 pop.2019
Computers1 225per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.125years2018
Gradautes, percentage50.246%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level936 214units2018
Students, secondary level836 774units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending28.393% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending16.292% of GDP2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.98per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians3.22per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.2% of adults2018
Tuberculosis2.9per 100 000 pop.2019
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums163units2016
Museums, visitors7 130 457units2016
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending4.941% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear3.3%2016
education5.5%2016
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